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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. UNIT 7 Chapter 23 – The French Revolution & Napoleon. CHAPTER 23 The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1815. The French Revolution establishes a new political order, Napoleon Bonaparte gains and loses an empire, and European states forge a balance of power .

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CHAPTER 23

The French Revolution and Napoleon,1789–1815

The French Revolution establishes a new political order, Napoleon Bonaparte gains and loses an empire, and European states forge a balance of power.

The French Revolution Begins

SECTION 1

SECTION 2

Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

Napoleon Forges an Empire

SECTION 3

Napoleon’s Empire Collapses

SECTION 4

The Congress of Vienna

SECTION 5

Napoleon Bonaparte crossing the Great Saint Bernard pass in 1801. Painting, Jacques Louis David.

objectives

CORE OBJECTIVE:Analyze the French Revolution, the rise and fall of Napoleon, and the Congress of Vienna.

    • Objective 7.1: Summarize the factors that led to the French Revolution
    • Objective 7.2: Explain the developments in French government that led to the Reign of Terror
    • Objective 7.3: Summarize how Napoleon restored order in France.
    • Objective 7.4: Summarize Napoleon’s defeat, comeback, and final downfall along with the impact of the Congress of Vienna.
OBJECTIVES
important leaders

George Washington; Federalist (1788)

John Adams; Federalist (1796)

Thomas Jefferson (1800)

James Madison (1808)

IMPORTANT LEADERS
the assembly reforms france
THE ASSEMBLY REFORMS FRANCE

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  • The Rights of Man
    • National Assembly adopts Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    • Revolutionary leaders use the slogan, “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
  • A State-Controlled Church
    • National Assembly seizes church lands, turns clergy into public officials
    • This action alarms many peasants, who are devout Catholics
  • Louis Tries to Escape
    • Louis, worried about his future, attempts to escape France
    • Revolutionaries catch the royal family near Netherlands’ border
divisions develop

A Limited Monarchy

    • In September 1791, Assembly finishes new constitution
    • Legislative Assembly — new body created to pass laws
  • Factions Split France
    • Major problems, including debt, food shortages remain
    • Assembly split into Radicals, Moderates, Conservatives
    • Émigrés — nobles who flee country, want Old Regime back in power
    • Sans-culottes — lower class who want more change from the Revolution
DIVISIONS DEVELOP

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war and execution

Problems with Other Countries

    • Austrians and Prussians want Louis in charge of France; France declares war
  • France at War
    • Prussian forces soon threaten to attack Paris
    • Parisian mob jails royal family, kills guards
    • Mob breaks into prisons, killing over 1,000, including many who support king
    • Pressured by mob, Legislative Assembly deposes the king and then dissolves
    • National Convention takes office in September, forming French republic
WAR AND EXECUTION

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the jacobin rule

Jacobins Take Control

    • Jacobins — radical political organization behind 1792 governmental changes
    • After a close vote, Louis XVI is found guilty of treason and beheaded
    • Guillotine — machine designed during the Revolution to behead people
  • The War Continues
    • French army wins great victory against Prussians and Austrians
    • In 1793 Britain, Spain, Holland join forces against France
    • National Convention orders draft of 300,000 to reinforce army
THE JACOBIN RULE

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terror grips france

Divided Country

    • Not all people in France support all changes of the Revolution
  • Robespierre Assumes Control
    • Maximilien Robespierre — Jacobin leader rules France for a year
    • Becomes leader of the Committee for Public Safety, a dictator
    • Reign of Terror — Robespierre’s rule, which includes killing many opponents
    • Thousands die during the Terror, including former allies and Marie Antoinette
    • 85 percent of those who die during the Terror are middle or lower class
TERROR GRIPS FRANCE

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the terror ends

Another Change in Government

    • In July 1794, Robespierre arrested, executed
    • Terror results in public opinion shifting away from radicals
    • Moderate leaders write new constitution
    • Two-house legislature and five-man Directory restore order
    • New government makes Napoleon Bonaparte commander of armies
THE TERROR ENDS

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origins of the french revolution assessment
Origins of the French Revolution—Assessment

Which of these leaders leads the Reign of Terror?

(A) Louis XVI

(B) Jean Paul Marat

(C) Maximillian Robespierre

(D) Jacobin

Which of these is Marie Antoinette known for?

(A) Extravagant and wasteful wife of Louis XVI

(B) Influential leader of the storming of the Bastille

(C) Financially smart wife of Louis XVI who led France after his death

(D) Visionary who led the Tennis Court Oath

origins of the french revolution assessment1
Origins of the French Revolution—Assessment

Which of these choices best describes the Bourgeoisie?

(A) Powerful clergy of the 1st Estate

(B) Wealthy nobles of the 2nd Estate

(C) Impoverished peasants of the 3rd Estate

(D) Wealthy middle class of the 3rd Estate

Which of these is Marie Antoinette known for?

(A) Extravagant and wasteful wife of Louis XVI

(B) Influential leader of the storming of the Bastille

(C) Financially smart wife of Louis XVI who led France after his death

(D) Gambling visionary who led the Tennis Court Oath

vocabulary assessment
Vocabulary Assessment

Which of these choices best describes a guerilla?

(A) Generals using animals on the battlefield

(B) Revolutionary fighting forces that are used to overthrow a leader

(C) Loosely organized fighting forces making surprise attacks

(D) Special forces a king must use to end revolutions

Which of these best describes an Emigre?

(A) King Louis XVI using force to end the Revolution

(B) Nobles fleeing France during peasant uprisings

(C) The Third Estate creating the National Assembly

(D) Peasants revolting against their manors for freedom

vocabulary assessment1
Vocabulary Assessment

Which of these choices best describes a guerilla?

(A) Generals using animals on the battlefield

(B) Revolutionary fighting forces that are used to overthrow a leader

(C) Loosely organized fighting forces making surprise attacks

(D) Special forces a king must use to end revolutions

Which of these best describes an Emigre?

(A) King Louis XVI using force to end the Revolution

(B) Nobles fleeing France during peasant uprisings

(C) The Third Estate creating the National Assembly

(D) Peasants revolting against their manors for freedom