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AP World Review. Six Themes. The impact of interaction among major societies, such as, trade, international exchange, war, and diplomacy. The relationship of change and continuity across the periods of World History.

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six themes
Six Themes
  • The impact of interaction among major societies, such as, trade, international exchange, war, and diplomacy.
  • The relationship of change and continuity across the periods of World History.
  • Impact of technology and demography on people and the environment, including population change, manufacturing, agriculture, etc.
  • Systems of organization and gender structure.
  • Cultural and intellectual development and interactions among societies.
  • Change over time in function and structures of political states.
building blocks of civilization
Building Blocks of Civilization
  • What is a civilization?
    • Economic system
    • Political organization
    • Moral code (religion)
    • Written language and intellectual tradition.
early man
Early Man
  • Beginnings of Humans
    • Hominids: 3 to 4 million years on earth.
    • Hominids are primates.
    • Earliest hominids called Australopithecine.
    • Bipeds
  • Other types of Early man include Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, and Homo Sapien
stone age
Stone Age
  • Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age).
    • Tools were used.
    • Simple huts.
    • Fire.
    • Hunter/gatherer societies.
    • Family or clan groupings.
    • Art and music also practiced.
stone age con t
Stone Age (Con’t)
  • Agricultural Revolution: Neolithic Revolution
    • Occurred around the end of the Great Ice Age.
    • Rapid population growth.
    • Need for a change in food supply.
    • New skills needed.
  • Pastoralism and agriculture
    • begins with domestication of plants and animals.
results of the agricultural revolution
Results of the Agricultural Revolution
  • Many diversified crops developed.
  • Development of communities and villages.
    • Not based on family ties.
    • Lead to the formation of cities.
  • Early religions form around harvest and planting seasons.
  • Specialization of Labor.
    • Improved tools.
    • Development of social classes.
river valley civilizations
River Valley Civilizations
  • Mesopotamia.
    • Tigris and Euphrates River valleys.
    • Fertile Crescent.
    • Written Language: Cuneiform.
    • Epic of Gilgamesh.
    • Hammurabi’s Code.
river civilizations
River Civilizations
  • Egypt
    • Nile River valley: Upper and Lower Egypt
    • Inundation: regular flooding schedule
    • Monarchy: Pharaoh & small class of priests.
    • Duality: Complex religion and mummification.
    • Many great inventions and advances.
river civilizations10
River Civilizations
  • Indus Valley
    • Indus and Ganges Rivers
    • Reason for decline unknown.
    • Highly unified and organized government.
    • Artistic.
river civilizations11
River Civilizations
  • Yellow River valley.
    • Shang – China’s first dynasty.
    • Monarchy
    • Bronze work, silk making, pottery, jade.
    • Zhou Dynasty: Many advances
      • Mandate of Heaven.
middle east civilizations
Middle East Civilizations
  • Persians
    • Created one of the largest empires in world history: From Turkey to Libya.
    • Cyrus the Great-first king, Darius the Great
    • Advanced postal system, roads, single currency, and decentralized government.
    • Zoroastrianism: Primary religion.
    • Fell to Alexander the Great.
middle east civilizations13
Middle East Civilizations
  • Phoenicians
    • Syria and Lebanon.
    • Advanced export economy.
    • Skilled traders.
    • Established Cathage.
    • First alphabet.
ancient greece
Ancient Greece
  • Aegean, Minoan, Mycenaean Civilizations.
    • Trading societies.
    • Conquest (Trojan War)
    • Joined into a single culture called Hellenes or Greeks.
ancient greece15
Ancient Greece
  • Athens and Sparta
    • Athens: educated, great thinkers
    • Sparta: warrior society, military strength, self reliance.
  • Beginnings of Democracy
    • Began in Athens
    • Pericles
    • Not fully enfranchised.
    • Most representative government in ancient world.
ancient greece16
Ancient Greece
  • Peloponnesian War
    • Conflict between Athens and Sparta.
    • Left Greek city-states weak.
    • Open to conquest by the Persians and then Macedonians (Alexander the Great).
  • Alexander the Great
    • Great conqueror, took over Asia, Persian Empire, territory to borders of India.
    • Spread Greek culture throughout Eurasia.
ancient greece17
Ancient Greece
  • Hellenic Culture
    • Science was important, geometry, physics, mathematics, and astronomy.
    • Poetry (Homer), Drama (Sophocles/Euripides), Philosophy (Socrates, Plato)
ancient rome
Ancient Rome
  • Roman Republic
    • Tensions between Plebeians (lower class) and Patricians (upper class).
