Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order
Introduction • Battle of Isandhlawana (January 22, 1897) British v. Zulus • 20,000 Zulu soldiers outmaneuvered the British! British divided their forces and the Zulus attacked from all directions! They had cattle-hide shields and short stabbing spears (preindustrial military force). The Zulus had triumphed over other Africans under leadership of Shaka (their great leader) and limited the expansion of the Boers (Dutch farmers). • But the battle of Isandhlawana was a fluke. Within hours 3000 Zulus died at Rorke’s Drift by superior rifle power of the British! (just over 100 men!) Soon more British forces followed and the Zulu ruler, Cetshwayo, was taken captive and Zulus surrendered (said “only a child, and the British government was his father” • Military defeat of British by Zulus seemed impossible!!! • Industrialization created the ability for European states to produce and equip their forces with weapons! • Europeans because of industrialization were able to crush preindustrial military resistance all over the globe • Scramble for Africa and Asia: English, French, US, Dutch, Belgian, German, Russian, and even the Japanese got in on imperial expansion! • Most areas established direct rule • European powers soon became rivals
1st Battalion, 24th Foot, massacred at the hands of the Zulus at the Battle of Isandlwana, 22nd January 1879 http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.britishbattles.com/zulu-war/isandlwana/24th-foot-isandlwana.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.britishbattles.com/zulu-war/isandlwana.htm&h=376&w=620&sz=56&tbnid=bVtVMHq81GuXvM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=136&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbattle%2Bof%2BIsandlwana%2Band%2Bpics&hl=en&usg=__lKUM32GVw9VXh9ogSe_5mT10RlQ=&ei=xOiLS--yGYHgNffVrKYB&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=1&ct=image&ved=0CAkQ9QEwAA
Shift to Land Empires: Asia • First phase of colonization in Asia in the 18th century Europeans were willing to adapt to Asia culture. • Additionally territorial acquisition was opposed by many westerns actually there. War cost a lot and direct administration or rule over Africa and Asia would cost even more! Companies like the Dutch East India Company and the English East India Company were about profit not spending! • Additionally prior to the telegraph (industrial revolution) there was very poor communication between the director of companies and “men-on-the-spot”. Letter literally took months to get to their destinations. Commanders had much leeway…this allowed them to conquer entire kingdoms before officials at home ever learned about it!
Prototype: Dutch Advance on Java • 17-18th centuries empire created • Java was and is still the most populated of the islands of Indonesia • When the Dutch first arrived and established Batavia (1619) they were literally vassals to the sultans of Mataram who ruled most of Java. They paid tribute. • Soon they began to created a monopoly over the spice trade (concentrate on smaller islands) • 1670s Dutch intervened in wars to the throne of Mataram and backed the successful side and demanded land as their price. Soon involved in many of these successional disputes that allowed them to gain more and more lands. They were very effective militarily due to their organization and discipline (more so than weapons). What ever prince had the Dutch was sure to win. So over time kept requiring more and more lands be given as the price for assistance. • Sultan Mangkubumi tried to restore the old Mataram kingdom in 1750s unsuccessfully
Rise of British Rule in India • Similar to Java with British agents intervening in conflicts with local princes • British relied on sepoys (Indian troops) to fight just like Dutch relied on island people • Indian princes thought of the British as allies and used them to control/ crush competitors. Like the Dutch they soon became prominent figures in India • British Raj (British political establishment in India) created from competition between them and the French. Fought each other repeatedly…last 5 wars ended in British victories though! 1740s British won control over the entire south Asian subcontinent of India. • British became land power in Asia in the Battle of Plassey June 23, 1757. Fewer than 3000 British and Indian sepoys defeated a 50,000 man Indian army. That leader was just a teenager, Siraj ud-daula, (the ruler = nawab) vs. Robert Clive who claimed British victory over the south. The British claimed Bengal out the Battle of Plassey in 1757 winning fertile and populous lands. • Clive did his research prior to the battle. He had many spies working for him and found that Hindu bankers wanted to get back at the Muslim prince for unpaid debts and plunderings. Clive bought off the chief general and several key allies! Clive had well paid troops whereas nawab did not! • In battle nawabs forces fought well under Indian and French command, but his allies defected and refused to fight! Clive was able then to conquer nawab with his leadership skills and artillery! • Soon the British took over the administration of the entire Bengal-Bihar region which laid the foundations for the British empire in India
Battle of Plassey Part of the Seven Years War Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, by Francis Hayman (c. 1762).
