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AKS 47: World War II. Chapter 32 – Pages 925-951. Early Challenges to World Peace Sept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria; Withdraws from League of Nations. World Reaction?: W. nations did not want to get involved b/c they had their own problems to deal with Result: Continue aggression.

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aks 47 world war ii

AKS 47:World War II

Chapter 32 – Pages 925-951

early challenges to world peace sept 1931 japan invades manchuria withdraws from league of nations
Early Challenges to World PeaceSept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria; Withdraws from League of Nations
  • World Reaction?:
    • W. nations did not want to get involved b/c they had their own problems to deal with
  • Result:
    • Continue aggression
early challenges to world peace oct 1935 italy invades ethiopia
Early Challenges to World PeaceOct. 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia
  • World Reaction?:
    • League of Nations ordered sanctions against Italy
    • Refused to sell them weapons, continued to sell them oil
    • Refused to get involved for fear of another conflict
  • Result:
    • Italy defeated Ethiopia
early challenges to world peace
Early Challenges to World Peace
  • July 1936:
    • Spanish Civil War Begins
  • March 1936:
    • German troops occupy Rhineland
  • Oct. 1936
    • Hitler & Mussolini sign Rome-Berlin Axis
  • July 1937:
    • Japan invades China
early challenges to world peace sept 1938 munich conference
Early Challenges to World PeaceSept. 1938: Munich Conference
  • Hitler promised British Prime Minister Chamberlain he would leave Europe alone if given Sudetenland (appeasement)
early challenges to world peace sept 1938 munich conference8
Early Challenges to World PeaceSept. 1938: Munich Conference
  • Oct. 1938 – Germany occupies Sudetenland
  • 6 Months Later – Takes all of Czechoslovakia – clear at this point appeasement won’t work
early challenges to world peace aug 1939 hitler stalin sign nazi soviet pact
Early Challenges to World PeaceAug. 1939: Hitler & Stalin sign Nazi-Soviet Pact
  • Advantages for Hitler:
    • Removal of threat of attack from the east
    • Division of Poland
  • Advantages for Stalin:
    • Division of Poland
    • Takeover of Finland & Baltic countries
    • Safety from German attack
early challenges to world peace sept 1 1939 germany invades poland
Early Challenges to World PeaceSept. 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland
  • Hitler’s Strategy:
    • Blitzkrieg – “lightning war”
    • Use fast-moving mechanized weapons
    • Planes, Tanks, Artillery, Infantry – all at ONCE!!!
    • Poland fell in ONE month!
early challenges to world peace sept 3 1939 britain france declare war on germany
Early Challenges to World PeaceSept. 3, 1939: Britain & France Declare War on Germany

WORLD

WAR

II

OFFICIALLY

BEGINS!!!

