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Arbitrary borders drawn w/o respect for tribal divisions splits some tribes while throwing others together. Benefits of Eur. Civ. (schools, RR’s, etc.) offset by suffering & humiliation caused by European rule. Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism.

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slide3

Arbitrary borders drawn w/o respect for tribal divisions splits some tribes while throwing others together

Benefits of Eur. Civ. (schools, RR’s, etc.) offset by suffering & humiliation caused by European rule

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

Tensions b/w Br & Boers Boer War Br. takes S. Afr.

Improvements in milit. tech. (FC.117)

Vaccines vs. trop. diseases (FC.117)

Scramble for colonies by other Eur. powers who want to keep up w/Britain  Most of Africa carved up into colonies by 1914

When new lands to colonize are gone  Rising tensions in Eur. helps lead to WWI (FC.126)

WWII Eur. weak & natives use Eur. tech. & ideas of to win indep. (FC.151)

slide4

Due to competition from newer & cheaper foreign industries, the disruption caused by German unification and growing turmoil in the Balkans, and the inability to unite Britain’s increasingly complex industrial society on one domestic issue, Benjamin Disraeli won support by proposing imperial expansion to enhance Britain’s prestige & add new markets and resources while protecting old ones.

Despite little relevance to its economy, Britain focused on Africa, seizing Egypt to guard the Suez Canal, the Sudan to guard Egypt, and South Africa after a bitter struggle with Dutch settlers (Boers) there. This, plus Leopold II of Belgium’s seizure and exploitation of the Congo, vaccines against tropical diseases, & potent new weapons, led Europeans to conquer nearly all of Africa by 1914.

Any benefits brought by European civilization were more than offset by the suffering and humiliation caused by foreign rule and the arbitrary borders that divided some tribes and threw other hostile ones together.

By 1914, tensions caused by the lack of new lands to conquer would lead to World War I, while some native subjects would learn to use European technology and ideas to win independence after WWII.

slide5

Traditional boundaries in Africa (shown in red) with European colonial boundaries (shown in white). Unfortunately, when African colonies won their independence, it was according to the artificial European boundaries, thus continuing to split up some tribes while throwing other hostile tribes together.

slide7

African trade languages to illustrate the complexity of the language and cultural situation in Africa

slide8

Shared river basins and lakes in Africa

Number of countries sharing each basin

More than 9

5-9

4

3

2

slide9

A bronze plaque portraying a ruler and two warriors of Benin, a powerful West African kingdom encountered by the Portuguese in the 1400s. African art, especially that of Benin, became quite popular in Europe around 1900, influencing a number of artists, including Picasso.

slide12

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

Pre-Colonial Africa

slide13

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Pre-Colonial Africa

slide14

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Reasons for earlier imperialism?

Pre-Colonial Africa

slide15

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Pre-Colonial Africa

slide16

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explanation for neo-imperialism?

Pre-Colonial Africa

slide17

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources->

How profitable did most of these

Colonies prove to be?

Pre-Colonial Africa

slide18

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

How was the diplomatic situation in Europe different in late 1800s?

slide19

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

How was society different?

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

slide20

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Britain’s monopoly on industrialization?

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

slide21

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

More complex soc ->?

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

slide22

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

Britain’s control of Eur’s econ & diplomatic situation?

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

slide23

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

Problem with foreign competition?

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

slide24

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

Provide new mkts. & resources

Who offered a solution & what was it?

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

slide25

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. prestige?

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Benjamin Disraeli, British prime minister (1874-80) who largely initiated the colonial movement in the late 1800s. During his administration, the British took control of the Suez Canal, northern Afghanistan, Cyprus, and the Transvaal in South Africa

slide26

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br’s overseas econ. Interests?

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

slide27

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

It will also provide?

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

slide28

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

How would other politicians react & why?

