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Ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt. Vocabulary Cataracts Delta Pharaoh Dynasty Nobles Afterlife. Mummies Elite Pyramids Engineering Trade routes Hieroglyphics Papyrus. Ancient Egypt. Sphinxes Obelisks Trade network. Merchants Exports Imports. Ancient Egypt. Nile

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Ancient Egypt

Vocabulary

  • Cataracts
  • Delta
  • Pharaoh
  • Dynasty
  • Nobles
  • Afterlife
  • Mummies
  • Elite
  • Pyramids
  • Engineering
  • Trade routes
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Papyrus
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Ancient Egypt
  • Sphinxes
  • Obelisks
  • Trade network
  • Merchants
  • Exports
  • Imports
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Ancient Egypt

Nile

  • Starts as the Blue Nile, originating in Ethiopia; and the White Nile, originating in Sudan/Uganda
  • Flows South to North into the Mediterranean Sea
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Ancient Egypt

Nile

  • Divided in two main parts
    • Upper Nile (most of the it) and the lower Nile
      • Lower Nile is the delta of the Nile
  • Annual flooding called the “Miracle of the Nile” brings water and fertile soil (silt)
    • Those silt fields brought great wealth to the civilization
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Ancient Egypt

Nile

  • Four Kingdoms
    • Lower Egypt
    • Upper Egypt
    • Nubia
    • Kush
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Nile Delta

Lower Egypt

Upper Egypt

Nubia

Kush

Nile Delta

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Ancient Egypt

History

  • Menes, the first king who joined the Upper and Lower kingdoms; capital at Memphis (not TN)
    • became the first Egyptian dynasty around 3100 B.C.
  • Menes is considered the first pharaoh
    • part god, part human
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Ancient Egypt

The Old Kingdom (2700-2100 B.C.)

  • Pharaohs
    • ruled with absolute power
    • Vizier – was the “steward of the whole land”
      • Under the vizier where the governors of the 42 provinces
    • One famous vizier was Imhotep
      • Built the first pyramid
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Ancient Egypt

Social Structure

  • Three Classes (below pharaoh)
    • Nobles – government officials and priests
    • Scribes/craftsman
    • Farmers, servants, and slaves
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Ancient Egypt

Influences

  • Sumerian designs
  • Nubian poetry
  • Trade with other areas brought in even more influences
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Ancient Egypt

Religion

  • Polytheistic
    • Two groups
    • Sun gods
      • The sun, to the Egyptians, was the source of life
        • In human form, he was Atum
        • Or as Ra, with a falcon head
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Ancient Egypt

Religion (continued)

  • Land gods
    • Osiris, King of the Afterlife
    • Isus, Osiris’ wife and sister
    • Seth, Osiris’ brother
    • Horus, Osiris and Isus’ son
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Ancient Egypt

Religion

  • Mummies
    • To preserve the bodies of the dead, priests mummified (embalmed) the bodies
    • mostly for wealthy families who could afford it
    • removed certain organs and buried them in jars with the body
    • process took about 70 days
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Ancient Egypt

Religion– Pyramids

  • Massive tombs for the pharaohs
    • Large one for the pharaoh
    • Smaller ones for the family
    • even smaller for pharaoh’s officials
  • Tombs included chairs, boats, chests, weapons games, food, etc.
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Ancient Egypt

Religion (continued)

  • Afterlife (life after death)
    • Believed in ka, a person’s life force (spirit), and that it left the body after death, but could not leave the burial site
    • At burial, everything a person might need for the afterlife was placed in the tomb (including food)
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Ancient Egypt

Old Kingdom – Pyramids

  • The Great Pyramid
    • built for King Khufu at Giza, Egypt
    • 481 feet tall, 756 feet along each side
  • Great Sphinx
    • Supposedly the face is a likeness to the son of Khufu, Khafre
    • And supposedly it is the guardian of the sacred site
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Ancient Egypt
  • Middle Kingdom
    • Egypt conquered Nubia, the area south of Egypt, in present day Sudan
    • Public works were widespread
    • Provided for the public welfare
    • Canal dug from Nile to the Red Sea
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Ancient Egypt

