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FQ: How did the Cold War affect nations around the world?

FQ: How did the Cold War affect nations around the world?. Do Now- Review Vocabulary Words Define the following words (Don’t look at your notes) Cold War Containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan. The Cold War in China. Communists vs. Nationalists. World War II in China

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FQ: How did the Cold War affect nations around the world?

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  1. FQ: How did the Cold War affect nations around the world? Do Now- Review Vocabulary Words Define the following words (Don’t look at your notes) Cold War Containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan

  2. The Cold War in China

  3. Communists vs. Nationalists • World War II in China • Mao Zedong—leads Chinese Communists against Japanese invaders • Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek)—leads of Chinese Nationalists in World War II • Nationalist and Communist Chinese resume civil war after WWII ends

  4. Communists vs. Nationalists Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek) Mao Zedong

  5. The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War • The Superpowers React • U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan, called Republic of China • Soviets and China agree to help each other in event of attack • U.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion and spread of communism in China

  6. The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War • China Expands under the Communists • China takes control of Tibet and southern Mongolia • India welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeing revolt against Chinese • China and India clash over border; fighting stops but tensions remain

  7. The Communists Transform China • Communists Claim a New “Mandate of Heaven” • Chinese Communists organize national government and Communist Party • Mao’s Brand of Marxist Socialism • Mao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasants • Government seizes private companies and plans production increase

  8. The Communists Transform China • The Great Leap Forward • Communes—large collective farms often supporting over 25,000 people • Program is ended after inefficiency leads to crop failures and famines

  9. The Communists Transform China • The Cultural Revolution • Cultural Revolution—movement to build society of peasants and workers • Red Guards—groups of violent and radical youth—close schools and execute or imprison many intellectuals • In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes, or exiles most Red Guards who have been labeled by the government “Counter Revolutionary.” • However, the Cultural Revolution continues until Mao’s death in 1976.

  10. The Cold War in Korea

  11. Korea- Peninsular- surrounded by 3 sides of water Japan- archipelago- chain/group/cluster of islands

  12. War in Korea • A Divided Land • 38th parallel—line dividing Korea into North Korea and South Korea

  13. War in Korea • Standoff at the 38th Parallel • In 1950, North Koreans invade South Korea with Soviet support • South Korea requests UN assistance; 15 nations send troops • Douglas MacArthur—leads UN forces against North Koreans • North Koreans controls most of the peninsula when MacArthur attacks • Half of North Korea’s army surrenders, the rest retreat

  14. War in Korea • The Fighting Continues • UN troops push North Koreans almost to Chinese border • Chinese send 300,000 troops against UN forces and capture Seoul • MacArthur calls for nuclear attack and is removed from command • In 1953, cease fire signed and border established at 38th parallel

  15. War in Korea • Aftermath of the War • North Korea builds collective farms, heavy industry, nuclear weapons • South Korea establishes democracy, growing economy with U.S. aid

  16. The Cold War in Vietnam

  17. War Breaks Out in Vietnam • The Road to War • Ho Chi Minh—Vietnamese nationalist, later Communist leader • The Fighting Begins • In 1954, French surrender to Vietnamese after major defeat • Domino theory—U.S. theory of Communist expansion in Southeast Asia. If one country falls to communism then the rest will fall as well. Ho Chi Minh

  18. The War in Vietnam, 1957-1973 Note the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and Cambodia

  19. War Breaks Out in Vietnam • Vietnam—A Divided Country • International peace conference agrees on a divided Vietnam • Ngo Dinh Diem—leads anti-Communist government in South Vietnam • Vietcong—South Vietnamese Communist guerillas fighting against Diem Ngo Dinh Diem

  20. The United States Gets Involved • U.S. Troops Enter the Fight • In 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet Cong and North Vietnamese • U.S. fights guerilla war defending increasingly unpopular government • Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh, China, and Soviet Union