Consolidation of British Rule • After Plassey the British officials of the British East India company continued war with India princes on their borders. • Mughal Empire continued to break down created weak kingdoms. These weakened regional princes fought against each other with Intervention from the British. Intervention allowed for the British to advanced steadily inland from their three trading towns (Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta –cities became the centers for the three presidencies that made up the bulk of the territory of British ruled directly in India). In some cases local princes (defeated or allied) were kept in power to rule with agents stationed in their courts. • No sense of Indian national identity (regional kingdoms) so couldn’t unite while Indian princes kept fighting each other while the British Raj grew stronger! Some attracted to the British-higher soldier wages and better weapons ( By 1850s 1: 5 ratio British officer/ solider to enlisted men of India) • India important to global empire of the British: Jewel of the Crown • India had largest share of people which formed very large British-Indian armies…they policed the British Indian empire. • Indian armies sent to punish Afghans and Chinese, conquer Burma and Malaya and even start the conquest in East Africa! India became essential to the success of the British colonial machine (army, markets, raw materials)
Early Colonial Society: Java/ India • Initially content with allowing locals to maintain social and political systems. Rulers to rule with agent of the imperial power (got last say in decisions) • Society changed –Europeans top of old social hierarchies with the aristocracy and old royal families under them. • Europeans had to learn to adapt to some culture: Dutch houses in Java (tried to build like in Holland on the canal in the city, but it was a tropical breeding ground for diseases like malaria and typhoid..so did what the local did and moved to suburbs and created more spread out houses to catch the breeze…bungalow (18th India term) • Changed dress and food- too hot for wool! Long lunch breaks and more work in morning-too hot • Many men had “liaisons” with local women and it became more commonly accepted. Some even married local women.
Social Reform • Initially had little interest in changing culture of subjects. British banned Christian missionaries from preaching ( until 1820s) for fear of offending local Hindus and Muslims • 1770s Parliament passed reforms because of corruption, bad manners, poor treatment of locals, and conspicuous consumption of some officials -called them nabobs(Europeans who made a fortune in Asia). In the 1770s these misconduct of nabobs resulted in a horrible famine in Bengal in which 1/3 of the population died!!! After this the British government decided to intervene in the colonies under really company control and started to pass a number of acts to make official more accountable to the British government. • 1790s reforms –Lord Charles Cornwallis –cleaned up corruption and also limited Indian participation in government b/c he didn’t trust them? • Movement in England-evangelical movement with enlightenment ideas produced –social reform. (Jeremy Bentham-utilitarianism). Believed British society more advanced than Indian so pushed for British institutions to be introduced to India-education (especially English language). Wanted to end sati [Ram Mohun Roy]. Felt morally and socially superior to Indians. • Watershed moment in history where British tried to remake India (one of the oldest centers of civilization) society along Western lines. [ideas, inventions, organization, technology, education, RR, social reform] • Soon- India would take western ideas and turn them against the British!
Industrial Rivalries and Partition 1870-1914 Industrial Revolution allowed for western states to colonize Africa, Asia, and the Pacific beginning in the 1870s Great Britain was the most powerful of these industrialized states but Belgium, France, Germany, and the US soon joined their ranks to build colonial empires! Colonies seen as a way to distract people, be markets, and provide raw materials. Colonies also seen as a potential place were the unemployed to venture to in depressed times Because of better communication (telegraph, RR, steam engine) politicians played a greater role in colonial empires and colonial acquisition was a hot topic in the press. A sure way to win votes was annexation of lands.
Unequal Combat Industrial Revolution gave new innovation in many genres to Europeans. In terms of war they had better communication, transportation, and weapons. (chemists-metallurgy, light mobile artillery, machine guns, steam power). These new innovations squashed even the most preindustrial sophisticated military armies (China). Most places did resisted European dominance but couldn’t compete with European weaponry The most successful resistance to Europeans was guerrilla resistance, sabotage, and even banditry Local religious leaders also encouraged fighting by dances, potions, or zeal in people. They helped them carrying on struggles in horrible odds! (Maji Maji Rebellion-remember the holy water that would cause bullets to fall of the people! Remember the DBQ document) (other examples: Ghost dance in US west and Boxer Rebellion in China in 1898)
Title: Gatling Gun
Continuity and Change • Technological innovations led to changes in colonization 1. tropical dependencies: small number of Europeans ruled large populations of non-Westerns. (Examples: India, Java, and Africa) 2. settlement colonies: white dominions: made up most of the land area in empires but only made up a minority of population. Europeans made up most of the population in colonies. (Canada, Australia, US) 3. settler colonies and tropical dependencies combo: tens of thousands of Europeans settled, however in these areas there was still a large indigenous population. Europeans and indigenous tended to clash in these areas over land and resource rights. (Examples: Algeria, Kenya, New Zealand, and Hawaii)
Colonial Regimes/ Social hierarchies Europeans drew upon previous colonies-India Pitted ethnic and cultural groups against each other to maintain power. (Christians vs. Muslims). They literally divided the people (tribes vs. tribes and hill-dwellers vs. lowland peoples). From urban areas a few Europeans oversaw administration of the colonies. Locally, administration was carried out through thousands of African and Asian subordinates (many of whom had western educations). Indeed even Indian administrators and soldiers helped to rule new areas (Burman, Malaya, and east Africa) under British conquest. Western languages were taught, however, in Africa higher education was not promoted due to racial prejudices. Few Africans graduated college compared to India and Dutch East Indies. This stunted the growth of middle class black Africans. Soon college graduates turned the tables and used what they learned from their Western European education to fuel independence movements. Soon Europeans were warning against the dangers of education!
