New England Colonies 1600-1700 • WHO? English, Persecuted Christians, Merchants, Shipping, a few Slaves and Indentured Servants. • Pilgrims, Puritans • SUBSISTENCE? Subsistence farms, fishermen, ship builders, merchants
TIMBER MADE SHIP BUILDING AN ESSENTIAL BUSINESS IN THE NEC! TRADITIONAL PURITAIN DRESS
New England Colonies • CHARACTERISTICS? Very Protestant, Very British, Education, Social Morality-Social Control (Salem Witch Trials), Merchants • LEGACY? • Grass Roots Political • Education • Social Morality • Triangle trade
1636: HARVARD COLLEGE, AMERICAS FIRST COLLEGE, ILLUSTRATES THE PURITAINS COMMITMENT TO EDUCATION!
COD WAS KING IN THE NEC! NET IT, DRY IT, TRADE IT!
THE “TOWN HALL MEETING” WAS COMMON IN THE NEC AND THE SOUTHERN COLONIES: THIS ILLUSTRATES THE COLONIES COMMITMENT TO GRASS ROOTS POLITICAL SYSTEMS!**
Southern Colonies • WHO? Nobles, Indentured Servants, Poor, Slaves, Prison Inmates • SUBSISTENCE? Cash Crops • CHARACTERISTICS? Cultural Baggage, Democracy, Plantation Lifestyle
Southern Colonies… • Jamestown: 1607: 58% Mortality Rate. • Resupplied with people and good in 1608, yet: • Jamestown: 1609: 88% Mortality Rate. • Why?
Southern Colonies…. • CULTURAL BAGGAGE! • The British were remarkably ethnocentric • Meaning that they arrogant and intolerant • Refused to learn from the Native People… • The Native people had a nick name for the first colonists………”the weaker ones.”
Southern Colonies…. • Bacons Rebellion—1676 • Rebellion of Indentured Servants, Former Indentured Servants, Slaves and the Poor. • Why? • Inequality related to • the Plantation Life Style
Southern Colonies • LEGACY? • “Warping of the South” • Bacons Rebellion—1676 • Contradiction of American Democracy
MIDDLE COLONIES • Who? First large influx of Non-English • German, Dutch, Scotch-Irish, English
Who lived there? • Dutch—1624 • New Amsterdam • English and Dutch War--1644 • English Quakers • William Penn • Pennsylvania • More Dutch and Germans • Scotch Irish
Middle Colonies SUBSISTENCE? “Bread Basket of the East”, River Commerce, Cities, Mining CHARACTERISTCS & LEGACY? Diversity*, Tolerance*, Melting Pot…or Stew/Salad!
Long-Term Cause for the American Revolution: • Mercantilism (De Jure) vs. Salutatory Neglect (De Facto)
What is Mercantilism • Official or “De Jure” European policy of ruling their Colonies • The Express purpose of a colony was to enrich the Mother Country with unfinished Resources. • Timber, sugar cane, tobacco……… • Colonies were not to establish industry or self control.
What is Salutatory Neglect? • The unofficial or “De Facto” Policy of England where the Colonies were given a large degree of freedom as long as it didn’t conflict with the interest of England. • This resulted in the Colonies creating and establishing unique forms of government, social systems and economic systems. • Why?
Why did England Resort to SN? • 100 years of war distracted England and made it difficult to rule with an iron fist. • Tension between all European Powers in the search for new Colonial possessions. • The American Colonies were fabulously profitable • Thus, England let the Americans establish its own unique culture! • Will England regret the change?
Under Salutatory Neglect, the American Colonies Started to Develop Industry-and England didn’t care…….why? Iron Works.. Lumber-Furniture
Salutatory Neglect gave rise to “Smuggling” & the return to Mercantilism creates great anger!
Events leading to the Revolution! • BACKGROUND: • The ideas of the Enlightenment & specifically the writings of John Locke. • Social Contract! • Colonial Discontent …18 uprisings & 6 black rebellions…….why? • Local elites (like James Otis and Samuel Adams) • Taxation…without…..
Tyranny is tyranny…. • 1763—French and Indian war (7 year war) • 1760—local elites stir up the rebellion • 1766—regulators…. • 1774—creation of continental congress..step toward independence • 1765: traditional resentment toward elites refocused on Brittian. • April 1775: Lexington and Concord
Revolutions! • John Adams—33%...20%...support rev • French help ensures victory—Ben Franklin • French and Indian war • Local elites gain from revolution, not common persons • Constitution is an elite document • Founding fathers kept the social balance…
The text! • French and Indian War—Ohio River Valley • France vs. brittian • Indians side with French as “the lesser of 2 evils” • Proclamation line—1763 • Sugar act—1763 • Lower tax vs. smugglers • Stamp Act • Official documents
Boston Massacre • Who Shot first? • Tea Act • Boston Tea Party
Events leading…… • Background…..continued • Unequal distribution of wealth • Regulator Movement—1766 • Poor Farmers---LAND, taxes, debt….
Events leading to the Merican Revolution • SPECIFIC EVENTS • French and Indian War 1756-1763 • Reason? • Legacy? • Most Indian groups choose to ally with “the lesser of two evils”
Specific events…. • The Proclamation Line 1763 • Why? • Reaction? • Sugar Act (aka Revenue Act) 1764 • What? • Why ? • Quartering act—1765 • What and why?
Specific events….. • Stamp act—1765 • What? • Why? • The tea act—1773 • What? • Why? • Boston Tea Party—December, 1773
Specific events • The Restraining Acts (aka, Intollerable Acts) 1774 • Port of Boston Closed • Change of venue for British Officials • Quartering
Events…. • Massachusetts Bay Charter Changed • Town meetings illegal • Jurors appointed by sheriff • Colonial Response: • Ignore acts and collect guns and ammo • British Response • Declare war—January 1775