The War Of 1812 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The War Of 1812

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  1. The Second War for American Independence The War Of 1812

  2. France and Britain were at War Both France and Britain “impressed” American sailors Impressment- seizingAmericans at sea and drafting them into their navy “War Hawks” pressured US Congress Westerners thought British were supplying weapons to Indians Causes of the War

  3. Embargo Act of 1807 – prohibited all American trade with foreign ports • Greatly hurt American shipping and the US economy • New Englanders hated Jefferson (“Mad Tom”) Jefferson’s Response

  4. James Madison elected in 1808 • Realized that Embargo Act hurt US much more than France or Britain • Passed the “Non-Intercourse Act” • Re-opened American trade with all nations except France and Britain • Would trade with France and Britain if they would respect US neutral rights Madison’s Response

  5. War Hawks-- New, young Republicans came to Congress from “frontier” states • War was the only way to • defend American honor • gain Canada • destroy Native American Resistance The “War Hawks” Call for War

  6. Settlers pushing the Indians further westward, creating more conflicts, thought British were supplying arms • Shawnee decided to fight back • Leaders: Tecumseh & Prophet • attempted to unite all tribes east of the Mississippi • 1811 -- Battle of Tippecanoe: General William Henry Harrison defeated Tecumseh Problems With Native Americans

  7. June 18, 1812 -- Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war War was declared, before Britain’s offer to stop was received Critics referred to “Mr. Madison’s War” War Is Declared

  8. 1812 -- US invaded Canada in three places but failed to take over • Burned the Canadian City of York (Toronto) • 1813 -- British Fleet destroyed on Lake Erie • American privateers damaged British shipping • British navy blockaded US Coast Major Events of 1812-1813

  9. Chesapeake Campaign • 1814 -- British burned Washington, DC • First Lady Dolley Madison rescued valuables from the White House • Battle of Fort McHenry -- British bombard Baltimore, MD • Francis Scott Key -- wrote TheStar Spangled Banner after the Battle of Fort McHenry Major Events of 1814

  10. Hartford Convention -- Group of New England Federalists were going to Hartford Convention to oppose war, but the war ended before the convention. • Treaty of Ghent signed -- December 24, 1814 • 1815 -- Battle of New Orleans • Jackson and the Americans defeated the British, Jackson became a hero • militarily insignificant because the war is already over More Events of 1814-1815

  11. Britain and US call it a draw -- no one wins • December 1814 -- Treaty of Ghent is signed • Hostilities cease • all borders go back to pre-war status • all land returned to original owners • US Independence is won for good Results of the War