    • Beginning of Roman expansion.
    • Punic Wars
        • Three campaigns against Carthage.
        • Rome was victorious.
    • Began expanding to the East (Greece, Balkans).
ancient rome19
Ancient Rome
  • Collapse of Roman Republic
    • Too much expansion.
    • Social problems and civil wars.
    • Unification of leadership under one person.
  • Roman Empire
    • Julius Caesar, Octavian (Caesar Augustus)
han dynasty
Han Dynasty
  • Strongest Chinese dynasty.
  • Expansionist Empire
    • Postal system.
    • Roads.
    • Defensive fortifications (Great Wall).
  • Weak leadership caused collapse
    • Corruption and leadership issues.
india
India
  • Aryans
    • Nomadic group invaded India.
    • Earliest Europeans.
    • Conquered the Dravidians (Dark skinned Indians).
    • Established warrior aristocracy.
    • Established Sanskrit.
    • Vedic and early Hindu faith.
india22
India
  • Caste System
      • Priests (Brahmins)
      • Warriors and political rulers (Kshatruyas).
      • Commoners.
      • Servants and Peasants.
      • The “Untouchables.”
    • Born into caste. Cannot be changed.
india23
India
  • Mauryan Empire
    • Ashoka – 1st emperor.
    • Converted to Buddhism.
    • Collapsed from outside attacks.
  • Gupta Empire
    • Religious tolerance.
    • Muslim invaders.
religions
Religions
  • Judaism
    • Hebrews
    • Monotheistic
      • Main deity - Yahweh
    • Covenant
  • Islam
    • Founded by Muhammad
    • Five Pillars of Faith.
    • Allah
religions25
Religions
  • Christianity
    • Messiah: Jesus
    • Evangelical.
  • Hinduism
    • Bramin, Multiple gods, Darma, Karma.
    • Multiple Reincarnations.
religions26
Religions
  • Buddhism
    • Four Noble Truths
    • Eightfold Path
  • Daosim (Taoism)
    • The Way
    • Harmony with nature.
caliphates
Caliphates
  • Split in Islamic believers after the death of Muhammad.
    • Sunni and Shiite
    • “Caliph” – Leader of the Islamic faith.
  • Umayyad Caliphate
  • Abbasid Caliphate
    • Golden Age of Islamic Culture
amerindian civilizations
Amerindian Civilizations
  • Olmec
    • Mother civilization for Central America.
  • Maya
    • Teotihuacan
    • Located in Mexico and Central America.
    • Religion included human sacrifice.
    • Ended by constant state of war.
amerindian civilizations29
Amerindian Civilizations
  • Inca
    • Located along the Andes Mountains of Peru.
    • Specially adapted to high mountain altitudes.
    • Domesticated llamas.
  • Aztec
    • Tribute System.
forms of government
Forms of Government
  • Oligarchy
    • Rule by a small group of elite families.
  • Monarch
    • Leadership by one person passed through family.
    • Absolute and Constitutional Monarchy.
  • Republic
    • Citizens all participate in government.
  • Democracy
    • All citizens play the same role in government
  • Theocracy
    • Ruled by church or priests (No separation)
middle ages
Middle Ages
  • Collapse of Roman Empire led to fragmented leadership in Europe and the rise of the Byzantine Empire
    • Emperor Justinian.
    • Constantinople.
  • Feudalism
    • Manor System
      • Self-sufficient.
      • Serfdom
middle ages32
Middle Ages
  • Great Schism
    • Catholic Church gains much power.
    • Split between “Western” Church and Byzantine Church.
  • Monasticism
    • Monastery orders dedicated to the service of God.
    • Vows of Chastity and Poverty.
european relationships
European Relationships
  • One Hundred Years’ War
    • England and France
      • Caused political entanglements.
      • France’s attempt to regain English territory.
      • Trade competition.
  • Holy Roman Empire
  • Spain and Portugal
    • Muslim invasion
    • Reconquesta
crusades
Crusades
  • Causes
    • Religious fervor.
    • European desire for trade.
    • Personal Ambitions.
  • First Crusade
    • Byzantine empire asked for help against Muslim Turks.
    • Christians capture Jerusalem.
crusades35
Crusades
  • More crusades - none successful.
  • Effects of the Crusades
    • More awareness of the world as a whole.
    • Increased tensions between Muslims and Christians.
    • Increased trade.
black death
Black Death
  • Bubonic Plague
    • Traveled from Asia over Silk Road.