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

slide29

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

slide30

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

slide31

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

slide32

The White Man’s Burden

The United States and the Philippine Islands

Take up the White Man’s burden--

Send forth the best ye breed--

Go bind your sons to exile

To serve your captives’ need;

To wait in heavy harness

On fluttered folk and wild--

Your new-caught, sullen peoples,

Half devil and half child

Take up the White Man’s burden

In patience to abide

To veil the threat of terror

And check the show of pride;

By open speech and simple

An hundred times made plain

To seek another’s profit,

And work another’s gain.

Take up the White Man’s burden--

The savage wars of peace--

Fill full the mouth of Famine

And bid the sickness cease;

And when your goal is nearest

The end for others sought,

Watch Sloth and heathen Folly

Bring all your hope to nought

Take up the White Man’s burden--

No tawdry rule of kings.

But toil of serf and sweeper--

The tale of common things.

The ports ye shall not enter,

The roads ye shall not tread,

Go make them with your living

And mark them with your dead!

--Rudyard Kipling (1899)

slide33

“The first step towards lightening the White Man’s Burden is through teaching the virtues of cleanliness. Pears’ Soap is a potent factor in brightening the dark corners of the earth as civilization advances, whilst amongst the cultured of all nations it holds the highest place—it is the ideal toilet soap.”

slide34

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

How was Darwin brought into this?

slide35

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

I don’t like people over-

simplifying my work in such cavalier fashion

slide36

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Q: Area Eur’s esp. focused on?

slide37

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

How vital was Africa to Eur’s economy?

slide38

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

slide40

Egypt & the Sudan

"We don't want to fight, but by jingo if we do

We've got the ships, we've got the guns, and got the money too"

Britain’s interest in Egypt lay with the Suez Canal, which opened in 1869. Originally, this canal was a joint venture between France and Egypt. However, the ruler of Egypt fell into debt and had to borrow money from British banks, using his shares in the canal as collateral for the loan. Unfortunately, he defaulted on the loan, and Britain took over the Egyptian half of the canal.

slide41

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

slide42

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

slide43

However, Egypt was rapidly destabilizing, so Britain annexed it as a colony to protect its investment in the Suez.

The British defeat the Egyptians at Tel-el-Kebir (1882)

Alexandria, Egypt after the British naval bombardment in 1882

slide44

All seemed safe until an engineer named Sam Baker published an article showing how Sudan, Egypt’s southern neighbor, could cut off Egypt’s lifeline: the Nile. As ridiculous as this fear was, it prompted Britain to take over Sudan as well.

SUDAN

slide45

In 1898, the Sudanese, led by a religious leader known as the Mahdi, rebelled against British rule. At Omdurman (9/2/1898), 20,000 British and Egyptian troops, supported by heavily armed gunboats, shattered the suicidal assaults of the Mahdist forces. Below, the surviving rebels flee, having lost 10,000 men as opposed to only 48 British soldiers.

slide46

Many times, native forces had modern European weapons in such battles. However, they still lacked the tactics, discipline, and overall mindset needed to use them effectively.

slide47

The Congo

"I do not want to risk...losing a fine chance to secure for ourselves a slice of this magnificent African cake.”--Leopold II

Belgian Congo

slide48

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

slide49

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

slide50

Leopold II of Belgium was an unhappy king. Having only limited power over a tiny realm, he dreamed of ruling a vast empire. After looking around a bit, he settled on the Congo.

Belgian Congo

slide51

Leopold waged a skillful public relations campaign to promote his “Congo Free State” as an effort to drive Arab slave traders from Africa. However, this was only a ruse.

Slave raids such as this one carried out by the kingdom of Dahomey in return for European muskets and money provided Leopold II with his “humanitarian” excuse for going into the Congo.

slide53

What ensued was one of the worst cases of exploitation and atrocities in history. Joseph Conrad grimly portrayed it in Heart of Darkness. Some even call what happened in the Congo the “African Holocaust.”

Belgian Congo

slide54

What ensued was one of the worst cases of exploitation and atrocities in history. Joseph Conrad grimly portrayed it in Heart of Darkness. Some even call what happened in the Congo the “African Holocaust.”

