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Ancient Egypt. Geography. Regions in Egypt: Nubia Upper Egypt Lower Egypt The Nile valley kemet The desert deshret. Environment. 965 km between Aswan and Cairo Average annual rainfall 10 millimeters Inundation. Upper Egypt. Nile at Aswan. 1 st cataract . Lower Egypt.

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

Regions in Egypt:

  • Nubia
  • Upper Egypt
  • Lower Egypt
  • The Nile valley kemet
  • The desert deshret
slide4

Environment

  • 965 km between Aswan and Cairo
  • Average annual rainfall 10 millimeters
  • Inundation
slide5

Upper Egypt

Nile at Aswan

1st cataract

slide6

Lower Egypt

Nile delta

Nile bank

slide7

Resources

  • Agriculture
  • Domesticated animals
  • Stones and metals
slide8

Egyptian civilization lasted essentially unchanged for 3000 years.

The Egyptians are the most successful human culturein history.

slide9

Chronology

  • Early Dynastic Period (c. 3100-2686 BC)
  • Old Kingdom (c. 2686-2160 BC)
  • 1st Intermediate period (c. 2160-2055 BC)
  • Middle Kingdom (c. 2055-1650 BC)
  • 2nd Intermediate period (c. 1650-1550 BC)
  • New Kingdom (c. 1550-1069 BC)
  • 3rd Intermediate period (c. 1069-664 BC)
  • Late Period (664-332 BC)
  • Ptolemaic period (332-30 BC)
slide10

The Palette of Narmer

Funerary Mask, Ptolemaic Period

slide11

Before the decipherment of the Rosetta Stone in 1822 by Jean Francois Champolion, we had only classical authors such as Herodotus (5th century BC) and Manetho (3rd century BC) from whom to reconstruct Egyptian history.

slide12

Written Records

Of Egyptian Life

Edwin Smith

surgical papyrus

Scribes writing

Chester Beatty Papyrus

Ebers Papyrus

slide13

Hieroglyphic Writing

  • Ideograms (signs standing for ideas or concepts)
  • Phonograms (signs standing for sounds)

In addition to traditional Hieroglyphic writing, two alternate scripts also evolved: Hieratic Demotic

slide14

Gods:

    • take many forms
    • have many names
    • can be combined
    • permeate all areas of human life

Gods are “conceptualizations of an abstract force” which is the divine.

Pharaoh with Hathor (left) and Osiris (right)

The image of a god represents the essential, not the actual.

slide15

Egyptians had great interest in

  • cosmology (rules that govern the universe as a whole) and
  • cosmogony (the creation of the universe)
  • Society consists of four parts:
    • gods
    • king
    • blessed dead
    • humanity

Ma’at = order

Personified as a goddess

slide16

Egyptian World View

  • a love of paired opposites,
  • dualities and groups
  • a love of symmetry
  • a desire to impose order
  • seeming inconsistency,
  • but insistence on
  • continuity

Ma’at

slide17

Tomb of Kha, 18th dynasty

Bread

Pomegranates

Jar of roasted duck

slide18

Linen robe from the tomb of Kha

Painting from tomb of Nebamun

slide19

More Scenes from Everyday Life

Winnowing grain

Herding cattle

Metalworkers

Veterinarians at work

slide20

Concluding Thoughts (for now):

    • Writing and art are sacred; so just about everything you can read or see means something.
    • Human life in Egypt is seen as part of a sacred whole.
    • Concepts of Ma’at (order) and Izfet (disorder) are central.
    • The potential for disaster is always present and
    • it’s typically humans who cause problems.
    • The sun represents the potential for order and continuity, and Osiris represents the
    • potential for rebirth.
    • Amun, the Sun, represents a culmination
    • in Egyptian theological development.