the european campaign april 1940 hitler invades denmark norway heads for france
The European CampaignApril 1940: Hitler invades Denmark & Norway; Heads for France
  • Hitler’s Plan:
    • Pave a way to France & distract Allies by invading Holland, Belgium, & Luxembourg, then send massive force through the Ardennes Forest
the european campaign june 1940 france surrenders
The European CampaignJune 1940: France Surrenders
  • What Happened at Dunkirk?:
    • Britain rescued Allied soldiers stranded at Dunkirk & ferried them to safety across the English Channel
the european campaign july 1940 battle of britain
The European CampaignJuly 1940: Battle of Britain
  • What Happened?:
    • German Luftwaffe (Air Force) bombed British cities for 3 months
    • Goal: Hitler wanted to destroy British morale before invading
  • Outcome:
    • RAF fighters & British resistance forced Germany to call off the attack – Hitler could be stopped!
the european campaign
The European Campaign
  • Sept. 1940
    • Italy moves to seize Egypt & Suez Canal
  • Feb. 1941
    • Hitler sends Gen. Rommel to help Italian troops seize Egypt & Suez Canal
the european campaign june 1941 hitler invades soviet union
The European CampaignJune 1941: Hitler Invades Soviet Union
  • Why?:
    • Hitler wanted the territory
    • Felt his army was capable of fighting a war on two fronts (Eastern Front in USSR & and Western in France)
the european campaign july 1942 battle of el alamein
The European CampaignJuly 1942: Battle of El Alamein
  • What Happened?:
    • Gen. Montgomery vs. Gen. Rommel
    • Forced Rommel and his forces to retreat westward from Egypt
    • Operation Torch: Gen. Eisenhower arrived with American troops in N. Africa
the european campaign july 1942 battle of el alamein21
The European CampaignJuly 1942: Battle of El Alamein
  • Result:
    • Trapped Rommel’s forces b/w American & British & finally defeated Rommel’s Afrika Korps
the european campaign july 1942 feb 1943 battle of stalingrad
The European CampaignJuly 1942-Feb.1943: Battle of Stalingrad
  • Outcome:
    • Hitler attacked, Soviets eventually put German forces on defensive with Soviets pushing them westward
the european campaign july 1942 feb 1943 battle of stalingrad23
The European CampaignJuly 1942-Feb.1943: Battle of Stalingrad
  • Comparison to Napoleon:
    • In both invasions, Russia’s terrible winter & its strategy of destroying everything in the enemy’s path created severe hardships for the invaders
the european campaign sept 1943 invasion of italy
The European CampaignSept. 1943: Invasion of Italy
  • Outcome:
    • Resulted in Allied conquest of Sicily & forced eventual surrender of Italy
the european campaign25
The European Campaign
  • Nov.-Dec. 1943
    • Tehran Conference
tehran conference when
Tehran ConferenceWhen?
  • November 28-December 1, 1943
tehran conference members present
Tehran ConferenceMembers Present?
  • Franklin Roosevelt (USA)
  • Winston Churchill (Britain)
  • Joseph Stalin (USSR)
tehran conference purpose of meeting
Tehran ConferencePurpose of Meeting?
  • Coordinate military strategy against Germany & Japan
  • Decide on important issues of post-WWII era
tehran conference what was decided
Tehran ConferenceWhat was decided?
  • Coordination of D-Day invasion
  • Poland’s post-war borders
  • First discussions about splitting up Germany into zones of occupation
  • First discussions of the future United Nations between Stalin & FDR
  • *Many issues left for final decisions at later conferences
the european campaign june 6 1944 d day invasion
The European CampaignJune 6, 1944: D-Day Invasion
  • Outcome:
    • 800,000 Allies landed at Normandy Beach
    • Opened a 2nd front in Europe
    • Led to liberation of France, Belgium, Luxembourg, & much of Netherlands from Nazi occupation
the european campaign dec 1944 battle of the bulge
The European CampaignDec. 1944: Battle of the Bulge
  • Outcome:
    • German’s final attack in Ardennes Forest
    • Patton marched his army 100 miles in 2 days & attacked w/ 3 division to save the line
    • Resulted in heavy losses for Hitler
the european campaign32
The European Campaign
  • Feb. 1945:
    • Yalta Conference
yalta conference when
Yalta ConferenceWhen?
  • February 4-11, 1945
yalta conference members present
Yalta ConferenceMembers Present?
  • Franklin Roosevelt (USA)
  • Winston Churchill (Britain)
  • Joseph Stalin (USSR)
yalta conference purpose of meeting
Yalta ConferencePurpose of Meeting?
  • Make final decisions about the end of the war
yalta conference what was decided
Yalta ConferenceWhat was decided?
  • Divide Germany into 4 zones controlled by Allied military forces
  • Germany must pay the USSR
  • Stalin agreed to join war against Japan 90 days after end of war in Europe
  • Stalin promised free elections in Eastern Europe
the european campaign april 1945 leaders fall
The European CampaignApril 1945: Leaders Fall
  • Italy:
    • Mussolini captured & killed by Italians
  • USA:
    • April 12: President Roosevelt dies & Vice-President Harry Truman becomes President
  • Germany:
    • April 30: Hitler & other top Nazis commit suicide
the european campaign38
The European Campaign
  • May 8, 1945:
    • V-E Day (Victory in Europe)
    • Germany surrenders
  • July-Aug. 1945
    • Potsdam Conference
pacific campaign dec 7 1941 japan bombs pearl harbor
Pacific CampaignDec. 7, 1941: Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor
  • What Happened?
    • Japanese launched surprise attack sinking or damaging almost the entire U.S. Pacific fleet – used kamikazes (suicide pilots)
pacific campaign dec 7 1941 japan bombs pearl harbor41
Pacific CampaignDec. 7, 1941: Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor
  • Outcome of the Attack?
    • U.S. declares war on Japan
pacific campaign dec 1941 may 1942 battle of the philippines
Pacific CampaignDec. 1941-May 1942: Battle of the Philippines
  • What Happened?
    • Japan invaded Philippine Islands
    • Filipinos & U.S. under Gen. Douglas MacArthur defended the islands