Belgian Congo

The new Congo state is destined to be one of the most important executors of the work we intend to do, and I express my best wishes for its speedy development, and for the realization of the noble aspirations of its illustrious creator.”

-- Otto von Bismarck

slide55

Using Henry Stanley, a journalist and explorer famous for his tracking down the “presumed” Dr. Livingstone, he swindled unwitting natives, unfamiliar with European contracts and treaties, out of their lands.

Belgian Congo

Belgian Congo

Henry Morton Stanley in his “Stanley Cap” which he designed for exploring the tropics

slide56

A treaty giving land to Leopold II, typically negotiated with African leaders who couldn’t read, had no real concept of land ownership, & were plied with liquor before signing:

Chiefs of Ngombi & Mafela, in return for "one piece of cloth per month to each of the undersigned chiefs, besides present of cloth in hand," they promised to "freely of their own accord, for themselves and their heirs and successors for ever...give up to the said Association the sovereignty and all sovereign and governing rights to all their territories...and to assist by labour or otherwise, any works, improvements or expeditions which the said Association shall cause at any time to be carried out in any part of these territories....All roads and waterways running through this country, the right of collecting tolls on the same, and all game, fishing, mining and forest rights, are to be the absolute property of the said Association.”

slide57

Leopold’s men then proceeded to rape the land of its riches, especially ivory, ruthlessly using forced labor to get the job done.

slide58

Leopold’s men then proceeded to rape the land of its riches, especially ivory, ruthlessly using forced labor to get the job done.

"A file of poor devils, chained by the neck, carried my trunks and boxes toward the dock....There were about a hundred of them, trembling and fearful before the overseer, who strolled by whirling a whip. For each stocky and broad-backed fellow, how many were skeletons dried up like mummies, their skin worn out...seamed with deep scars, covered with suppurating wounds....No matter, they were all up to the job."--Congo state official

slide59

"It was most interesting, lying in the bush, watching the natives quietly at their day's work. Some women ...were making banana flour by pounding up dried bananas. Men we could see building huts and engaged in other work, boys & girls running about, singing.... I opened the game by shooting one chap through the chest. He fell like a stone....Immediately a volley was poured into the village.”--Henry Stanley

slide60

"It was most interesting, lying in the bush, watching the natives quietly at their day's work. Some women ...were making banana flour by pounding up dried bananas. Men we could see building huts and engaged in other work, boys & girls running about, singing.... I opened the game by shooting one chap through the chest. He fell like a stone....Immediately a volley was poured into the village.”--Henry Stanley

"Six shots & four deaths were sufficient to quiet the mocking.”--Henry Stanley

slide61

One of Leopold’s first projects for the Congo was a railroad for hauling out ivory. The line from Matadi to Kinshasa/Leopoldville was 366 kilometers long. The initial stage through the rugged hills around Matadi was especially costly in lives, giving rise to a legend that every sleeper represented a human life.

slide62

Left: An ivory gathering station where company representatives paid natives virtually nothing for ivory that they would then turn around & sell for outrageous profits in Europe.

Before plastics & the petrochemical industries of the 20th century, ivory was an all purpose material for making a wide variety of products ranging from dentures to cue balls & piano keys.

Then Leopold discovered another resource that could bring in even bigger profits, albeit with much more labor and suffering.

That product was rubber.

slide63

Women kept hostage to force their husbands to go and gather rubber. Rubber was harvested by climbing the rubber tree, tapping into it and letting the sap run all over the slave’s body, where it would congeal. Later he would peel the rubber off his body, taking any body hair with it. Rubber harvesters were given impossible quotas to fill each month. In addition to enduring the hardships of gathering rubber in the jungle, many of them were killed by wild animals.

