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Imperialism. Imperialism. Defined The control of a stronger or more powerful nation/country over a weaker region or country. The stronger country controls the political, social and economic life of the weaker region or nation. Types of Imperialist Control. Colony

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  • Defined
    • The control of a stronger or more powerful nation/country over a weaker region or country.
    • The stronger country controls the political, social and economic life of the weaker region or nation.
types of imperialist control
Types of Imperialist Control
  • Colony
    • Direct and total control by the mother country.
    • Britain held control of the American Colonies.
types of imperialist control1
Types of Imperialist Control
  • Protectorate
    • Native ruler remains in place but foreign advisors controlling the government
types of imperialist control2
Types of Imperialist Control
  • Sphere of Influence
    • The foreign nation has exclusive rights to develop, usually economic goods, in the nation.
  • Imperialism the spawn of the Industrial Revolution
    • The factory system needed natural resources
    • Europe had coal and iron ore but items like cotton and rubber needed to be imported
  • Wealthy industrial nations began colonizing regions with little regard to compensating the natives
  • Resources sent back to Europe were made into finished products
  • Finished products were then shipped back to the colonized nation and sold at a higher price
    • Oh yah, the colonized nation had to buy the finished goods from the colonial power because the colonial power would not let the colonized nation trade with any other nations
      • The colonial nation became rich while the colonized nation became poor
      • Sounds like exploitation-like the factory owners who exploited the factory workers during the Industrial Revolution
  • Soon every European nation began to colonize every part of the world
    • France-Africa, Vietnam
    • Britain-China, India, Africa
    • Japan-China
    • Belgium-Africa
    • Germany-Africa, parts of China
  • Results of Imperialism
    • Colonies became exposed to European ideas
    • Resources vital to many of these colonies were stripped from them and raw material became depleted in some areas
    • Pollution became a global problem and was no longer limited to just industrialized nations
    • Europe and the United States became the centers for manufactured goods
industrial revolution imperialism connection
Industrial Revolution/Imperialism Connection
  • Wealthy industrialized nations had better weapons
    • Artillery
    • Accurate rifles
    • Gunboats
    • Machine Guns
  • This allowed Industrialized nations to overrun poorly armed native warriors
causes of imperialism
Causes of Imperialism
  • Military Motives
    • Bases for military and naval ships.
      • Nations competed to gain control of an area before a rival could gain control.
    • A nation with many colonies had power and security.
      • A global empire.
causes of imperialism1
Causes of Imperialism
  • Military Motives
    • Captain Alfred Mahan
    • Argued that nations that controlled the seas prevailed or could rule the world.
    • Book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
industrial revolution imperialism connection1
Industrial Revolution/Imperialism Connection
  • Motives for colonizing
    • The need for raw materials to keep the industrial Revolution going
      • Timber
      • Rubber
      • Coal
      • Iron ore
      • chemicals
  • Western leaders often struck deals with local businessmen or politicians for raw materials
  • Often times these deals hurt the local economy and the people
  • Money was exchanged between the western leaders and the businessmen and politicians and the local workers just became poor
  • These countries became known as “Banana Republics”
old imperialism
Old Imperialism
  • From 1500 to 1800.
  • European nations develop colonies in Americas, India, Southeast Asia, Africa and China.
  • European power in these areas was limited.
  • European nations viewed colonies as more of a liability because of the cost to run the colony.
new imperialism
New Imperialism
  • From 1870 to 1914.
  • European nations had developed strong centralized governments.
    • Strong sense of nationalism
  • Most European nations, America and Japan had become industrialized and became aggressive in looking for natural resources.
    • Need to fuel the factories with raw materials
  • European nations focused on weakened empires in Asia, India, and Africa.
    • Most were easy targets for the well developed militaries of European nations.
new imperialism1
New Imperialism
  • Results of Imperialism
    • Prime Minister of Britain Benjamin Disraeli said imperialism was a call to greatness where a nation was to fulfill its destiny.
    • There was widespread public support for imperialism in industrialized nations.
    • Why?
      • Social Darwinism
      • The White Man’s Burden
causes of imperialism2
Causes of Imperialism
  • Social Darwinism
    • Social Darwinism encouraged imperialism
      • Most Europeans were very ethnocentric and viewed mostly non European cultures as barbarians or uncivilized.
      • Survival of the fittest competition between nations.
      • Social Darwinist argued it was natural for a stronger nation to ruler weaker nations because the dominant nation or races rose to the top because of the idea of survival of the fittest
      • European nations saw themselves as superior and more fit to run other nations
      • Britain was the most industrialized, and thus the most powerful and the most fit-Britain was superior to all other nations
causes of imperialism3
Causes of Imperialism
  • The White Man’s Burden
    • While Europeans felt they were superior to other nations they also felt they had a moral obligation to these weaker nations
    • Europeans felt that they had to teach these nations how to be civilized-Even though most were already civilized
    • In reality Europeans wanted to teach the world how to be European
causes of imperialism4
Causes of Imperialism
  • White Man’s Burden
    • Rudyard Kipling summoned up the moral obligation in his poem The White Man’s Burden
    • As Europeans imperialized the world to advance their own economic, military, and political needs, Kipling called these things burdens.
causes of imperialism5
Causes of Imperialism
  • Kipling said that it was the duty of European nations to
    • Conquer these half-devil-half child nations
    • Convert them to Christianity
    • Make them as civilized as the rest of Europe
    • Europeans knew what was best for the world-Being European



