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Abnormal Psychology. WEB. Anxiety as a Normal and an Abnormal Response. Some amount of anxiety is “normal” and is associated with optimal levels of functioning. Only when anxiety begins to interfere with social or occupational functioning is it considered “abnormal.”. The Bell Curve.

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Abnormal Psychology


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    1. Abnormal Psychology WEB

    2. Anxiety as a Normal and an Abnormal Response • Some amount of anxiety is “normal” and is associated with optimal levels of functioning. • Only when anxiety begins to interfere with social or occupational functioning is it considered “abnormal.”

    3. The Bell Curve

    4. Phobic Disorders • Phobias • Specific phobias • Social phobia • Agoraphobia

    5. Specific Phobias

    6. Social Phobia • General characteristics Fear of being in social situations in which one will be embarrassed or humiliated

    7. Panic Disorder With and Without Agoraphobia • Panic disorder • Panic versus anxiety • Agoraphobia • Agoraphobia without panic

    8. Panic and the Brain

    9. Panic Disorder: The Cognitive Theory of Panic

    10. Treating Anxiety Disorders • Medications • Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments

    11. Generalized Anxiety Disorder • General characteristics • Prevalence and age of onset • Comorbidity with other disorders

    12. Generalized Anxiety Disorder:Biological Causal Factors • Genetic factors • A functional deficiency of GABA • Neurobiological differences between anxiety and panic

    13. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Obsessions- repetitive unwanted ideas that the person recognizes are irrational • Compulsions- repetitive, often ritualized behavior whose behavior serves to diminish anxiety caused by obsessions

    14. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder • Critical Component • Symptoms occurs AFTER a traumatic stressor

    15. Symptoms Categories • Intrusive • distressing recollections • dreams • flashbacks • psychological trigger reactions • physiological trigger reactions

    16. Symptoms Categories • Avoidance • avoid thoughts, feelings or discussions • avoid activities, places • memory blocks • anhedonia (without pleasure) • numb • alexithymia (emotions unknown) • feeling of doom

    17. Symptom Categories • Hyperarousal Symptoms • sleep disturbance • anger problems • concentration • startle response • “on guard” hypervigilence

    18. Mood Disorders • Major Depressive Disorder • Bipolar I and Bipolar II • Cyclothymia • Hypomania • Dysthymia • Schizoaffective disorder

    19. Categories of Personality Disorders • Cluster A • Paranoid • Schizoid • Schizotypal

    20. Personality Disorders • Paranoid personality disorder • Schizoid personality disorder • Schizotypal personality disorder • Histrionic personality disorder

    21. Categories of Personality Disorders • Cluster B • Histrionic • Narcissistic • Antisocial • Borderline

    22. Categories of Personality Disorders • Cluster C • Avoidant • Dependent • Obsessive-compulsive

    23. The Clinical Picture in Schizophrenia • Positive symptoms • Delusions: fixed firm beliefs with no basis in reality • Most common are grandiose, persecutory and referential • Hallucinations: disturbances in perception • Can occur in any of the five senses • Most common are auditory and visual

    24. The Clinical Picture in Schizophrenia • Formal Thought Disorder (a positive symptom) • Disturbances in speech that reflect underlying problems in cognition or thinking • Most common forms are tangentiality and circumstantiality • Less common are neologisms, word salad and clang associations

    25. The Clinical Picture in Schizophrenia • Negative symptoms (Nancy Andreasen) • Avolition • Anhedonia • Alogia • Flat Affect • Asociality

    26. The Classic Subtypes of Schizophrenia • Undifferentiated type • Catatonic type • Disorganized type • Paranoid type

    27. Graph of HS drug use

    28. Substance-Related Disorders Methods of taking substances:  7 sec inhaling  20 sec IV  4 min snort or Intramuscular injection  30 min oral

    29. When is addiction addiction? • What is substance use? • What is substance abuse? • What is substance dependence? Where is the line???????

    30. Substance Abuse leads to impairment or distress one of these within 1 yr: failure to full fill role obligations physically hazardous legal problems persistent social problems Substance Dependence leads to impairment or distress 3 of the following: tolerance withdrawal delirium tremens (DTs) take more than intended persistent desire fail to control use lots of time spent obtaining, using, or recovering from use in place of activities continuing despite physical or psychological problems DSM-IV Criteria

    31. Solomon’s Opponent Process Theory of Addiction • Basic Premise- People take, abuse and become dependent on drugs because of the effect of these drugs • The Clements Corollary- noone ever becomes addicted to thorazine • A State- the initial pleasant effect • B State-unpleasant effects occurring as a result of drug withdrawal

    32. The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence • Alcohol’s effects on the brain • Physical effects of chronic alcohol use • Psychosocial effects of abuse and dependence

    33. Short-term effects: absorbed from the stomach into the blood metabolized by the liver (1 oz/hr) it is a drug acts within brain to: stimulate GABA receptors reduces tension  dopamine/serotonin levels pleasurable aspects of intoxication inhibits glutamate receptors diminishes cognitive abilities Long-term effects: reduced food intake ETOH: no nutrient value impairs food digestion results in vitamin deficiency B-complex can lead to brain damage/amnesia kills brain cells leads to loss of gray matter from the temporal lobes Korsakoff’s Syndrome suppresses the immune system Alcohol (ETOH)

    34. Alcohol (ETOH) • A “drink”: • 1 oz. Spirits = 1 glass wine = 1 beer • DWI (Driving while intoxicated) • takes approximately 2-4 drinks over one hour • lighter weight, empty stomach will require less • legal blood alcohol limit (.10%) • DUI (Driving under the influence) • The CAGE

    35. Alcohol Addiction: Treatment • Admitting the problem • a prerequisite for therapy (video clip) • Inpatient Hospital treatment • expensive & does not lead to better results • may be necessary for safe detoxification • Aversion therapy • Antabuse - drug that creates nausea • uses operant conditioning principles • Controlled drinking training • Self-Help groups • Alcoholics Anonymous