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World War Two/Cold War

World War Two/Cold War

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World War Two/Cold War

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  1. World War Two/Cold War The End of World War Two The Beginning of the Cold War

  2. Yalta Conference • February 1945. • Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin. • Meet at Yalta in the Soviet Union. • Purpose • Decide the fate of Europe. • How to divide Germany. • East and West • Who would control Germany. • France/Britain/U.S. West Germany • Soviet Union East Germany • Who would control Berlin. • Who would rebuild Europe. • Stalin agreed to oversee the creation of new governments in Eastern Europe.

  3. The Atomic Bomb • The Atomic Bomb • The first atomic bomb is exploded in New Mexico on July 16, 1945. • Aug. 6, 1945 the first bomb is dropped on Hiroshima – 73,000 die. • Aug 9, 1945 the second bomb is dropped on Nagasaki – 37,500 die. • The way war is fought is drastically changed forever.

  4. The Cost of War • 60 million people left dead. • 22 million Russians • 6 million Jews • 50 million are driven from their homes. • Damages run into the billions.

  5. Tragedy of War • 6 million innocent Jews, 5 million Gypsies, Slavs, handicapped, and others. • In Nanjing in 1937 the Japanese murdered 250,000 Chinese.

  6. Nuremberg War Trials • 22 Nazi leaders are tried for crimes against humanity. • The world realizes that what occurred during the Holocaust can never happen again. • 12 were sentenced to death.

  7. Creation of the United Nations • An international organization to protect the world against aggression. • An international organization to protect the people of the world.

  8. United Nations • The two main bodies of the United Nations are: • The General Assembly • Consist of representatives of all member countries. • All representatives have one vote. • The Security Council • 15 member nations • 5 are permanent nations (U.S., Russia, France, Great Britain, China)

  9. Germany In order to prevent Germany from starting another war, British, American, French and Russian troops were to occupy Germany. Germany would be split into East and West. Japan Japan was forced demilitarize or disband their military. Tojo was sentenced to death. The U.S. created a democratic government for Japan. The U.S. gave billions of dollars to re-build Japan. Occupation

  10. Divided Europe • Two major powers emerged from WWII • The democratic and capitalistic - U.S. • The Communist - Soviet Union. • The political and economic differences of both countries would lead to the Cold War. • This conflict between democracy and communism would spread around the globe resulting in; • An arms race • Race to explore space • Military conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, Africa, and the Middle East.

  11. The Beginning • The Atomic Bomb • In 1945 the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on Japan. • The atomic bomb ushered in the nuclear age. • Once the U.S. obtained the atomic bomb the Soviets also began to start building the bomb.

  12. The End of World War Two • The war ends • At the end of the war Germany is divided to stop them from starting future wars. • The Soviets control eastern Germany • The U.S. and their allies control western Germany • There is tension on both sides.

  13. Germany In order to prevent Germany from starting another war, British, American, French and Russian troops were to occupy Germany. Germany would be split into East and West. Japan Japan was forced demilitarize or disband their military. Tojo was sentenced to death. The U.S. created a democratic government for Japan. The U.S. gave billions of dollars to re-build Japan. Occupation

  14. Divided Europe • Two major powers emerged from WWII • The democratic and capitalistic - U.S. • The Communist - Soviet Union. • The political and economic differences of both countries would lead to the Cold War. • This conflict between democracy and communism would spread around the globe resulting in; • An arms race • Race to explore space • Military conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, Africa, and the Middle East.

  15. The Growth of Superpowers

  16. Superpowers • After World War Two the U.S. and the Soviet Union emerge as the two superpowers. • Superpower is used to describe the rivalry between both countries to dominate world politics. • Both countries had a mutual distrust of the other.

  17. The U.S. wanted to Promote worldwide democracy. Stop the rise of communism. Open free trade markets to obtain natural resources. Re-build Europe to open trade markets. Create a stable Europe and unite Germany to stop the spread of communism. The Soviets wanted to Promote worldwide communism. Control eastern Europe as buffer zone to protect the Soviet Union. Control eastern Europe as a way of countering U.S. influence in Europe. Keep Germany divided. U.S. v Soviets

  18. The U.S. and the Soviets • Both countries had a mutual distrust of each other. • The tension between both countries came from different political and economic thought • U.S.-Democracy and Capitalism • Soviets-Communism and Command economy • Called a “cold war” because an armed conflict between either superpower never occurred.

  19. The U.S. View • The United States developed a program called Containment. • This policy was first outlined under the Truman Doctrine. • It implied that the U.S. would use military alliances-NATO, economic aid-The Marshall Plan, and military involvement-Korean War/Vietnam War to stop the spread of Communism in the world

  20. The Soviet View • The Soviets feared that the western nations would try to destroy the Soviets and Communism. • Stalin distrusted everyone. • Stalin forced pro-governments on the countries surrounding Russia like Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and East Germany.

  21. Summary • In the 1930’s Germany, Italy and Japan attempt to build world empires. • During World War Two new weapons of mass destruction cause massive loss of life to both soldiers and civilian populations. • The brutality of war, killing innocent civilians which had never been seen in history. • The world was now divided between democracy (U.S.) and communism (Soviets)

  22. Early Cold War Tensions

  23. The Iron Curtain • After the war the Soviets were responsible for re-building Eastern Europe. • Stalin wanted a buffer zone in Europe. • Soon Stalin supported pro-communist governments in eastern Europe. • Europe became divided east=communist west=democracy • This became known as the Iron Curtain.

