Fighting for the Four Freedoms World War II • What to expect during this unit • To learn about the events leading up to World War II • To learn about World War II • To learn about the results of the war • DBQ Practice • Plenty of group work • Maybe a surprise quiz or two • Unit Test
My Idiosyncrasies and Teaching Method You will see the following a lot -- TTYN: Talk To Your Neighbor or in other words, an opportunity to incorporate cooperative learning Do Now’s: Every class period begins with some type of “Do Now” If I have given homework (usually reading), I will assess what was learned. If the class period revolves around an activity, the Do Now will set up what we are about to learn. Love Video’s!!! But, I generally will not show more than a few minutes at a clip. Too much to cover and learn!!! I try to hit the Big Stuff and the Cool Stuff!!!! Common Core: I believe all of lessons and activities align with the Common Core. Quizzes and Tests: You are on your own. I generally structure my exams after NYS Regents. In other words, a little bit of everything, which includes a major writing element. Unit exams generally take two days. The second day will feature the writing element. Quizzes – Always involves some type of literacy activity such as mini DBQ’s, short-answer response, thesis statements, etc….
K-W-L World War II - TTYN World War II What I Want to Learn about WWII What I Learned about WWII What I Know about WWII
World War II The Road to War 1930’s, U.S. preoccupied with the economic crisis • FDR departs from traditional American foreign policy. • 1933, hoping to stimulate American trade, FDR exchanges ambassadors with the Soviet Union • The Good Neighbor Policy, which repudiated the right to intervene militarily in the internal affairs of Latin America. i.e. repeal of the Platt Amendment • Japan becomes a Super Power. Japan is a Super Power! • 1931, Japan invades Manchuria • Pan-Asianism • 1937, Japan moves further into China, which included Nanjing – resulting in the massacre of 300K Chinese (The Nanjing Massacre or the Rape of Nanjing) Warning
World War II The Road to War • After consolidating his rule in Germany, Adolf Hitler embarks on a campaign to dominate the entire continent. • 1936, In violation of the Versailles Treaty, Hitler rearms Germany • Sends troops into the Rhineland (area between Germany and France) • France, Great Britain, and the United States do nothing TTYN If you are Adolf Hitler and you managed to rearm your nation and send troops into the Rhineland what might you be thinking? • Italian leader, Mussolini invades and conquers Ethiopia • Spain leader, Francisco Franco proves victorious during the Spanish Civil War and establishes another Fascist government • Hitler annexes Austria and the Sudetenland and parts of Czechoslovakia – later Hitler takes the entire country. • FDR’s Quarantine Speech • The Policy of Appeasement
World War II The Road to War The Players
World War II The Road to War Small Group Activity: DBQ • Each Group shall interpret and summarize each of the following two documents. Document 1 “The High Contracting Parties solemnly declare in the names of their respective peoples that they condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it, as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another.” -The Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
World War II The Road to War Small Group Activity: DBQ • Each Group shall interpret and summarize each of the following two documents. Document 2 “It is my determination to pursue a policy of peace. It is my determination to adopt every practicable measure to avoid involvement in war. It ought to be inconceivable that in this modern era, and in the face of experience, any nation could be so foolish and ruthless as to run the risk of plunging the whole world into war by invading and violating in contravention of solemn treaties, the territory of other nations that have done them no real harm and which are too weak to protect themselves adequately. Yet the peace of the world and the welfare and security of every nation, including our own, is today being threatened by that very thing.” -FDR (Oct 5, 1937)
World War II The Road to War • 1935 marked the beginning of the “Era of Neutrality” • Series of Neutrality Acts that banned travel on belligerents ships and the sale of arms to countries at war • Despite the fact that the Spanish Civil War pitted a democratic government against an aspiring fascist dictator, Western democracies, including the U.S., imposed an arms embargo to both sides. • War in Europe • Desperate to avoid war, and anxious to avoid an alliance with Stalin and the Soviet Union, Neville Chamberlain (GB) and Daladier (France) agreed that Germany could have the Sudetenland. In return, Hitler promised not to make any further territorial demands in Europe – The Appeasement Policy.
World War II The Road to War • Nonaggression Pact signed between Stalin and Hitler • Sept. 1, 1939, Hitler immediately invades Poland…then Scandinavia, Belgium, and the Netherlands. • By June, 1940, Germany occupies Paris • Sept., 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan create a military alliance known as the Axis • Small Group Activity: Understanding FDR • Working in small groups, each group will summarize FDR’s impression of the Munich Agreement and the Policy of Appeasement • Americans did not want to become involved in another world war. And they called on President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and their representatives in Congress to remain neutral in world affairs.
