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Rise of IslamDesert and Town of the Pre-Islamic Arabian World Chapter 6
Key Terms • Bedouins – Nomadic culture based on camel and goat herding, located in the Arabian Peninsula, made up early convicts of Islam • Sheiks – Leaders (Men) of tribes and clans that had large herds, several wives, many children, numerous retainers • Mecca – Holy Islamic city • Medina – Holy city of the prophet of Muhammad • Ka’ba – Islamic Holy Shrine • Quran – Islamic Holy Book. Put together in part by Muhammad. • zakat – tax levied on all muslims. mandatory and went to charity
Clan Identity, Clan Rivalries, and Cycle of Vengeance 1. Mobile Kin-Related Clans a. Basis of social organization b. Sheiks i. Leaders of tribes and clans ii. Elected by councils c. Individual Survival Depended on Clan Loyalty
Towns and long-distance trade 1. Mecca a. Holy town b. Islamic Pilgrimages c. Ka’ba holy shrine 2. Medina a. City of the prophet Muhammad b. 2nd to Mecca 3. Umayyads a. Clan that founded Mecca
Marriage and Family in Pre-Islamic Arabia 1. Woman a. played key economic role b. descent was traced through female line c. more restricted in urban areas 2. Men a. on the move b. paid bride-price to the wife’s family
Poets and Neglected Gods • Poetry a. Transmitted orally b. Not highly developed 2 . Religion a. Blend of animism and polytheism i. Focused mainly on spirits with nature b. Religion was not connected to ethics c. Not taken seriously i. Some recognized Allah, but with little attention
Persecution Flight and Victory 1. Muhammad a. great threat to Mecca’s rulers b. New faith endangered Ka’ba gods 2. Life was in danger a. Invited to Medina to mediate b. Leadership brought new new followers 3. Quraysh attacked Medina but Muhammad’s forces triumphed 4. Returned to Mecca where he converted most to Islam
Arabs and Islam 1. New Religion a. offered opportunities for uniting Arabs i. provided distinct indigenous monotheism ii. Allowed end to clan feuding b. offered ethical system i. healed social rifts ii. All believers were equal iii. Prophet’s teachings & Quran became basics for laws iv. All faced last judgement
Universal Elements in Islam 1. Contained beliefs in many different cultures a. Included i. monotheism, legal codes, egalitarianism, strong sense of community 2. Five pillars provided basis for underlying unity a. Confession of faith b. prayer five times daily c. fasting during the month of Ramadan d. zakat (tithing to charity) e. the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Overall Importance to World History The Islam religion had a huge influence over the unity of the Arabs. It was also the religion for all people because it could be practiced by all races and backgrounds. The philosophy of purity in the heart and clarity in the mind was responsible for influencing the nations of the world to better serve God, raise the standards of living, and promote justice and brotherhood.