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Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

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Classical Conditioning

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  1. Classical Conditioning

  2. Experiencing Classical Conditioning

  3. Learning • A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience

  4. Classical Conditioning • Type of learning where a stimulus gains the power to cause a response • The stimulus predicts another stimulus that already produces that response • Form of learning by association

  5. Stimulus-Response • Stimulus - anything in the environment that one can respond to • Response – any behavior or action

  6. Stimulus-Response Relationship

  7. Stimulus-Response Relationship

  8. Components of Classical Conditioning

  9. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) • Stimulus that triggers a response reflexively and automatically

  10. Unconditioned Response (UCR) • Automatic response to the unconditioned stimulus • The relationship between the UCS and UCR must be reflexive and not learned

  11. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) • Previously neutral stimulus that, through learning, gains the power to cause a response • The CS must be a neutral stimulus before conditioning occurs.

  12. Conditioned Response • Response to the conditioned stimulus • Usually the same behavior as the UCR

  13. Classical Conditioning Processes: Acquisition

  14. Acquisition • Process of developing a learned response • The subject learns a new response (CR) to a previously neutral stimulus (CS)

  15. Acquisition

  16. Classical Conditioning Processes: Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery

  17. Extinction • Diminishing of a learned response • In classical conditioning, the continual presentation of the CS without the UCS

  18. Extinction

  19. Spontaneous Recovery • The return of an extinguished classically conditioned response after a rest period

  20. Spontaneous Recovery

  21. Ivan Pavlov’s Discovery

  22. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) • Learning theorist famous for discovery of classical conditioning

  23. Pavlov’s Method of Collecting Saliva

  24. Pavlov’s Research Apparatus

  25. Pavlov’s Experiment

  26. Pavlov’s Experiment

  27. Pavlov’s Experiment

  28. Generalization and Discrimination

  29. Generalization • Producing the same response to two similar stimuli • The more similar the substitute stimulus is to the original used in conditioning, the stronger the generalized response

  30. Generalization

  31. Discrimination • Producing different responses to two stimuli • The subject learns that one stimuli predicts the UCS and the other does not.

  32. John Watson and the Classical Conditioning of Emotions

  33. Behaviorism • View that psychology should restrict its efforts to studying observable behaviors, not mental processes • Founded by John Watson

  34. Little Albert • 11-month-old infant • Watson and Rosalie Rayner, conditioned Albert to be frightened of white rats • Led to questions about experimental ethics

  35. Little Albert – Before Conditioning

  36. Little Albert – During Conditioning

  37. Little Albert – After Conditioning

  38. Little Albert - Generalization

  39. Cognition and Biological Predispositions

  40. Cognition • Mental processes • What effect does cognition have on learning?

  41. Robert Rescorla (1940- ) • Developed a theory emphasizing the importance of cognitive processes in classical conditioning • Developed theory with Allan Wagner • Pointed out that subjects had to determine (think) whether the CS was a reliable predictor of the UCS

  42. Taste Aversion • Subjects become classically conditioned to avoid specific tastes, because the tastes are associated with nausea. • John Garcia (1917- )

  43. The End