The Scramble for Africa

the scramble for africa
The Scramble for Africa
  • The focus of most of Europe’s imperialist activities in the 19th century was Africa.
  • The demand for raw materials, markets, and the prestige of having colonies drove imperialist Europe to Africa.
the scramble for africa1
The Scramble for Africa
  • Prior to the Industrial Revolution European interest in Africa was very limited
  • Up until the 1880’s only the coastlines of Africa had been colonized, exploited or even explored
  • Gold, ivory and slaves had been taken from these colonies
  • Europeans saw Africa and her ports as just stopping off points for merchant ships headed for India or China
scramble for africa
Scramble for Africa
  • Between 1807 and 1820 the slave trade ended in Africa.
  • No new slaves were exported from Africa at this time
  • Some former slaves returned to Africa-The country of Liberia was set up by former American slaves
  • While slavery ended in Africa, within 50 year Europeans will colonize most of Africa and subject the Africans in their own homeland
external reasons for imperialism
External Reasons for Imperialism
  • After the 1880’s Europeans had technological superiority due to the Industrial Revolution
    • Europeans fought with machine guns/Africans had spears and bows.
    • Better maps
    • Easier travel with the steam ship and railroads. Made travel on water or land faster and allowed for close contract with colonies.
    • Medical treatment of malaria with the drug quinine.
internal reasons for imperialism
Internal Reasons for Imperialism
  • African nations lacked unity
    • No common language
    • Lack of common culture
    • Wars between different groups
    • Lack of technology
  • Between 1517 and 1882 the Ottoman’s ruled Egypt
  • The Ottoman Empire was seen as weak and local rulers called beys controlled regions of Egypt
  • In the early 1800’s Napoleon attempted to gain control of Egypt-however in 1805 Muhammed Ali defeated both the French and the Ottomans and gained control of Egypt
  • During Ali’s rule Egypt began to Industrialize
    • Egypt expanded its agricultural production
    • Egypt began to increase its production of cotton and began selling the cotton to the British Empire
  • In 1869 the Egyptians worked with the French to create the Suez Canal
  • The canal linked the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean which eliminated the need to travel around Africa for trade
  • The canal drained the finances of Egypt and Egypt’s economy began to suffer
  • The canal was extremely important to the British who could now sail quicker to India
  • The Egyptian Government in an effort to raise money began to sell stocks in the canal
  • The British Government bought a majority of the stock and by 1882 controlled Suez Canal
  • Because the British now controlled the canal they politically moved into Egypt and made Egypt a protectorate
  • The French were pushed out of Egypt and focused on areas of North Africa
the scramble for africa2
The Scramble for Africa
  • King Leopold of Belgium
    • In the 1870’s Leopold establishes a trade in the Congo River basin.
    • Leopold forced Africans to work on rubber plantations
    • Harsh taxation and forced labor leads the world to call for humanitarian changes in the Congo.
the berlin conference
The Berlin Conference
  • Rules for the Colonization of Africa
    • In 1884 European powers trying to colonize Africa were coming into conflict.
    • To avoid further conflict 14 European powers set up rules for colonizing Africa.
    • No members of the African community were present.
the berlin conference1
The Berlin Conference
  • In 1884 Otto von Bismarck hosted the Berlin Conference
    • Bismarck wanted to settle disputes to colonial land differences in the African Congo
    • By the end of the conference rules had been set up for colonizing
the berlin conference2
The Berlin Conference
  • The agreement between the European powers specified
    • European powers could acquire colonies in the following methods.
      • Through occupation.
      • Notifying other European states of the occupation and claim.
      • Showing that the European power could control the area.
the berlin conference3
The Berlin Conference
  • Results of the Conference
    • In 1850 most of Africa had been free.
    • By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia were free of European control.
result of colonization
Result of Colonization
  • Europeans did not find a new market for goods in Africa
    • Africans had little currency to buy goods.
  • Instead Europeans found that Africa had a great deal of wealth and raw materials to supply the European nations
result of colonization1
Raw Materials