    • Carried by fleas on rats.
    • Killed 1/3 of European Population.
    • Caused society to modernize and gave more rights to the poor.
renaissance
Renaissance
  • Printing Press
    • Johannes Gutenberg
  • Classicism
    • Greater understanding and appreciation of Greek and Roman culture.
  • Important people
    • Da Vinci
    • Michelangelo
    • Titan
protestant reformation
Protestant Reformation
  • Failed attempts at Catholic Church reforms.
  • Martin Luther
    • Protested indulgences.
    • Formed Lutheran Church.
  • John Calvin
    • Predestination.
protestant reformation39
Protestant Reformation
  • Anglican Church (Church of England)
    • Formed for political reasons against Pope’s authority.
  • Catholic Counter Reformation
    • Council of Trent
    • Inquisition.
islamic world
Islamic World
  • Berber States
    • Nomads
    • First to convert to Islam Mali.
  • Mansa Musa – Mali
    • Very Rich
    • Muslim that traveled throughout Africa and Middle East.
islamic world41
Islamic World
  • Songhai
    • Askia Mohammed.
  • Islamic Achievements
    • Arabic Numerals
    • Algebra/Trig
  • Delhi Sultanate
    • Introduced Islam to India.
mongol expansion
Mongol Expansion
  • Khanates
    • Genghis
    • Khubilai
      • Conquest of China “Yuan Dynasty”
  • Mongol Advances
    • Stirrups
    • Advanced horse warfare
    • Inclusion of conquered peoples
  • Golden Horde and Il”Khan
    • Conflict over religion.
ottoman safavid and mughal empires
Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires
  • Ottoman Empire
    • Major leader – Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
    • Took over Constantinople
    • Long decline 1450-1920’s
  • Safavid Empire
    • Persia
    • Shiite Muslims
ottoman safavid and mughal empires44
Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires
  • Mughal Empire
    • India
    • Hindu majority ruled by Muslim minority.
  • All three “Gunpowder Empires”
absolutism
Absolutism
  • Absolute monarchies
    • Nation states emerge from feudal societies.
    • Common languages develop.
    • National identity.
    • Strong, unlimited power of monarch.
  • Rulers
    • Louis XIV, Habsburg rulers, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, Ivan the Terrible, etc.
constitutionalism
Constitutionalism
  • Monarchy with limited power.
    • Parliamentary governments.
      • Formed Great Britain
      • English Civil War
        • Oliver Cromwell – Military dictator of England.
    • Restoration
      • William and Mary
scientific revolution
Scientific Revolution
  • Scientific Revolution
    • Accelerated pace of scientific discovery.
    • Modern thinking on scientific reason and logic.
  • Great thinkers of Scientific Revolution
    • Sir Isaac Newton
    • Galileo
enlightenment
Enlightenment
  • Enlightenment
    • Emphasis on scientific method.
    • Faith in the power of human reason.
    • Criticism of the Church to some extent.
  • Great Thinkers of the Enlightenment
    • Voltaire
    • Rousseau
    • Locke
ming qing china
Ming/Qing China
  • Reaction to Mongol Dynasty
    • Used Mongol foundations to build empire.
    • Naval forces
      • Voyages of Zheng He
    • Very artistic (Ming ware)
  • Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
    • Established by Manchu peoples.
    • Full scale European trade begins in China.
    • Last dynasty of China.
japanese shogunate
Japanese Shogunate
  • Japanese feudalism
    • Shogun
    • Daimyo
    • Samurai
    • Bushido
  • Comparison of Japanese and European Feudalism = Japanese feudal system more centralized.
japanese shogunate51
Japanese Shogunate
  • Shogunates
    • Kamakura and Ashikaga came first.
    • Most famous is Tokugawa Shogunate.
      • Founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu.
      • Dictatorship, highly centralized government.
      • Confucian ideas.
      • Closed ports to trade which caused economic collapse.
exploration and colonization
Exploration and Colonization
  • Economic motivation for exploration
    • Trade routes to India.
  • New Technologies
    • Caravel
    • Astrolabe
    • Compass
    • Rudder
exploration and colonization53
Exploration and Colonization
  • Explorers
    • Henry the Navigator
    • Columbus
    • Magellan
  • Treaty of Tordesillias
    • World divided by the Pope for exploration
exploration and colonization54
Exploration and Colonization
  • Spanish and Portuguese colonization
    • Conquistadors
      • Cortez-Aztec
      • Pizzaro-Inca
  • North American Colonization
    • French, English, Dutch, Spanish split North America.