Middle Kingdom

  • Invasion of the Hyksos
    • Had horses and chariots
    • won against the Egyptian army
    • Ahmose of Thebes learned and used the Hyksos’ technology to defeat them and brought forth the New Kingdom
egypt
Egypt

New Kingdom

  • Egypt conquered Kush, forced them to pay annual payments
  • Conquered some of western Fertile Cresent
    • Assyrian, Babylonia, and the Hittites sent gifts to keep the Egyptians happy
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Ancient Egypt

Leaders of the New Kingdom

  • Hatshepsut - first woman pharaoh
  • Thutmose III – expanded the kingdom to parts of the Fertile Crescent
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Ancient Egypt
  • Amenotep IV or Akhenaton – introduced a god named Aton.
    • wanted Egyptians to worship only Aton (Monotheism-worship of only one god)
  • Tutankhamen – restored old pantheon, boy King Tut
  • Ramses II – Expanded the previously lost borders back into Palestine
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Ancient Egypt

New Kingdom

  • A still unknown “Sea Peoples” (Greeks?) invaded SW Asia
  • Egypt defeated them, but lost their empire and never again was powerful
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Ancient Egypt

Work and Daily Life

  • Scribes
    • Accountants, record keepers, and writers
  • Artisans, Artists, and Architects
    • Highly regarded because their skills and because they designed the pyramids and temples
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Ancient Egypt

Work and Daily Life

  • Soldiers
    • Were paid in land and could keep some treasures of war
  • Farmers/Peasants
    • Had to pay taxes in grain and could be forced to go to war or work on building projects
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Ancient Egypt

Work and Daily Life

  • Family Life
    • Men married early; started work at 14
    • Women stayed at home; had legal rights
    • Children were educated in writing, math, morals, and sports
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Ancient Egypt

Achievements/Advancements

  • Writing (Hieroglyphics)
    • Over 600 symbols that had sounds
  • Papyrus, paper made from reeds
    • Kept preserved by the dry climate
    • Can read many texts from ancient Egypt
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Ancient Egypt
  • Rosetta Stone
    • Napoleonic French soldier in 1799 found a key to reading the hieroglyphics
    • Had Greek, later Egyptian writing, and hieroglyphic translations
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Ancient Egypt
  • Architecture
    • Pyramids and temples
    • Sphinxes – images/sculptures of human/animal heads on a lions body
    • Obelisks – tall, four-sided pillar with pointed top
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Ancient Kush
  • Nubia
    • Today it is a desert
    • Ancient Nubia was fertile from flooding like in Egypt and had easily accessible gold, copper, and stone
    • Ancient Nubia relied on grains and livestock
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Ancient Kush
  • From Nubia to Kush
    • One rich farmer took over several villages along the Nile, made himself king, and renamed Nubia Kush
    • They traded with Egypt and lived in peace of a time
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Ancient Kush
  • Egypt-ruled Kush
    • Thutmose I took over Kush
    • The people assimilated into Egyptian culture
    • Lasted 450 yearsuntil the end of the New Kingdom
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Ancient Kush
  • Kush-ruled Egypt
    • Kushite kings Kashta and Piankhi took over all of Egypt
    • Piankhi’s brother Shabaka proclaimed himself pharaoh and renewed old Egyptian customs building new temples and pyramids
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Ancient Kush
  • Late Kush
    • Assyrians gained power and conquered Egypt kicking out Kushites
  • Iron
    • Kush started to produce iron and opened a trade network with Greece, Egypt, and perhaps even China
    • They would export iron and import foreign goods
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Ancient Kush
  • Decline
    • Kushites allowed cows to overgraze and cut down all of their trees which allowed the desert to encroach
    • Could no longer trade and Ethiopia conquered them and eventually converted them to Christianity
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