  21. The United States Gets Involved • The United States Withdraws • War grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969, Nixon starts withdrawing troops • Vietnamization—Nixon’s plan to withdraw U.S. from war gradually • Last U.S. troops leave in 1973; South Vietnam overrun in 1975

  22. The Vietnam War Ends • Vietnam after the War • Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; Vietnam united as Communist nation • About 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, some settling in the U.S. and Canada • In 1995, United States normalizes relations with Vietnam

  23. Cambodia • Cambodia in Turmoil • Khmer Rouge—Communist rebels who take control of Cambodia in 1975 • They slaughter 2 million people; overthrown by Vietnamese invaders • In 1993, Cambodia adopts democracy, holds elections with UN help Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge (Cambodian Communist Party, literally “Red Khmers”) in 1977 at the height of his power

  24. Postwar Southeast Asia • The Killing Fields were a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979, immediately after the end of the Vietnam War.

  25. Postwar Southeast Asia • At least 200,000 people were executed by the Khmer Rouge (while estimates of the total number of deaths resulting from Khmer Rouge policies, including disease and starvation, range from 1.4 to 2.2 million out of a population of around 7 million). A commemorative stupa filled with the skulls of the victims.

  26. Choung Ek Killing Field: The bones of young children who were killed by Khmer Rouge soldiers.

  27. Mass grave in Choeung Ek.

  28. The Cold War in Latin America and the Middle East

  29. Fighting for the Third World • More Than One “World” • Third World—developing nations; often newly independent, nonaligned • Cold War Strategies • U.S., Soviet Union, and China compete for influence over the Third World • They back revolutions and give economic , military and technical aid

  30. Fighting for the Third World • Association of Nonaligned Nations • Many countries, like India, want to avoid involvement in the Cold War • In 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and African leaders who want neutrality • Nonaligned nations—independent countries not involved in the Cold War

  31. Confrontations in Latin America • Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution • Fidel Castro—leads revolt in Cuba against dictator supported by the U.S. • By 1959, Castro in power, nationalizes economy, takes U.S. property • In 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs

  32. Fidel Castro

  33. Confrontations in Latin America • Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis • In 1962, U.S. demands removal of Soviet missiles in Cuba • Soviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises not to invade Cuba • Cuban economy is left dependent on Soviet support

  34. Confrontations in Latin America • Civil War in Nicaragua • Anastasio Somoza Debayle—Nicaraguan dictator supported by the U.S. • Daniel Ortega—leads Sandinista rebels who take power in Nicaragua • U.S. and Soviet Union both initially support Sandinistas • Sandinistas aid Communist rebels in El Salvador • U.S. helps anti-Communist Contras in Nicaragua to assist El Salvador • In 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections, Sandinistas lose

  35. Anastasio Somoza Debayle (U.S. supported president of Nicaragua from 1967-1980) Daniel Ortega on Time magazine, March 31, 1986

  36. Confrontations in the Middle East • Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran • Shah Reza Pahlavi embraces Western governments and oil companies • Iranian nationalists overthrow shah, seize British oil company • U.S. restores shah to power, fearing Soviet encroachment Shah Reza Pahlavi

  37. Confrontations in the Middle East • The United States Supports Secular Rule • Shah Reza Pahlavi westernizes Iran with U.S. support • Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini—Iranian Muslim leader; lives in exile • In 1978, Khomeini sparks riots in Iran, Shah flees

  38. Confrontations in the Middle East • Khomeini’s Anti-U.S. Policies • Islamic revolutionaries hold American hostages in Tehran (1979-1981) for 444 days • Muslim radicals take control in Iran, increasing tensions with Iraq • Saddam Hussein, fearing the spread of the Iranian Revolution into Iraq, attacks Iran. • Iran and Iraq fight an 8-year war; U.S. aids both sides, Soviets help Iraq

  39. Blindfolded American hostages in Iran in 1979.

  40. Confrontations in the Middle East • The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan • Soviets invade Afghanistan to help Communist government against rebels • Muslim rebels fight guerilla war against Soviets with U.S. weapons • U.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet Union • Soviets eventually withdraw in 1989

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