    • Tried to find “Northwest Passage.”
slavery and the slave trade
Slavery and the Slave Trade
  • Slavery existed before but Atlantic Slave Trade was new.
  • Factors for the expansion of Slave Trade.
    • Labor intensive crops (sugar, tobacco, cotton).
    • Slaves better suited to climate of New World.
    • Ending of Encomienda system.
  • First controlled by Portuguese
slavery and the slave trade56
Slavery and the Slave Trade
  • Middle Passage
    • Trade route from Africa to New World that carried slaves.
    • Small ships, many casualties from voyage.
  • Triangular Trade
    • Major route of World Ocean Trade
    • Middle Passage was second leg.
colonization of the new world
Colonization of the New World
  • New Spain
    • Viceroyalties
    • Three types of conquest
      • Microbial (diseases)
      • Economic
      • Cultural
  • Mining and sugar production
colonization of the new world58
Colonization of the New World
  • Social Stratification
    • Peninsulares. Creoles, Mestizos.
  • Portuguese in Brazil
    • Major sugar cane plantations.
    • Boom/Bust economy.
columbian exchange
Columbian Exchange
  • Exchange of Plants, Animals, Foods, and Diseases between the New World and the Old World.
    • Horses, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs from Old World.
      • Provided food and labor.
    • Squash, beans, sweet potatoes, peppers, peanuts, tomatoes.
    • Increased areas to grow cotton, sugar cane, tobacco and cacao.
  • Part of Massive Colonization Movement.
french revolution
French Revolution
  • Causes of the French Revolution.
    • Wide spread social and economic gap.
    • Unfair taxes.
    • Growing middle class.
    • Influence of Enlightenment ideas.
    • Poor leadership and massive financial debt.
french revolution61
French Revolution
  • Three estates.
    • Third Estate forms National Assembly from the Estates-General.
    • Sans-Culottes – Radical peasants in Paris.
  • Phases of the Revolution.
    • Moderate Period 1789-1791 – limited power of church and land reforms.
    • Radical Period 1792-1794 – Executions, Jacobins.
    • Conservative Period 1795-1799 – Directory and rise of Napoleon.
capitalism
Capitalism
  • Adam Smith (New economic theory).
    • Free Trade.
    • Laissez faire (Let it alone).
    • Invisible Hand.
    • Supply and Demand.
industrialization
Industrialization
  • Pre-conditions for Industrialization
    • Inventions – spinning jenny, water frame
    • Increased reliance on coal.
  • Industrial Revolution
    • Textile Industry.
    • Stream and Electricity.
    • Effects on social classes.
      • Middle class benefits.
      • Poor working conditions.
socialism marxism and communism
Socialism, Marxism, and Communism
  • Socialism
    • Economic competition is inherently unfair.
    • Popular in France.
  • Marxism
    • More radical form of socialism.
    • Proletariat, Bourgeoisie, Class struggle.
  • Communism
    • Same as Marxism.
imperialism
Imperialism
  • Causes
    • Economic factors.
      • Need for raw materials.
    • Military factors.
      • New weapons.
      • Coal sources.
imperialism66
Imperialism
  • Social factors.
    • Population growth.
    • Making fortunes.
  • Cultural factors.
    • Conquer “inferior’ people aka “White Man’s Burden.”
    • Social Darwinism.
imperialist s world
Imperialist’s World
  • Great Britain
    • India
    • China/SE Asia
  • America
    • Hawaii
    • Pacific Ocean
    • Caribbean
imperialist s world68
Imperialist’s World
  • Scramble for Africa
    • Africa divided up between imperial powers.
    • Berlin Conference
  • Japan resists imperial take over by West.
decline of qing china
Decline of Qing China
  • Opium War
    • Opium used to end trade deficit between China and GB.
    • First Opium War
      • Treaty of Nanking – 5 Chinese ports opened. GB gets Hong Kong as colony.
  • Taiping Rebellion
    • Civil War in China
    • Thousands die.
decline of qing china70
Decline of Qing China
  • Dowager Empress Cixi
    • Conservative, oppressive, leader of Qing China.
    • Controlled nephew on the throne. When he tried to reform China, she had him removed.
  • Boxer Rebellion
    • Rebellion against foreigners in China
    • Not successful.
meiji restoration
Meiji Restoration
  • Japanese Modernization.
    • New constitution based on US.
    • Parliament formed (Diet).
    • Mostly an oligarchy.
  • Zaibatsu.
