Cold War Around the World • After WWII nations were grouped politically into three “worlds.” 1. First World – United States & its allies. 2. Second World – Russia & its allies. 3. Third World – Consisted of developing nations, who were not aligned with either superpower. Many of these countries did not want to play a role in the Cold war, so they remained independent, or nonaligned nations.
CUBA • The U.S. supported Cuba’s unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista. • A revolution took place in January 1959, a lawyer named Fidel Castro led the revolution and he took over as dictator. • Castro had two major crisis that took place in his early reign. 1. Bay of Pigs – April 1961 2. Cuban Missile Crisis – Russia builds 42 missile sites in Cuba
Nicaragua • From 1933 to 1979 the country was led by the family of Anastasio Somoza. • Sandinista rebels led by Daniel Ortega overthrew the government and Ortega took over as its leader. • A civil war broke out in Nicaragua that lasted for a decade, in 1990 Ortega agreed to have free elections and he was defeated.
Iran • Leaders in Iran clashed between the traditional Islamic values and modern Western materialism. • The U.S. supported Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. • In 1978, riots erupted in Iran and a new leader took over, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini. • American hostages are taken by young revolutionaries and held for 444 days.
Afghanistan • In December 1979, Russia invades the country because they are worried that Muslims within the country will revolt. • Rebels called mujahideen, held off the Russians. • America had Vietnam, Russia had Afghanistan.