  24. The Iron Curtain Some of the eastern block Iron Curtain countries.

  25. Soviet Satellites • These pro-communist countries loyal to the Soviet Union became known as satellites.

  26. Containment • Containment is a policy of blocking the spread of Soviet influence and communism in the world • This is done by giving economic and military aid and making alliances to help countries resist the Soviets. • Containment first comes into play in Greece and Turkey in 1947.

  27. The Truman Doctrine • The U.S. pledges to resist Soviet expansion. • Communist were moving into Greece and Turkey. • Truman asks Congress for both military and economic aid to be sent to these countries resist communism. • This was a part of the containment policy.

  28. The Marshall Plan • In 1947 massive economic aid to help rebuild democratic countries in Europe. • Billions of $ were spent to help western European nations recover from WWII. • Aid was also offered to countries like Poland which were under Soviet control-Stalin forbid these countries from accepting the aid. • The Marshall Plan was also a policy of containment.

  29. The Berlin Airlift • 1st Cold War crisis. • 1948 • Stalin wanted to force the allies out of Berlin. • Soviets closed all land routes into Berlins ( No food) • The U.S. and allies showed it’s support for the Germany and democracy by flying in supplies to West Berlin for 11 months. • Finally the Soviets were forced to end the blockade.

  30. The Berlin Wall • The Berlin Airlift lead to a divided Germany. • Western Germany was supported by the U.S. and in 1949 became the Federal Republic of Germany. • In 1961 the East German government built the Berlin Wall to further divide Germany. • The wall will become the symbol of the Cold War. • East German military will shoot anyone trying to escape to the west.

  31. N.A.T.O. (1949) Western European countries formed a military alliance after the Berlin Airlift. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Pledged to support each other with military support if attacked. Warsaw Pact (1955) Made up of the Soviet Union and seven of it’s satellites. (Eastern European countries) Pledged to support each other with military support if attacked. N.A.T.O. v. Warsaw Pact

  32. The Soviets control the East

  33. Repression in Eastern Europe • Stalin and the Soviets tried to keep tight control over Eastern Europe. • 1950’s Tensions rose in • East Germany • Poland • Soviets use tanks to put down revolts.

  34. Repression in Eastern Europe • Stalin dies in 1953 However…. The new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev takes Control and continues the repressions with the eastern block countries

  35. Repressions in Eastern Europe • The Soviets kept tight control of Eastern Europe. • Some of the Soviet satellites wanted to break free of Soviet domination. • In East Germany and Poland revolts were put down with tanks. • The Soviets would use force to control the east.

  36. The Hungarian Revolt • Imre Nagy a Hungarian nationalist lead a revolt in 1956. • Nagy wanted to end one party communist rule. • Hungary withdrew from the Warsaw pact. • The Soviets sent in troops, thousands died and the Soviets kept control of Hungary.

  37. The Invasion of Czechoslovakia • In the spring of 1968 Alexander Dubcek called for liberal reforms and lessening of communist control in Czechoslovakia. • The Czechs wanted to end censorship and create a new democratic constitution. • The Soviets sent in troops, took over the government and restored a communist dictatorship.

  38. Berlin Wall • Soviets built a wall surrounding the communist zone in the city of Berlin in an effort to prevent East Berliners from escaping to the west. • Symbol of the Cold War.

  39. Soviet Domination • It was clear that the Soviets had planned on using force and military threats to keep the Eastern Block countries in line and the communist system of government in tact in Eastern Europe.

  40. Tensions Heat Up

  41. Cold War Tensions • Tensions began to flare up between the communist Soviets and the democratic U.S. around the world. • The superpowers supported opposing sides with troops, economic aid, and advisors.

  42. Arms Race • During the Cold War both the U.S. and Soviets raced to build the biggest and most destructive weapons. • This was known as Nuclear Proliferation. • Each country spent billions of dollars on development of nuclear weapons otherwise known as weapons of mass destruction. • At the height of the Cold War both countries possessed enough nuclear weapons to destroy the earth 14 times over.

  43. MAD • The reason for the build-up was for both First Strikes and Mutual Assured Destruction of each country. • If the Soviets planned to attack the U.S. with nuclear weapons then the U.S. would respond with the same. • Something needed to be done to stop the build up!!!

  44. The Space Race • In 1957 the Soviets launched Sputnik-the 1st satellite to orbit the earth. • The U.S. in an effort to catch up created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) • 1958 the U.S. launches a satellite • 1961 the Soviets put a man into space • 1969 the U.S. puts a man on the moon.

  45. The Space Race • The Space Race also created an educational race between both countries. • The U.S. felt they had fallen behind the Soviet in education. • Both science and math were promoted in public schools and colleges. • The Space Race also caused a drain in economic resources for both countries.

  46. Hot Wars during the Cold War

  47. Korea • After WWII Korea was divided into North and South. • The U.S. controlled the democratic south. • The Soviets controlled the communist north. • In 1949 both the Soviets and the U.S. left Korea. • In 1950 North Korea wanted to unify Korea under a communist government. • North Korea invaded South Korea.

  48. Korea • The United Nations supported largely with U.S. troops fought back the North Koreans. • The U.S. pushes the North Koreans back into China. • China becomes involved in the war and sends troops.

  49. Korea • By 1953 the war becomes a stalemate with both countries in the same location as before the war started. • 38th Parallel which splits Korea in two is the dividing line between communist North and democratic South . • Korea remains divided today and troops from both sides still occupy the 38th Parallel.

  50. Vietnam • Vietnam had been a colony of the French since about 1800. • During WWII Vietnam (The Vietminh-a communist nationalist group headed by Ho Chi Minh) fought on the side of the French to drive out the Japanese. • At the end of WWII the French hoped to regain Vietnam. Instead Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam free. • The Vietminh defeated the French and drove them out in 1954.