    • State sponsored businesses.
    • Industry and private enterprise.
    • Poor working conditions for the lower class.
  • Increased urbanization.
  • Beginnings of Japanese expansionism.
japanese expansionism
Japanese Expansionism
  • Sino-Japanese War
    • Japan wants part of China trade.
    • Takes over Korea and trading port.
    • Used US Open Door Policy to justify actions.
  • Russo-Japanese War
    • Caused by competition over Manchuria.
    • Surprise attack by Japanese on Russian positions.
    • Japan wins.
  • Begins to warn world of imperial leanings.
revolutions in the americas
Revolutions in the Americas
  • American Revolution
    • Ending colonial ties to Great Britain.
      • Forms republic.
      • Constitution.
  • Haitian Revolution
    • Slave revolt (only successful one in history).
      • Toussaint L’Overture
  • Latin American Independence
    • Creole Rebellion.
    • Simon Bolivar, Pedro Hidalgo, Morelos.
latin american rebuilding
Latin American Rebuilding
  • Troubles in governing.
    • Constitutions.
    • Many dictatorships.
  • Economic Issues.
    • Boom/Bust economies.
  • Social and Racial Divisions.
  • Limited Modernizations & Industrialization.
  • Mexico
    • French intervention, Maximillian, Napoleon III
    • Benito Juarez
world war one
World War One
  • Causes
    • Competition between Empires
    • Secret alliances
    • Tensions in the Balkans
    • Assassination of the Archduke.
  • Central Powers
world war one76
World War One
  • Warfare
    • Trench warfare on Western Front
    • Naval warfare and submarines
  • Treaty of Versailles: Wilson’s 14 Points
    • Great Britain & France wanted revenge.
      • War Guilt Clause
      • Loss of Territory
      • Disarmament
      • Reparations
russian revolution and communism
Russian Revolution and Communism
  • Russian Revolution
    • 1917 Lenin and Bolsheviks overthrow the Czar.
    • After Lenin’s death, Stalin gains control
  • Economic Reforms
    • Year Plans
      • Five Year Plans – Heavy industry
      • Collectivization
  • Political Oppression
    • Little political freedoms
    • Siberian Labor Camps
rise of fascism
Rise of Fascism
  • German Fascism
    • Began as a lack of confidence in Weimar Republic
    • Against Communist Party which was also strong.
    • Anti-Semitic
  • Italian Fascism
    • Appealed to WWI veterans
    • Extreme nationalism/racial prejudice
    • Led by Mussolini
      • March on Rome leads to control of country.
      • Eventually allies with the Germans
nazism
Nazism
  • Led by Adolph Hitler
    • Charismatic leader
    • Wrote “Mein Kampf”
    • Last Chancellor of Weimar Republic
    • Head of German Reichstag
    • Passed Enabling Act, suspended Constitution. He ruled by decree.
  • Outlawed all opposition
  • Limited personal freedoms
  • Began persecuting Jews and others.
world war two
World War Two
  • Axis and allies
    • Axis = Germany, Italy, and Japan
    • Allies = US, Great Britain, France, USSR
  • Appeasement Policy
    • After a number of aggressive moves, Allies continue to back down.
    • Japan continues expansion into China
  • New technology
    • Aircraft carriers/Bombers
    • Radar
    • Atomic weapons.
world war two81
World War Two
  • Blitzkrieg
    • lightning war used by Germans
  • Germans took over all but Great Britain
    • Battle of Britain
      • Blitz
  • Japanese aggression in Pacific
    • Pearl Harbor
world war two82
World War Two
  • Turning Point 1942
    • Losses by Axis
      • Midway
      • El Alamein
      • Stalingrad
  • D-Day Invasion – June 6, 1944
  • Atomic Bombs on Japan
holocaust and war crimes
Holocaust and War Crimes
  • Rape of Nanking
    • Japanese troops storm city, raping and killing civilians.
  • Comfort Women
    • Women forced to serve as prostitutes for Japanese soldiers.
holocaust and war crimes84
Holocaust and War Crimes
  • Holocaust
    • Systematic genocide of Jewish people and other ethnicities.
    • Final Solution
    • Concentration Camps
      • Extermination camps
      • Zyclon B
      • Cremation Chambers
  • Total dead: In excessive of 12 million people. 6 million were Jews.
chinese communism
Chinese Communism
  • After Qing Dynasty, China ruled by Nationalist Party.