World War II The Road to War • Growing tensions in Europe and Asia created a serious conflict for Americans during the 1930s. Most Americans opposed the Fascist or military leaders gaining control in Germany, Italy, Japan, and other countries. But they were not willing to take any firm action to stop this growing movement. In 1937, Roosevelt made an important speech calling for the world's neutral nations to protect themselves from lawless Fascist nations. But many Americans feared that Roosevelt was trying to create a new alliance. And they opposed his efforts. A public opinion survey at the time showed that less than one in three Americans was willing to change the nation's strong neutrality laws to give Roosevelt more freedom of action.
World War II The Road to War “There can be no peace if national policy adopts as a deliberate instrument the threat of war. There can be no peace if national policy adopts as a deliberate instrument the dispersion all over the world of millions of helpless and persecuted wanderers with no place to lay their heads. There can be no peace if humble men and women are not free to think their own thoughts, to express their own feelings, and to worship God. There can be no peace if economic resources that ought to be devoted to social and economic reconstruction are to be diverted to an intensified competition in armaments.“ –FDR (Oct. 26, 1938) • Small Group Activity: Understanding FDR • Working in small groups, each group will summarize FDR’s impression of the Munich Agreement and the Policy of Appeasement
World War II The Road to War • Great Britain stands Alone • 1940-1941, The Battle of Britain • Churchill calls for the “new world, with all its power and might” to step forward to rescue the old. • Americans remained desperate to remain out of the conflict • 1940, Congress authorizes the sale of arms to Great Britain on a “cash and carry” basis.
World War II The Road to War TTYN Europe just called. Allegedly there is lunatic with a “Charlie Chapin” mustache running wild throughout Europe and they need your help if they are to survive. What should the United States do? TTYN Your neighbor’s house is on fire. The nearest fire station is twenty miles away and you own the only hose on the street. Do you loan your neighbor your hose (and yes, you like your neighbor)? • Great Britain is nearly bankrupt, it could no longer pay for supplies • At Roosevelt’s urging, Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act. • U.S. sends arms to G.B., China, and the Soviet Union • FDR froze Japanese assets in the U.S., including the sale of oil to Japan
C.S.I. “A Date That Will Live In Infamy” ***Primary Resources located at end of presentation
CASE FILE December 7, 1941, the Japanese shocked the world by bombing the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and launched the United States into WWII “A Date That Will Live in Infamy” CLASSIFIED
Activity Directions • Work Cooperatively • Read each document thoroughly • Use your Think Marks • Complete handout - “Detective Log” • Complete handout - “Questions to Consider” • Individually, complete a one-page summary • Have Fun!!!
Document A Treaty of Kanagawa
Document B Executive Order: 8832 Franklin D. Roosevelt Date: July 26, 1941
Document C The “Konoe Message”
Document D September 6th, 1941 6th Imperial Conference of Empire of Japan Topic: Imperial Policy Execution Outline
Document E Verbal Directive of the Chief of the Naval General Staff 2 December 1941 Verbal Directive to: Yamamoto, Commander-in-Chief, Combined Fleet (in Tokyo at the time)
Document F December 6, 1941 From: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United State To: Emperor Hirohito of Japan
Cracking the Case Based on your analysis of the documents and citing evidence to support your answer, please write a one-page summary, which answers the following questions: Was every step taken by both the United States and Japan to avoid war? Were Japan’s justified? Did the United States back Japan into a corner?
World War II The War “Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan” -FDR
World War II The War • Until November 1941, attention focused on Europe, but near the end of the month, intercepted Japanese messages revealed that an assault in the Pacific was imminent. No one, however, knew when or where. • A Complete and Devastating Surprise! • On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes, launched off aircraft carriers, bombed the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. • Over 2,000 Dead • 18 naval vessels and 187 aircraft either destroyed or damaged • No aircraft carriers docked at the time – this would prove to be a decisive factor throughout the war in the Pacific In response, the United States declared war on Japan. Following Germany's declaration of war on the United States, the United States also declared war on Germany.
