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The Civil Rights Movement. Segregation. De jure segregation – imposed by law 1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson – separate but equal ok De facto segregation – by unwritten custom or tradition Jim Crow laws – south segregated everything and prohibited voting. CORE.

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Segregation
Segregation

  • De jure segregation – imposed by law

  • 1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson – separate but equal ok

  • De facto segregation – by unwritten custom or tradition

  • Jim Crow laws – south segregated everything and prohibited voting


The civil rights movement
CORE

  • Congress of Racial Equality – 1940s founded by James Farmer

  • Apply non violent methods to gain civil rights

  • 1947 – Jackie Robinson – joined the Brooklyn Dodgers – 1st Af.Amer to play professional baseball


Brown v board of education
Brown v. Board of Education

  • 1954 – Topeka, Kansas

  • Thurgood Marshall and a team of lawyers from the NAACP

  • Based on precedent of other cases - college

  • Separate NOT equal- violated Constitution

  • New Chief Justice Earl Warren – All nine Supremes unanimous

  • Had to desegregate – with all deliberate speed.

  • Some faster than others


Little rock arkansas
Little Rock, Arkansas

  • Plan to gradually desegregate schools

  • Central High School

  • Nine African Amer. volunteered to be first

  • Elizabeth Eckford

  • Gov Orval Faubus blocked the way

  • President called out federal troops – they stayed all year to guard the students on school grounds

  • Ernest Green – 1st to graduate


Civil rights act of 1957
Civil Rights Act of 1957

  • Commission to investigate violation of civil rights

  • Lacked teeth


Montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott

  • December 1, 1955 – Rosa Parks

  • Montgomery, Alabama

  • Arrested for refusing to give up her seat

  • Some civil rights activists organized a bus boycott – one day

  • NAACP organized legal battle


Martin luther king jr
Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • Non violent protest

  • Based on writings of Thoreau and actions of Gandhi.

  • Baptist minister

  • Urged Montgomery Improvement Assoc to continue bus boycott

  • It continued for over a year.

  • 1956 – Supreme ct ruled segregated bussed unconstitutional


The civil rights movement
SCLC

  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference

  • King and Ralph Abernathy

  • Nonviolent resistance to fight injustice


Sit ins
Sit Ins

  • Feb 1, 1960 – students ordered coffee and doughnuts at a Woolworth’s counter in Greensboro, NC – refused service

  • 4 students staged a sit in – stayed until closing time

  • Kept coming back every day with more people until served


The civil rights movement
SNCC

  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

  • 175 students from 30 states

  • Create a grass roots movement that involved all classes of Af. Amer.


Freedom riders
Freedom Riders

  • Interstate transportation - segregated

  • Supreme Ct had already ruled illegal

  • 1961 – CORE staged a “freedom ride” from Wash. DC to New Orleans – 2 buses

  • Violated segregation laws

  • Alabama, one bus firebombed – the other attacked by a mob in Birmingham


Kennedy
Kennedy

  • Had helped get MLK freed from jail – helped him win narrow election over Nixon

  • Had Mississippi police protect the riders – but would not protect the activists who started it


Meredith and evers
Meredith and Evers

  • James Meredith – Air Force vet who wanted to enroll at Univ of Mississippi (all white)

  • 1962 won Sup. Ct case which ordered desegregation – Medgar Evers instrumental in this effort

  • Kennedy – “Americans are free to disagree with the law, but not to disobey it”

  • Meredith graduated Ole Miss in 1963 and then went to Columbia Law School

  • Medger Evers was assassinated on his front doorstep in June 1963


Mlk in birmingham
MLK in Birmingham

  • SCLC began a campaign in Birmingham – the most segregated city in the south

  • Began nonviolently – City got a court order to prohibit march

  • Good Friday – April 12 1963, MLK defies order and marches anyway

  • Arrested

  • Letter from Birmingham Jail

  • Kids joined marches

  • Eugene “Bull” Connor would not tolerate demonstrations and set the dogs and fire hoses on protestors


March on washington
March on Washington

  • Aug 28, 1963

  • NAACP, SCLC, SNCC

  • More than 200,000

  • One of the largest political demonstrations in US history.

  • I Have A Dream speech


Civil rights act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964

  • Three weeks after march – bomb exploded in the Sixteenth St Baptist Church in Birmingham.

  • 4 young girls killed

  • Two months later JFK assassinated in Dallas, TX

  • Lyndon B. Johnson –

  • Banned segregation in public areas and gave the fed govt. the ability to demand the desegregation of schools.

  • EEOC – Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

  • Senate tried to block by filibuster- went on for 80 days


Freedom summer
Freedom Summer

  • 1964 – SNCC staged volunteer education projects in Mississippi

  • Three civil rights workers disappeared – later found out they had been murdered

  • Fannie Lou Hamer – Mississippi Democratic Freedom Party MDFP


March on selma
March on Selma

  • 1965 – MLK and the SCLC organized a march in Selma, Alabama

  • March 7 – Bloody Sunday- State troopers attacked marchers as they walked across the bridge.

  • TV coverage outraged the nation.


New legislation
New Legislation

  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 – banned literacy tests

  • 24th Amendment – banned poll tax


Malcolm x
Malcolm X

  • Radical activist – by any means necessary

  • Malcolm Little – Omaha, Nebraska

  • Converted to Nation of Islam – religious sect founded by Elijah Muhammad

  • Rules of strict behavior, no drugs or alcohol, separation of races.

  • Malcolm X – Nations most popular minister

  • Made pilgrimage to Mecca – changed his outlook

  • Feb 1965 – assassinated – 3 members of Nation of Islam convicted of his murder


Black power
Black Power

  • Stokely Carmichael – SNCC leader

  • Began to question role of integration

  • Black Power movement


Black panthers
Black Panthers

  • Huey Newton and Bobby Seal founded the Black Panthers

  • Organized armed patrols to protect people from police abuse

  • Created antipoverty programs

  • Afros

  • Black rather than negro or colored


The civil rights movement
MLK

  • Disagreed with calls for “black power” – still nonviolent

  • Campaign to protest poverty in cities

  • Traveled to Memphis, TN

  • April 4 – assassinated by James Earl Ray on the balcony of his motel.