Europeans developed cash-crop plantations


Palm oil



These plantations displaced food crops Africans needed to feed their families.

Draw a cash crop economy


Africa contain rich mineral resources

The Belgian Congo



South Africa



Result of Colonization
the british in africa
The British In Africa
  • Britain was the most active and successful in colonization of Africa.
    • Nigeria
    • South Africa
    • East Africa
    • Egypt
    • Sudan
british problems in africa
British Problems in Africa
  • South Africa
    • Prior to British colonization of South Africa Dutch farmers called Boers settled in South Africa.
    • In the early 1800’s Britain acquired South Africa from the Dutch.
    • The Boers or Afrikaners, Dutch farmers, moved north into South Africa to an area known as Transvaal.
    • While in South Africa the Boers found gold in the region and the British tried to move in an take the territory from the Dutch
british problems in africa1
British Problems in Africa
  • The Boers clashed with the British in the Boer War (1899-1902).
  • The war pitted European nation against European nation.
  • The war was known as a total war and both guerrilla warfare and commando tactics were used.
problems in south africa
Problems in South Africa
  • The British won the Boer War and took over all of South Africa
  • The British ended up with the gold and diamond mines and used the natives to mine the wealth
british problems in africa2
British Problems in Africa
  • The Zulus were strong African nation who clashed with the British.
  • Superior British technology and weapons defeated the Zulu.
  • This was a common result for those who resisted European Imperialism.
problems in south africa1
Problems in South Africa
  • South Africa became an extensive colony of Britain
  • The British set a British form of government
  • By 1910 South Africa had its own constitution and became a commonwealth of the British Empire (The Union of South Africa)
  • South Africa was given its own self rule
problems in south africa2
Problems in South Africa
  • The new constitution only allowed white males to vote
  • Native Africans had very few rights
  • In 1912 educated Black Africans organized and formed the African National Congress (ANC) in a effort to gain rights for blacks
  • The ANC would lead a strong nationalistic movement for freedoms for blacks in the 70’s and 80’s.
impact of imperialism in africa

Reduced local warfare

Brought hospitals and schools to Africa.

Increased life spans and literacy rates.

Gained railroads, dams, and telephone lines

Africa products were valued on the international market.


Africans lost their land

Lost of independence

European powers were often placed in direct control of the colony

Large amounts of the African population died of European diseases.