Changing Social Relations Europeans didn’t mix that much with natives (socially). Over time more medicines were made that allowed wives and children to come to colonies. Segregated living quarters became common. These women looked down on “liaisons” between European men and local women and brothels became of limits for upper class men. Religion further strengthened these concepts. Officials made laws prohibited “liaisons” and pushed for more restrictions between colonized and Europeans! White racial supremacy- belief that whites were mentally and morally superior to all. Led to exclusivity of European women in the colonies. It was believed that science could prove the superiority of whites (pseudo-science). Examples-measurement of head size and attributes. Why socialize with people who had weak morality and were inferior in intellect. Divide then starts and Europeans return to their cultural ways and stop going with colonial ways.
Economic Extraction Europeans wanted natives to use scientific innovations to improve outputs and to overall work harder! Introduced incentives to improve exports in colonial areas. However much forced from the people. Head and hut taxes were forced that only could be paid in items (to be exported!). Worst-Belgian Congo where men were flogged or killed if quotas weren’t met and women and children were held hostage to ensure the men would deliver. Wow…and King Leopold said they went to the Congo for philanthropic reasons. Colonies reorganized into export markets for shipment to Europe. Road and RR built to move crops and raw materials from interior regions to ports on the coast. (cocoa, palm oil, rubber, hemp) Rubber to industrialists and raw materials to Europe to be made into goods to be resold in markets. Colonial economies became dependent to Europe! (Same happened to the colonized politically and socially too)
South Africa/ Pacific Settler colonies were unique in that there were large permanent white settlements and large numbers of natives In the Americas many natives died due to disease which allowed for more Europeans to expand and western institutions were easily brought in However, other areas were resistant to European disease. These areas natives clashed with Europeans over many issues and they moved to gain their independence
South Africa 1st formed as Cape Town Colony by Dutch as a way station for Dutch merchants on their way to the East Indies. Over time Boers (farmers) moved into interior for better farming. These were sparsely populated areas. [Boers, colored, black Africa] British took over during Napoleonic age and annexed it in 1815. Boer farms based on slavery of local and the British missionaries wanted to end it. Great Trek-some Boers resisted changes by leaving. However, these were populated areas (like by the Zulus!) and they weren’t willing to give up their lands. British were drawn into these wars between the Boers and Bantu speaking peoples. Boer Republics (Orange Free State and Transvaal) 1850s kept free for 10 years until the discovery of diamonds and then the British were coming…Cecil Rhodes! Boers won a war with the British (1880-1881) but later gold found in Transvaal caused more British interest and led to the Boer War (1899-1902). The British won, but did allow slavery to continue at the request of the Boers. This is why South Africa had such problems with racial issues until quite recently in history (Apartheid)
Pacific Tragedies Europeans, Americans, and Japanese- people of the South Pacific were pretty isolated and they had no immunities to European disease plus their cultures were vulnerable! This resulted in widespread human suffering and loss of culture. New Zealand and Hawaii largest populated of Pacific Islands and both were very sophisticated and complex. These people responded in a way that accommodated Europeans and allowed for revival of their cultures at the same time
New Zealand Maori people-1st Europeans (whaler and timber merchants) introduced European good that led to alcoholism and prostitution. Firearms were introduced that disrupted the tribal balance among the Maori people. Disease devastated communities: TB, smallpox, even the common cold. Many began converted to Christianity and adopted European farming methods. In the 1850s the British decided to claim the island who drove the Maori almost into extinction. The Maori began to change. They build up immunities to disease and learned the law to better protect themselves. The Maori were able to hold onto their culture in spite of British dominance.
Hawaii Hawaii-became a settler colony when US annexed it in 1898 (although a British official did try to claim in in 1843). Hawaii opened by Captain James Cook (1777-1779) First welcomed as a god (time of visit) and later killed for his nails in the ships (no steel or iron technology). King Kamehameha with British aid-weapons- (due to later British expeditions) led to the king taking over other tribes/ factions. Established kingdom 1794-1810. Encouraged change including allowing in Western merchants. Hawaiian royalty copied that of Western Europe -2 queens advocated more rights for women. Many Hawaiians converted to Christianity too. Missionaries insisted that women cover their breasts (muumuus developed) Many Hawaiians died of disease (STD’s and TB) led to Asians being imported to staff estates of the rich. Whalers and sugar crops became popular and essential to the Hawaiian economy. Weak monarchs and disease led to increasing American controls. By 1887 US claimed naval rights of Pearl Harbor. By 1893 troops were posted in Honolulu and by 1898 Congress took the islands. Respected Polynesian culture-Hawaiians were never enslaved.
Global Connections US and Europeans 1st civilization to dominate the entire world-they had the motive and the means They control Africa and Asia Globalization occurred before WW1-communication and commercial networks established by Europeans allowed for products to flow out of Africa, Asia, and Latin America into Europe. Investment from Europe and US paid or machines to do work in colonized areas. Western ideas exported to the rest of the world: manners, literary forms, entertainment European colonizers assumed that it was their god-given destiny to remake the work in the image of industrial Europe. Wanted to push change on some of the most ancient cultures in the world! Many resisted, but were put down. Western educations often prompted the development of nationalism within the colonized that were successful in the 20th century.