General Douglas MacArthur

pacific campaign dec 1941 may 1942 battle of the philippines43
Pacific CampaignDec. 1941-May 1942: Battle of the Philippines
  • Outcome/Significance of the Battle?
    • Japan wins
    • Perseverance of U.S. & Filipino defense delayed Japanese attacks on other areas
pacific campaign fall of southeast asian colonies
Pacific CampaignFall of Southeast Asian Colonies
  • What Happened?
    • Through a planned series of attacks, Japan seized control of rich European colonies
    • Ex: French Indochina, British Hong Kong
  • Significance of the Attack?
    • Helped Japan replenish depleted resources
pacific campaign april 1942 doolittle s raid on japan
Pacific CampaignApril 1942: Doolittle’s Raid on Japan
  • What Happened?
    • As revenge for Pearl Harbor, U.S. sent 16 B-25 bombers to bomb Japanese cities, mainly Tokyo
pacific campaign april 1942 doolittle s raid on japan46
Pacific CampaignApril 1942: Doolittle’s Raid on Japan
  • Significance of the Attack?
    • Showed that Japan could be attacked
    • Raised American morale
pacific campaign may 1942 battle of the coral sea
Pacific CampaignMay 1942: Battle of the Coral Sea
  • What Happened?
    • Following interception of Japanese attack on Port Moresby, Japanese & American naval fleets fought to a draw (nobody won)
pacific campaign may 1942 battle of the coral sea48
Pacific CampaignMay 1942: Battle of the Coral Sea
  • Significance of the Battle?
    • Introduced a new kind of naval warfare using only airplanes
    • Stopped Japan’s expansion southward
pacific campaign june 1942 battle of midway
Pacific CampaignJune 1942: Battle of Midway
  • What Happened?
    • American carrier planes defeated Japanese fleet poised to attack Midway Island, a key American airfield
pacific campaign june 1942 battle of midway50
Pacific CampaignJune 1942: Battle of Midway
  • Significance of the Battle?
    • Reversed the tide of the war in the Pacific
pacific campaign aug 1942 feb 1943 battle of guadalcanal
Pacific CampaignAug. 1942-Feb. 1943: Battle of Guadalcanal
  • What Happened?
    • U.S. Marines, with Australian support, seized Japanese airfield & fought on land & sea for control of island
pacific campaign aug 1942 feb 1943 battle of guadalcanal52
Pacific CampaignAug. 1942-Feb. 1943: Battle of Guadalcanal
  • Significance of the Battle?
    • Forced Japan to abandon island
    • Began MacArthur’s island-hopping counterattack
      • Take one island at a time, use it for a base
pacific campaign feb march 1945 battle of iwo jima
Pacific CampaignFeb.-March 1945: Battle of Iwo Jima

 U.S. Marines raise the Stars and Stripes after their victory at Iwo Jima

pacific campaign march june 1945 battle of okinawa
Pacific CampaignMarch-June 1945: Battle of Okinawa
  • Resulted in heavy losses for Japanese
  • Moved Allies closer to an invasion of Japanese homeland
pacific campaign aug 1945 bombings of hiroshima nagasaki
Pacific CampaignAug. 1945: Bombings of Hiroshima & Nagasaki
  • Aug. 6: Truman decides to drop bomb on Hiroshima (attempt to save lives)
pacific campaign aug 1945 bombings of hiroshima nagasaki57
Pacific CampaignAug. 1945: Bombings of Hiroshima & Nagasaki
  • Aug. 9: Second bomb dropped on Nagasaki
  • Aug. 10: VJ-Day (Victory in Japan) – Japan surrenders!!
the holocaust who
The HolocaustWho…?
  • …were the victims of the Holocaust?
    • Non-Aryan peoples, primarily Jews, but also Gypsies, Slavs, etc.
the holocaust who60
The HolocaustWho…?
  • …were members of the “master race”?
    • Aryans

The signs read:

“Germans! Defend Yourselves! Do not buy from Jews!”