World War II The War
World War II The War
World War II The War “A Date Which Will Live in Infamy”
World War II The War “A date which will live in infamy”
World War II The War Economic Warfare: How the United States Economic Policy Led to War • Sept. 1941, after Japan’s invasion of French Indochina, the U.S. placed an embargo on Japan by prohibiting exports of steel, iron, and aviation fuel • April 1941, Japan signs a neutrality treaty with the Soviet Union. • April 1941, two days after the treaty, U.S., G.B., and the Netherlerlands freeze Japans assets, which would limit Japan’s ability to purchase oil.
World War II The War Economic Warfare: How the United States Economic Policy Led to War • In October 1931, the Japanese military was asked to devise a war plan. They proposed to sweep into Burma, Malaya, the East Indies, and the Philippines, in addition to establishing a defensive perimeter in the central and southwest Pacific. • Japan expected the U.S. to declare war but not to be willing to fight long or hard enough to win. • Japan’s greatest concern was that the U.S. Pacific Fleet, based in Pearl Harbor could foil their plans. • December 7, 1941 as insurance, the Japanese navy undertook to cripple the Pacific Fleet by a surprise air attack.
World War II The War A Date That Will Live In Infamy “Yesterday, December 7, 1941 -- a date which will live in infamy -- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. The United States was at peace with that Nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its Government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American Island of Oahu, the Japanese Ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. And while this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or of armed attack. It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese Government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace…...” ”...I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.”
World War II The War TTYN During this exercise you assume the role as a member of Congress Background… For a long time, both the Senate and the House of Representatives were divided over the war issue. There was much resistance to involvement in Europe, because the destruction of World War I still lingered in your minds. Until now, the United States had only been helping Great Britain and France indirectly. After learning of the attack on Pearl Harbor, you are sitting in a special joint session of Congress listening to President Roosevelt. Later in the day, you will vote on a Declaration of War with Japan. Until now, you were against any involvement in war. You know that because of the Axis alliance, declaring war on Japan means war with Germany and Italy. Working with your neighbor, answer the following questions - 1. Does President Roosevelt's speech change your mind about involvement in the war? 2. What is your primary concern at this point? 3. You voted against the Japanese economic embargoes in the 1930s. Has your opinion of Japan changed? 4. As an isolationist before December 7, how has this event changed your world outlook? 5. How will your home district be affected by a declaration of war? 6. Will you take any measures to protect your constituents from discrimination? (Remember this is 1941.)
World War II The War
World War II The War U.S.S. Yorktown June 6, 1942
World War II The War
World War II The War • After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan achieved a long series of military successes in the Pacific. • Guam and Wake Island fell to the Japanese, as did the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore, and Burma. • The turning point in the Pacific War came with the American naval victory in the Battle of Midway in June 1942. “Battle of Midway” The four day battle in the Pacific (June 4-7, 1942), known as the Battle of Midway, changed the course of the war in the Pacific. The Japanese lost the four large carriers that had attacked Pearl Harbor, while the Americans only lost one carrier. More importantly, the Japanese lost over one hundred trained pilots, who could not be replaced. The balance of sea power in the Pacific shifted from the Japan to an equity between America and Japan. Soon after the Battle of Midway the U.S. and their allies would take the offensive in the Pacific.
Do Now: TTYN What steps led to American intervention in WWII? World War II “In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way—everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear—which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor—anywhere in the world.” FDR’s State of the Union Speech, Jan., 1941
The War World War II • TTYN • Describe how previous conflicts such as the Mexican War and WWI had divided American society • In contrast, WWII came to be remembered as the Good War, a time of national unity in pursuit of indisputably noble goals. In time of war, mobilization of patriotic opinion is critical. The motto or catchphrase that the American society was sold freedom. • For FDR, the four freedoms expressed deeply help American values. • Freedom from fear meant not only a longing for peace but a more general desire fore security. • Freedom of speech and worship moved the First Amendment to the center of American’ definition of liberty • For many, freedom of want was associated with an economic goal, which protected the futture by guaranteeing the Depression would not resume after the war.
The War World War II • Small Group Activity • “Operation Overlord”
World War II The War The War In Europe The major involvement of American troops in Europe did not commence until June 6, 1944. Prior to that, American troops more American troops were deployed in the Pacific. After gaining the upper hand in Africa and the Atlantic, American troops shifted their attention towards the conflict in Europe, and they did it in a big way! “Operation Overlord” D-Day - June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 62-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which “we will accept nothing less than full victory.” More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day’s end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy. The D-Day cost was high -more than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded -- but more than 100,000 Soldiers began the march across Europe to Berlin. More than a million troops followed them ashore over the next few weeks.
World War II The War D-Day
World War II The War D-Day
World War II The War D Day