Loss of traditional culture

Natives were forced to adopt European customs and cultures

Forced labor

Impact of Imperialism in Africa
impact of imperialism in africa1
Impact of Imperialism in Africa
  • Division of African nations by European boundaries
    • The boundaries set up by Europeans in 1884 Berlin Conference were based on European wants and not on native’s needs
    • Tribal lands were cut in half while other rival nations were forced together by the new boundaries
    • These European boundaries, which are still in place today, disrupted customs and cultures of Africans
  • Africa was divided into Colonies and ruled directly by Europeans.
  • China came under Imperialist control by using Spheres of Influence.
  • Europeans used leases and concessions to gain control of China.
  • In the 1790’s China was not interested in western influence.
  • China wanted to remain isolated and while China traded with other nations it had no interest in exploration
  • China refused western technology.
  • China was self-sufficient.
    • Good agriculture
    • Extensive mining and manufacturing
    • Finely produced goods
      • Porcelain, cottons, and silk
  • The Chinese did allow the rest of the world (Europe) to trade in one port city (Canton)
  • The Chinese had strict guidelines on what could be bought and sold in Canton
  • Europeans powers (The British) saw China as a place of vast wealth (Raw materials and markets)
  • Soon not only were British trade ships sailing into Canton harbor but also British warships
  • The British were going to open up trade one way or another
the opium wars
The Opium Wars
  • The British had to find something that the Chinese wanted.
  • In 1773 the British stated importing opium from India.
  • By 1836 Britain was making 16 million dollars off the sale of opium to China.
  • The drug became so destructive that the Manchu Emperor forbid the sale of opium in 1838
opium wars
Opium Wars
  • When Britain refused China seized the opium in Canton in 1839
  • The British became angry that the Chinese had taken their goods and both countries went to war
opium wars1
Opium Wars
  • The wars lasted from 1839 to 1842.
  • The British won easily because of their military and naval power.
  • Britain forced China to harsh treaties.
  • The treaties were seen as the “unequal treaties”
  • The British were now given rights to trade anywhere in China
  • And the right to create more opium addicts
opium wars2
Opium Wars
  • Treaty of Nanjing
    • Britain forced China to
      • Pay for all war cost.
      • Open all ports to British trade.
      • Give Britain the island of Hong Kong.
        • This gave Britain a colonial possession in China
      • British citizens living in China lived under British law and not Chinese law.
opium wars3
Opium Wars
  • The Chinese resented the British.
  • The opium trade continued.
  • Britain now had a sphere of influence in China.
  • China also realized that it’s government was extremely weak
    • Because of this there were a series of rebellions against the Chinese government
      • The first rebellion was the White Lotus Rebellion led by Buddhist monks who were upset at high taxes and government corruption
the taiping rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion
  • By 1850 China’s population had grown by 30% however food production had dropped off.
  • The people of China were starving.
  • The Chinese Government had become corrupt.
  • Many were upset at the lack of morals and the opium addiction in China.
  • The population began to rebel against the ruling Qing Dynasty.
the taiping rebellion1
The Taiping Rebellion
  • Hong Xiuguan
    • Believed that his own personal vision of Christianity would save China.
    • Believed if the people followed him all would share in China’s wealth.
    • Taiping = Great Peace
the taiping rebellion2
The Taiping Rebellion
  • Hong’s army was made up of most peasants.
  • By 1853 he controlled the city of Nanjing and later large areas of southern China.
  • Finally in 1864 the French and British armies put down the rebellion.
  • At least 20 million people were killed.
  • Large amounts of farm land were destroyed.
  • The rebellion weakened China and the Chinese government.
government reforms failures
Government Reforms-Failures
  • In the 1860’s with the growing internal problems the Manchu Government attempted to bring the country together with the Self-Strengthening Movement
  • This movement was a failure
  • In 1876 Korea declared it’s independence from China
  • In 1883 China lost Vietnam to the French in the Sino-French War
  • In 1895 Japan forced China to sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki ending the Sino-Japanese War
    • Japan gained control of Taiwan and had trading rights in China
splitting up china
Splitting up China
  • By the late 1800’s Britain, France, Russia, and Germany had cut up large spheres of influence in China
  • These nations now had large military bases, businesses, governmental authority in the regions they controlled
american intervention
American Intervention
  • The U.S. was trading with China.
  • The U.S. was worried that western powers would cut up China like Africa.
  • If this happened there would be restrictions on trade.
  • The U.S. started the Open Door Policy.
  • China should be open to trading by all countries in the world.
  • It kept China from being colonized and gave the U.S. rights to trade with China.
boxer rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
  • Some Chinese became upset with foreign intervention in China.
  • Poor Chinese resented special privileges given to foreigners.
  • Many Chinese disliked Christian Chinese.
  • Many felt that the ruling Empress Dowager needed to be removed from power
boxer rebellion1
Boxer Rebellion
  • A new group of Chinese who wanted nationalism called the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fist or Boxers organized
  • They were anti-European, anti-Manchu, anti-Christian
boxer rebellion2
Boxer Rebellion
  • The goal of the Boxers was to drive western powers and the Japanese out of China
  • In 1900 in Perking Shouting “Death to foreign devils” Boxers began to attack foreigners.
boxer rebellion3
Boxer Rebellion
  • The Boxers began to kill westerners, Christians, and seized control of embassies
boxer rebellion4
Boxer Rebellion
  • The Boxer rebellion which began in the spring of 1900 ended in August 1900 when a combined army of American, Japanese, Germans, Italians, and British put down the revolt.
  • After this the Chinese government had to sign the Boxer Protocol which demanded that Europeans and Japan be paid the cost of putting down the rebellion
china s needs
China’s Needs
  • While the Boxer rebellion was a failure it did spark nationalism in China.
  • China needed to resist foreign intervention
  • The Chinese government needed to protect the needs of Chinese and not foreign governments.
  • By 1901 the Manchu government was on the verge of collapse
  • Chinese culture also began to collapse
    • In 1901 foot-bidding was abolished
    • In 1905 the Chinese Exam System which had been effect for 2,000 years was done away with
china s needs1
China’s Needs
  • Sun Yixian a Chinese nationalist called for the replacement of the Qing dynasty
  • Sun Yixian wanted three things.
    • End to foreign domination
    • A representative government
    • Economic security for the Chinese people.
  • In 1911 workers, peasants, students and warlords overthrew the monarchy and China became a republic.
how imperialism in china and india were different