Meanwhile, Leopold’s men raped the women.

slide64

The village of Baringa before and after it was burned & converted into a rubber plantation, it being easier to clear a village than a deeply rooted jungle

Belgian Congo

slide65

"The station chief selects the victims....Trembling, haggard, they lie face down on the ground...two of their companions, sometimes four, seize them by the feet and hands, and remove their cotton drawers....Each time that the torturer lifts up the chicotte, a reddish stripe appears on the skin of the pitiful victims, who, however firmly held, gasp in frightful contortions....At the first blows the unhappy victims let out horrible cries which soon become faint groans....In a refinement of evil, some officers, and I've witnessed this, demand that when the sufferer gets up, panting, he must graciously give the military salute.” -- Stanislas Lefranc, Belgian prosecutor

Belgian Congo

The chicotte, a particularly vicious type of whip made from rhinoceros hide.

slide66

Belgian Congo

Two victims (l.) who lost their hands, one because his wrists were tied too tightly, the other because company militia cut it off to claim him as killed and get a reward. Below, a father looks at the severed hand and foot of his daughter

slide67

Leon Rom, the most likely real life model for Conrad’s Mr. Kurtz in Heart of Darkness. Along with displaying a row of severed African heads around his garden, he wrote a book on African customs, painted portraits and landscapes, and kept a butterfly collection. Below: he stands triumphantly over an elephant he just killed

Belgian Congo

slide68

Belgian Congo

Joseph Conrad, author of Heart of Darkness and a riverboat typical of those used on African rivers.

slide69

In 1904, Leopold’s bubble burst. A shipping clerk named Edmund Dene Morel noticed how vast loads of ivory and rubber were coming from the Congo Free State and only guns and ammunition seemed to be going back there in payment. Putting 2 and 2 together, he blew the whistle on Leopold and waged a tireless campaign to get the Congo taken from Leopold.

slide70

Two contemporary cartoons, one criticizing Leopold’s policies in the Congo, the other showing Leopold discussing atrocities with the Ottoman Sultan, whose massacres of the Armenians was the first major case of genocide in history. The sultan assures Leopold that the public soon will lose interest & do nothing about the Congo.

In this case the sultan was wrong.

The Belgian government took the Congo from Leopold in 1908.

Overall, the atrocities in the Congo killed an estimated 5 million Africans.

slide71

HOO, HOO, HOO

Listen to the yell of Leopold’s ghost

Burning in Hell for his hand-maimed host.

Hear how the demons chuckle and yell

Cutting his hands off, down in Hell.

Listen to the creepy proclamation

Blown through the lairs of the forest nation,

Blown past the white-ants’ hill of clay,

Blown past the marsh where the butterflies play –

“Be careful what you do,

Or Mumbo-Jumbo, God of the Congo,

And all the other

Gods of the Congo,

Mumbo-Jumbo will hoo-doo you …”

– Vachel Lindsay, The Congo, 1879-81

An African native carrying skulls taken in a raid. Leon Rom liked to line his flower garden with such skulls

slide72

"Monsters exist. But they are too few in number to be truly dangerous. More dangerous are...the functionaries ready to believe and to act without asking questions.”

-- Primo Levi, Auschwitz survivor

slide74

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

slide75

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

Tensions b/w Br & Boers Boer War Br. takes S. Afr.

slide76

When the Congress of Vienna awarded Britain South Africa in 1815, there were already several thousand Dutch settlers, known as Boers, there. Things went well until the 1830s when Britain outlawed slavery throughout its empire, causing the Boers, to trek inland and found the Orange Free State and Republic of Transvaal. This worked until gold and diamonds were discovered in the Boers’ lands, triggering an onrush of prospectors and rising tensions between British prospectors and the Boers. Britain intervened to “help” the Boers in a war against the Zulus, and kept trying to increase its influence in the Boers’ lands after that. Finally, a war, known as the Boer war broke out in 1899.

slide77

An overview of how the Zulus ambushed the British at Islandlwana (1/21/1879), one of the few victories won by indigenous peoples against European armies during this period . After this, however, the British brought in overwhelming firepower and crushed the Zulus.

slide78

Left: Having defeated the Zulus, the British reinstalled their king, Cetewayo, as a client king in 1883. Notice Cetewayo’s European coat, symbolizing where his power really came from. Similarly, the European clothes of the French-backed king of Dahomey (below), pictured here in 1892, symbolizes the real strength and influence of European power in Africa.

slide79

“I would annex the planets if I could”-- Cecil B. Rhodes.