    • Led by Sun Yat-Sen
    • After Sun Yat-Sen dies, Chang Kai-Shek takes over
  • Chinese Communist Party
    • Led by Mao Zedong
    • Lead revolution against nationalists.
    • Early defeats lead to Long March
    • Helped by Japanese Invasion
    • Eventually Communists succeed and Nationalists flee to Taiwan.
korean war
Korean War
  • First test of containment Policy
    • 1950-1953 South Korea vs North Korea
    • US supports South Korea
    • China and Russia support North Korea
    • MacArthur
      • Brilliant General but arrogant
      • Fired for not following orders
  • War ended at original line of division – 38th Parallel.
cold war
Cold War
  • Non-military aggression between Communist and Capitalist countries.
  • Spread of Soviet influence and control
    • Eastern Europe fall under Soviet control
    • Soviets violate promises made at Yalta Conference.
    • Berlin Blockage and division of Berlin.
cold war88
Cold War
  • US Containment Policy
    • Marshall Plan
    • Formation of NATO
  • Arms Race
    • Began after 1949 when Soviets demonstrated nuclear weapons.
    • Nuclear aggression and build up between US and USSR – “MAD” Mutually Assured Destruction.
cold war 1950 1960 s
Cold War 1950-1960’s
  • Nikita Khrushchev gains power in USSR
  • Space Race
    • Soviets launch Sputnik in 1957
      • US frightened because USSR had first space rocket
  • Cuban Revolution
    • Fidel Castro makes Cuba a communist country
    • Communist country 90 miles from US
cold war 1950 1960 s90
Cold War 1950-1960’s
  • U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR
  • JFK
    • Bay of Pigs Invasion: Attempt by US to overthrow Castro
    • Results in soviet nuclear weapons stationed in Cuba
      • Attempt to destroy missiles could start a nuclear war with USSR
      • Kennedy blockages Cuba and Soviets back down
cold war 1960 1970 s
Cold War 1960-1970’s
  • US lands on the Moon
    • Wins space Race
  • Split between Chinese Communists and Soviet Communists
    • Mao disagrees with Soviet view of socialism.
    • Borders between the two become more hostile
cold war 1960 1970 s92
Cold War 1960-1970’s
  • Vietnam War
    • French Indo-China
      • Vietnam was a colony of France but France too weak to control it.
    • Ho Chi Minh
      • Leader of Communist Party in North Vietnam
    • US support French and enters the war to help south Vietnam
    • Domino Theory
    • French/US defeat
end of the cold war
End of the Cold War
  • D’etente – General relaxation of tensions between the super powers.
  • 1980’s
    • Soviets invade Afghanistan
      • Oil supply threatened
      • Damaged relations
    • Olympic Games boycotted
      • US in 1980 and USSR in 1984
end of the cold war94
End of the Cold War
  • USSR begins to collapse internally
    • Mikhail Gorbachev leads USSR in 1985
      • Attempts reforms “Perestroika” (restructuring)=economic reforms
      • Glasnost=“Openness” cultural liberation
  • Berlin Wall and Iron Curtain comes down in 1989
  • 1991 USSR collapses
patterns of decolonization
Patterns of Decolonization
  • Wars fought to gain independence
  • Education of native peoples led to easier decolonization
  • Ethnic and religious differences cause major issues for new countries
  • Exploitation of natural resources
  • Sides taken in Cold War
post war middle east
Post War Middle East
  • The regions’ importance as a supply of petroleum
  • Contradiction between a desire to modernize and Islamic traditions
  • Destabilizing effect of Arab/Israeli Conflict
establishment of israel
Establishment of Israel
  • Established as a state for displaced Jews from the Holocaust
  • Britain controlled region of Palestine
  • Gave region over to become the State of Israel
  • Displaced millions of Palestinian Arabs to neighboring nations.
major trends of the 20 th century
Major Trends of the 20th Century
  • Major population growth
  • Rise in consumer society
  • Social activism
    • 1960’s peace protests
  • Terrorism
    • Arab/Israeli conflicts
  • Changes in gender relations
  • Rise of mass media
    • TV, film, and radio as sources of info and entertainment
post cold war conflicts
Post Cold War Conflicts
  • Gulf War
    • Iraq invades Kuwait
      • US-led coalition frees Kuwait
  • Yugoslavian War
    • Serbian aggression against Albanian and Bosnian minorities in Losovo
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction
    • Limiting production and testing of nuclear weapons.
  • Proliferation of small arms
    • Guns, semi-automatic and automatic
ap world history
AP World History
  • Good Luck!
  • Don’t stress!