Britain had established India as a colony and had complete control of India

The British were able to direct their laws, customs and beliefs onto the Indian people

When India wants its independence the people directs their movement against the British


Britain controlled trade in China but after a time other countries also controlled trade in China

China was able to maintain its government (Manchu) even thought it was corrupt

When China wants its independence the people direct their movement against the Chinese government and not the foreign powers

How Imperialism in China and India Were Different
  • Throughout history India had always been a trading post which traders and merchants could obtain
    • Tea, sugar, silk, salt, jute (fiber used for ropes)
  • It was a great source of raw materials
  • India also had a large population and consumers who wanted manufactured products
the british in india
The British in India
  • In the 1600’s the British East India Company sets up trading post in Bombay, Madras and Calcutta.
  • The company was privately owned and was responsible to increase the profits to it’s stockholders.
  • The company saw India as having a wealth of natural resources and a large market to sell goods.
  • The British East India Company had exclusive trade rights in India
the british in india1
The British in India
  • France still owned part of India and the 1750’s
  • During the French and Indian War (Seven Year War) Robert Clive an employee of the company helped drive the French out of India.
  • These private British troops now ran India (Think of Kodak having an army)
  • The British East India Co. now had exclusive rights to trade and all the natural resources they wanted.
the british in india2
The British in India
  • By the mid 1800’s century the Mughal Empire of India was in decline.
  • The rulers of India could not control the British.
  • By the 1850 Britain controlled 3/5 of India.
the british in india3
The British in India
  • Britain’s empire extended around the world and with control over India “the sun never set on the British Empire”
  • India was also known as the “Jewel in the Crown”
  • India was seen as the most valuable of Britain’s colonies.
the british in india4
The British in India
  • Raw Goods supplied by India.
    • Plantation crops
      • Tea
      • Indigo
      • Coffee
      • Cotton
    • Narcotics
      • Opium
the british in india5
The British in India
  • Opium Trade
    • The British would ship opium from India to China.
    • The opium would then be traded to the Chinese for tea.
    • The tea would be sold in England.
the british in india6
The British in India
  • The Industrial Revolution turned Britain into the world’s workshop.
  • India was the major supplier of raw materials for Britain.
  • India also had 300 million people. A large market for British goods.
the british in india7
The British in India
  • Results of Colonialism
    • Britain only allowed India to produce raw goods and only buy British manufactured goods.
    • Indian was not allowed to compete with British finished goods.
    • Indian cloth makers all but went out of business.
the british in india8

India gained a vast railway system

Telephone, telegraph lines

Bridges, dams, and canals

Schools and colleges

Ended local warfare


British held most of the political and economic control of India.

The British restricted industries from producing manufactured goods.

Cash crops reduced farm production and increased starvation in India.

British customs and religion threatened India’s customs.