the holocaust what
The HolocaustWhat…?
  • …were the Nuremberg Laws?
    • German laws depriving Jews of rights to citizenship & jobs
the holocaust what62
The HolocaustWhat…?
  • …happened on the night of November 9, 1938?
    • On Kristallnacht, the Nazis launched a violent attack on Jewish communities all over Germany
the holocaust what63
The HolocaustWhat…?
  • …was Hitler’s “Final Solution”?
    • Systematic killing of entire groups of people, particularly Jews, whom the Nazis saw as inferior
the holocaust where
The HolocaustWhere…?
  • …did German Jews try to migrate to find safety from Nazi terror?
    • France, Britain, USA, & other countries
the holocaust where65
The HolocaustWhere…?
  • …were Jews forced to live in German-controlled cities?
    • In ghettos – segregated Jewish areas
the holocaust where66
The HolocaustWhere…?
  • …were the concentration camps?
    • Mainly in Germany & Poland
the holocaust why
The HolocaustWhy…?
  • …did Hitler believe that Jews & other “subhumans” had to be exterminated?
    • To protect the purity of the Aryan race
the holocaust why68
The HolocaustWhy…?
  • …did the Germans build extermination camps?
    • To carry out mass murders in huge gas chambers
the holocaust when
The HolocaustWhen…?
  • …did the final stage of the Final Solution begin?
    • Early 1942
the holocaust how
The HolocaustHow…?
  • …did non-Jewish people try to save Jews from the horrors of Nazism?
    • By hiding Jews in their homes or helping them escape to neutral countries

 Anne Frank

the holocaust how71
The HolocaustHow…?
  • …many Jews died in the Holocaust?
    • Approximately 6,000,000
nuremberg trials
Nuremberg Trials
  • Nazis put on trial for crimes against humanity (events of Holocaust)
  • Goal was to punish Nazi officials using a democratic system
japanese internment camps in the united states
Japanese Internment Camps in the United States
  • Japanese-Americans placed in camps
  • Why? – feared they were enemies or spies after bombing at Pearl Harbor
potsdam conference when
Potsdam ConferenceWhen?
  • July 17-August 2, 1945
potsdam conference members present
Potsdam ConferenceMembers Present?

THE BIG THREE

  • Harry Truman (USA)
  • Joseph Stalin (USSR)
  • Winston Churchill & later Clement Attlee (Britain)
potsdam conference purpose of meeting
Potsdam ConferencePurpose of Meeting?
  • Clarify agreements from Yalta
potsdam conference what was decided
Potsdam ConferenceWhat was decided?
  • Potsdam Declaration
    • Unconditional surrender of Japan
    • Japanese disarmament, establishment of democratic government
    • Postwar European borders (especially Poland)
formation of the united nations the beginning
Formation of the United NationsThe Beginning
  • Stalin & FDR secretly discussed ideas for U.N. at Tehran Conference
  • 1944: Britain, China, USSR, & met in D.C. & drafted the 1st charter
formation of the united nations first meeting
Formation of the United NationsFirst Meeting
  • April 1945 in San Francisco
  • Delegates from 50 nations worked for 2 months to develop the official charter
formation of the united nations details purpose
Formation of the United NationsDetails & Purpose
  • Purpose: peacekeeping organization designed to protect its members against aggression
  • Permanent Members of Security Council:
    • USA, Britain, USSR, France, China
marshall plan for europe who
Marshall Plan for EuropeWho…?
  • …proposed the plan?
    • U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall
marshall plan for europe when
Marshall Plan for EuropeWhen…?
  • …did he propose the plan?
    • 1947
marshall plan for europe what
Marshall Plan for EuropeWhat…?
  • …did he propose the U.S. needed to do?
    • Give aid to needy European countries
    • Provide food, machinery, & other materials to rebuild Western Europe & stop Soviet expansion

Truman signs Marshall Plan 

macarthur s plan for japan demilitarization
MacArthur’s Plan for JapanDemilitarization
  • Disbanded Japanese armed forces
  • Left Japanese with small police force
macarthur s plan for japan democratization
MacArthur’s Plan for JapanDemocratization
  • Created a gov’t elected by the people
  • Set up a constitutional monarchy b/c Japanese wanted to keep emperor
macarthur s plan for japan other reforms
MacArthur’s Plan for JapanOther Reforms
  • Land ownership was expanded
  • Independent labor unions had the right to form
  • Increase participation of workers & farmers in new democracy