Rhodes’ ambition of building a rail-road from Egypt to South Africa threatened the Dutch Boers. Tensions especially escalated after the discovery of diamonds in 1886, which led to a rush of “outlanders” into the Boer republics.

Below: A Boer commando group marches through Johannesburg to protest a raid by Cecil Rhodes that threatened their territory.

Stretching from Cape Town to Cairo

slide80

Boer commando groups typically numbered from 500-2000 men. They were mounted for mobility but fought mainly as infantry. Below: Christian de Wet, one of the Boers’ best guerrilla leaders ((l.) & Paul Kruger, leader of the Dutch Boers against the British during the Boer War (1899-1902)

slide81

Dutch Boers attack an armored British train, typical of the guerilla tactics they used against Britain’s much more numerous army. Supplies drawn by steam-powered tractors & troop trains such as the one on the right proved highly vulnerable to Boer guerrilla attacks. During the war, the Boers caused some 135 train wrecks, forcing the British to radically alter their tactics.

slide82

The Boers were attached to their traditional wagons which could provide protection on the march, but also were slow and reduced their mobility. Right, British soldiers fighting in the Transvaal during the Boer War (1899-1902)

slide83

In order to to combat the Boers’ guerrilla warfare, the British resorted to burning their homes (l.) and building lines of blockhouses (r.) connected by barbed wire to slow down and limit the Boers’ mobility.

Below: The British put the civilian population in concentration camps (below) to keep them from providing Boer forces any help. As many as half the inmates would die from these camps’ awful conditions.

slide84

Although heavily outnumbered, the Boers held off the British by fighting a guerilla type of warfare. It took the British 250,000 troops and two years to finally win the war. In 1910, Britain formed the Union of South Africa, a state that would become notorious for its racist system known as apartheid. Not until the 1990s were native Africans able to abolish apartheid and win complete equality.

slide86

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

Tensions b/w Br & Boers Boer War Br. takes S. Afr.

Vaccines vs. trop. diseases (FC.117)

slide87

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

Tensions b/w Br & Boers Boer War Br. takes S. Afr.

Improvements in milit. tech. (FC.117)

Vaccines vs. trop. diseases (FC.117)

slide88

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

Tensions b/w Br & Boers Boer War Br. takes S. Afr.

Improvements in milit. tech. (FC.117)

Vaccines vs. trop. diseases (FC.117)

Scramble for colonies by other Eur. powers who want to keep up w/Britain  Most of Africa carved up into colonies by 1914

slide89

The success of Britain & Leopold in their colonial ventures led other European powers into a land rush known as the Scramble for Africa. In 1884 Bismarck hosted the Congress of Berlin to lay down ground rules for this land grab.

No Africans were invited.

Except for Ethiopia, the last vestiges of free

Africa were gone by 1900.

slide90

A cartoon portraying Britain as an octopus, grabbing parts of every continent into its empire with its tentacles. In the 1880s, other European countries wanted to get their “fair” share as well.

slide91

Colonial troops hauling a heavy Maxim gun. The weight of such guns limited their usefulness in colonial wars.

slide92

French troops defeating Algerian forces during their conquest of Algeria in 1836. Later French conquests in West Africa would build upon this base, as useless as it was to French interests.