The British in India
the british in india9
The British in India
  • The Sepoy Mutiny
    • The British used Sepoy’s, Indian soldiers assigned to the British Army.
    • The Sepoy’s were Hindu and Muslim
    • Both the Hindu and Muslims of India felt that the British were trying to convert them to Christianity.
the british in india10
The British in India
  • Muslim do not eat pork
  • Hindu do not eat beef.
  • The rumor was that the cartridges that the Sepoy had to use for their guns were covered by a beef and pork seal.
  • The seal had to be bitten and the cartridge removed before it could be placed in the gun.
  • The Sepoy refused to use the cartridge and the British jailed the soldiers.
  • The Sepoy believed that the British covered the cartridges in pork and beef on purpose.
the british in india11
The British in India
  • The Sepoy rebelled against the British.
  • The fighting between the British and the Sepoy lasted about a year.
  • The British Army finally put down the mutiny.
  • The British Army took control of India away from the East India Company.
the british in india12
The British in India
  • The direct British rule of India was called the Raj and lasted from 1757 to 1947
  • British soldiers and politicians held control over millions of Indians.
  • Policy for India came directly from Britain.
  • The mutiny caused distrust between the British and Indians.
results of the british take over
Results of the British Take Over
  • India became the model colony not only for Britain but for the rest of the world
    • The upper castes were forced to learn English and to respect English law
    • Christianity was spread throughout India
    • Urban centers grew in India and Indians were influenced by British government (Parliamentary)
    • Education was brought to all the upper castes
    • The British tried to end the untouchable caste
results of the british take over1
Results of the British Take Over
  • The British take over resulted in the loss of Indian culture
  • Indians were forced to accept British customs while trying to hold on to their own traditions
  • In 1885 The Indian National Congress, made up of well educated Hindus, wanted to gain independence for India
japan and the meiji restoration

Japan and the Meiji Restoration

Japan becomes a National Power

tokugawa isolation
Tokugawa Isolation
  • Prior to the arrival of Matthew Perry of the U.S. in 1854 Japan had been isolated for 200 years.
  • In 1500’s Europeans had tried to trade with Japan however the Shoguns had gained control of Japan and banned contact with almost the entire outside world.
japanese isolation
Japanese Isolation
  • Japan had built an highly ethnocentric society
    • Japanese were not allowed to travel outside the nation
    • Foreigners were not allowed inside the nation
  • By the 19th Century The U.S. and Europe were looking for markets were ever they could find them and they turned to Japan
commodore matthew perry
Commodore Matthew Perry
  • In 1854 Perry gave Japan a letter asking them to open trade with the U.S.
  • Americans and Europeans wanted to not only open trade with Japan but also use Japanese ports to repair and resupply their ships.
treaty of kanagawa
Treaty of Kanagawa
  • The Japanese shoguns were impressed by the American show of force.
  • Japan agreed to open its ports and signed the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854.
  • The Treaty gave trading rights to the U.S. and soon other countries like Britain, France and Russia also gained trading rights.
treaty of kanagawa1
Treaty of Kanagawa
  • The Treaty had a powerful impact on Japan.
    • It weakened the power of the shogun who some Japanese felt had given in to foreigners.
    • It showed that for for Japan to compete with the west that Japan had to modernize and industrialize.
    • Nationalist in Japan did not like the intervention of the west
    • These Japanese nationalist, with the help of the Samurai rebelled against and overthrew the Shogun, restored the emperor, and began to modernize and industrialize.
the meiji restoration
The Meiji Restoration
  • In 1867 the samurai led the rebellion to remove the Tokugawa shogun from power.
  • In 1868 the emperor was established as the leader of Japan.
  • The period from 1868 to 1912 is known as the Meiji Restoration.
  • By the 1870’s Japan was building railroads, steamships
  • In 1876 the samurai class had been abolished
  • There was universal military service for all males
  • Meiji means “enlightened one”
modernization and industrialization
Modernization and Industrialization
  • Once the Emperor was in place he began to make changes to Japan that would make Japan a world power.
modernization and industrialization1
Modernization and Industrialization
  • Borrowing from the West
    • The emperor sent advisors and government officials to western nations to study government, economics, technology, and customs.
    • Foreign experts were also invited to Japan.
modernization and industrialization2
Modernization and Industrialization
  • Economics
    • The Meiji government used western methods and machinery to industrialize Japan.
    • The government built factories and then sold them to wealthy Japanese businessmen, know as zaibatsu.
    • The government developed a banking system.
    • The government built ports and railroads
    • By 1890 the economy was strong, the population had grown, and peasants moved to the cities looking for jobs.
modernization and industrialization3
Modernization and Industrialization
  • Government
    • The Meiji wanted a strong central government and used Germany as their model.
    • The Meiji liked the strength of the Germany’s constitution and that the government was run by only a few select men.
    • The constitution gave the emperor autocratic(dictatorial) power. The emperor was not elected by the people.
    • The constitution created a two house legislature (bicameral).
      • Only one house was elected and voting was limited.
modernization and industrialization4
Modernization and Industrialization
  • Military
    • Samurai are no longer the only warriors in Japan.
    • Japan admired the discipline of the German army and the skill of the British navy.
    • All men must join the military
    • Japan modernizes its navy
    • Japan develops a strong army and navy and defeats European powers in warfare.
modernization and industrialization5
Modernization and Industrialization
  • Social Reforms


    • Public education system
      • Japan admired the the American system of education.
    • Development of universities


    • Still a class system
    • Women seen as 2nd class citizens
  • By the 1890’s Japan had become strong enough to reduce U.S. and western influence in their country
  • Japan would fight a series of wars which would soon make them a world power
japan as a global power
Japan as a Global Power
  • By 1894 Japan had transformed itself into a major world power.
  • Japan used its military strength to become imperialistic.
  • Japan became imperialistic looking for colonies for raw materials and new markets.
  • Japan found these colonies through warfare.
japan as a global power1
Japan as a Global Power
  • Sino-Japanese War
    • 1894-1895
    • Japan tries to expand into Korea.
    • China goes to war with Japan over Korea.
    • Japan quickly wins the war
    • Japan gets Taiwan, ports in China, and Korea becomes a protectorate of Japan.
japan as a global power2
Japan as a Global Power
  • Russo-Japanese War
    • 1904-1905
    • Both Japan and Russia have interest in Korea.
    • Russia refuses to recognize Japan’s rights to Korea.
    • Japan launches a surprise attack against the Russians destroying the Russian navy and driving the Russian troops out of Korea.
    • Russia is forced to withdraw from Korea
    • Japan is seen as a major military power with the defeat of a European nation
japan as a global power3
Japan as a Global Power
  • Dependence on a World Market
    • Japan’s economy depended on trade. It needed new markets.
    • Japan is an island and lack many of the natural resources to keep their industrialization alive.
    • For Japan to compete with the world market Japan would have to continue to be imperialistic.
japan as a global power4
Japan as a Global Power
  • Results of Imperialistic Japan
    • Japan borrowed many western ideas to become a modern and industrialized nation.
    • Japan quickly establishes itself as a strong military power.
    • Japan needs to continue to colonize to keep raw materials coming in and finished products going out of the country.
      • Japan is truly the only country that needs to colonize because they lack raw materials
japan s industrial revolution v europe s industrial rev

Japan’s Ind. Rev only took about 30 years because they borrowed everything

Private corporations-Wealthy class


Need for raw materials


Europe’s industrial Rev. a century because they had to invent everything

Private Corporations-Wealthy class


Need for raw materials

Japan’s Industrial RevolutionvEurope’s Industrial Rev
american imperialism
American Imperialism
  • After independence movements in Latin America most European powers were pushed out of the western Hemisphere
  • In an effort to control the western Hemisphere President Monroe declared in 1823 that the western Hemisphere was off limits to European powers
  • This was known as the Monroe Doctrine
american imperialism1
American Imperialism
  • The U.S. in 1823 was not in any position to keep European powers out of the western hemisphere
  • Britain however wanted to keep the Spanish out of the Americans and the British, with their large navy agreed to back up the U.S.
american imperialism2
American Imperialism
  • European powers remained out of the western hemisphere but still invested in Latin American economies
  • In 1904 European nations demanded Venezuela repay loans
  • European powers sent warships to demand the payments
american imperialism3
American Imperialism
  • The U.S. was fearful of European intervention and colonization and President Roosevelt created the Roosevelt Corollary.
american imperialism4
American Imperialism
  • The Corollary stated
    • The U.S. would resolve any financial disputes between European powers and countries in the western hemisphere
    • The Corollary protected Latin American countries from aggressive Europeans
    • Latin American nations however saw the U.S. as an aggressive power
american imperialism5
American Imperialism
  • The U.S. also exercised a form of imperialism in the western hemisphere
    • The U.S. incited Panama to break free of Colombia
    • Once Panama declared their independence the U.S. then negotiated the rights from Panama to build the Panama Canal
american imperialism6
American Imperialism
  • In 1898 Spain controlled Cuba and Puerto Rico
  • Cuban nationalist wanted to drive the Spanish out and the U.S. sided with the nationalist
  • This started the Spanish American War
american imperialism7
American Imperialism
  • The war lasted only months
  • The U.S. navy quickly defeated the Spanish navy in both Cuba and the Philippines
  • The U.S. gained control of former Spanish colonies
    • Guam, Philippines and Puerto Rico
    • Cuba was given it’s independence in exchange Cuba would give the U.S. rights to two naval bases