The Algerian war for independence in the 20th century would be a long and bitter struggle that would make French efforts to rule there seem even more pointless.

slide93

The French invade Dahomey in gunboats in 1892 by way of the Oueme River. Such rivers often provided the best invasion routes, but could also be more susceptible to the spread of tropical diseases.

slide94

The French invasion of Madagascar (1895) lingered too long in the lowlands building roads to support its army and was hit hard by malaria. This forced them to abandon their cumbersome army in favor of a more mobile one of 1500 men.

slide95

Left: French trained Senegalese troops raise the tricolor in Timbuktu. The French would later depend heavily on such troops to man the trenches in Europe during the First World War.

Right: a military outpost in French Colonial Africa. The French, with fewer people to spare for emigration, especially had to rely on native troops to fill the ranks of their colonial armies.

slide96

The Ethiopians defeat the Italians at Adowa (1896), the only African people to successfully resist a European invasion. Ironically, the Ethiopians had little food and would have been forced to disband if the Italians could have delayed the battle for a few more days.

The Ethiopians’ success was the result of their leaders seeing what was happening elsewhere and arming themselves with European guns. Despite their success here, the Italians would be back in 1935 and conquer Ethiopia.

slide97

A French cartoon on the Fashoda Crisis in 1898 between Britain & France over a barren patch of the Eastern Sahara compares Britain to the wolf in Little Red Riding Hood.

Tensions mounted, but, largely in reaction to growing German naval & colonial ambitions, the two countries avoided open war whereby Britain got East Africa & France got a huge barren stretch of the Sahara known as French West Africa.

This agreement paved the way for the Entente Cordiale in 1904 & Britain joining France against Germany in World War I.

FASHODA

FR. W. AFRICA

slide98

Kaiser Wilhelm II visits Tangier during the Moroccan Crisis in 1905. While on the surface he posed as the champion of Moroccan liberties in two different Moroccan Crises in the early 1900s, his action only served to alarm both France and Britain, driving them closer into an alliance that would fight Germany in World War I.

slide99

German troops repel an attack by Herero rebels in 1904. Retaliation against the rebels became one of the most notorious atrocities committed during the European conquest of Africa as the Germans exterminated the entire Herero people. Below right: the execution of Herero rebels and a concentration camp where prisoners experienced a slower death.

slide100

A German colonial officer is carried around in style in a hammock with a canopy to shade him from the sun.

slide101

H. Von Wissmann, a German officer who was especially remembered for his cruelty, presides over the Luluaburg station in the southern Congo.

slide103

Nubian boys drive off birds to protect their crops. While European rule in Africa changed and disrupted some aspects of African societies, other aspects remained largely unchanged.

slide104

Africa in 1880 before the main wave of

European conquests and….

…..Africa in 1914 after being almost completely taken over by European powers

slide105

Traditional boundaries in Africa (shown in red) with European colonial boundaries (shown in white). Unfortunately, when African colonies won their independence, it was according to the artificial European boundaries, thus continuing to split up some tribes while throwing other hostile tribes together.

Compounding this problem in some colonies was the European policy of favoring one tribe over another, thus creating much more hostility that would be unleashed once the controlling hand of the European power was released. In the worst case scenarios, one ethnic group would embark on a campaign of genocide to completely exterminate another group.

In 1994 in Rwanda, one group, the Hutus, tried to exterminate its rivals, the Tutsis. Before the situation was brought under control, an estimated one million people died.

slide106

In such areas as Northern Uganda and the Darfur region of Sudan, the killing continues.

The legacy of colonialism lives on.

Boy soldier forced to fight in the civil war in Uganda

Homeless refugees in the Darfur region of Sudan

slide108

Boy soldier forced to fight in the civil war in Uganda

Homeless refugees in the Darfur region of Sudan

slide109

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

Tensions b/w Br & Boers Boer War Br. takes S. Afr.

Improvements in milit. tech. (FC.117)

Vaccines vs. trop. diseases (FC.117)

Scramble for colonies by other Eur. powers who want to keep up w/Britain  Most of Africa carved up into colonies by 1914

slide110

Arbitrary borders drawn w/o respect for tribal divisions splits some tribes while throwing others together

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

Tensions b/w Br & Boers Boer War Br. takes S. Afr.

Improvements in milit. tech. (FC.117)

Vaccines vs. trop. diseases (FC.117)

Scramble for colonies by other Eur. powers who want to keep up w/Britain  Most of Africa carved up into colonies by 1914

slide111

Arbitrary borders drawn w/o respect for tribal divisions splits some tribes while throwing others together

Benefits of Eur. Civ. (schools, RR’s, etc.) offset by suffering & humiliation caused by European rule

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

Tensions b/w Br & Boers Boer War Br. takes S. Afr.

Improvements in milit. tech. (FC.117)

Vaccines vs. trop. diseases (FC.117)

Scramble for colonies by other Eur. powers who want to keep up w/Britain  Most of Africa carved up into colonies by 1914

slide113

An idealized scheme of how arbitrarily imposed European colonial boundaries broke apart some tribes and drove together others who were mutually hostile. Unfortunately it was according to these boundaries that Africans won their independence and continue to this day to try to build nations out of peoples often with little in common.

slide115

Arbitrary borders drawn w/o respect for tribal divisions splits some tribes while throwing others together

Benefits of Eur. Civ. (schools, RR’s, etc.) offset by suffering & humiliation caused by European rule

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

Tensions b/w Br & Boers Boer War Br. takes S. Afr.

Improvements in milit. tech. (FC.117)

Vaccines vs. trop. diseases (FC.117)

Scramble for colonies by other Eur. powers who want to keep up w/Britain  Most of Africa carved up into colonies by 1914

When new lands to colonize are gone  Rising tensions in Eur. helps lead to WWI (FC.126)

slide116

Arbitrary borders drawn w/o respect for tribal divisions splits some tribes while throwing others together

Benefits of Eur. Civ. (schools, RR’s, etc.) offset by suffering & humiliation caused by European rule

Other politicians, not wanting to lose popularity, also support imperialism

Brit. seizes Egypt to guard its interests in Suez Canal

Henry Stanley’s travel account Interest in Afr.

Br. conquers Zulus in S. Afr to protect Dutch Boers

Early efforts focus on Africa as the main object of imperial expansion despite its relative unimportance to Britain’s economy.

Brit. feels powerless to stop these changes & econ. depression in 1873

Hard to compete vs cheap labor & newer factories

More complex soc Harder to unite politically

FC. 122 EUROPEAN IMPERIAL EXPANSION INTO AFRICA (c.1870-1914)

Imperialism: coined in 1800s

-> seen as good,

- Jingoism, “by Jingo”

Imperialism (1500-1750):

3 G’s (God, gold, glory)

Old explan. for neo-imp

Need resources-> Few profitable

Justified by:

1) ”Need” to bring Chr. &“superior”

Eur. Civ. to “inferior” cultures &

2) Social Darwinism: belief in “right”

of strong civ’s to conquer weak

ones

German unific. & Balkan turmoil upset balance of power (FC.119)

Social changes brought by Ind.. Rev. (FC.113)

Spread of Ind. Rev. outside Britain (FC.116)

Several problems for Britain after 1870:

Br. Prime min., Benjamin Disraeli proposes imperial expansion which will:

Enhance Britain’s internat’l prestige

Protect Br’s econ. interests overseas

Provide new mkts. & resources

Br. conquers Sudan to keep it from blocking Nile R.

Leopold II of Belgium seizes & mercilessly exploits the Congo

Tensions b/w Br & Boers Boer War Br. takes S. Afr.

Improvements in milit. tech. (FC.117)

Vaccines vs. trop. diseases (FC.117)

Scramble for colonies by other Eur. powers who want to keep up w/Britain  Most of Africa carved up into colonies by 1914

When new lands to colonize are gone  Rising tensions in Eur. helps lead to WWI (FC.126)

WWII Eur. weak & natives use Eur. tech. & ideas of to win indep. (FC.151)