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FRENCH & INDIAN WAR. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR. KING WILLIAM’S WAR, 1689-1697. QUEEN ANNE’S WAR, 1702-1713. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR. RESULTS BRITAIN GAINS NOVA SCOTIA NEWFOUNDLAND HUDSON’S BAY. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR. BACKGROUND RIVALRY BETWEEN ENGLAND & FRANCE. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR.

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FRENCH & INDIAN WAR


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    1. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

    2. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • KING WILLIAM’S WAR, 1689-1697 QUEEN ANNE’S WAR, 1702-1713

    3. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • RESULTS • BRITAIN GAINS • NOVA SCOTIA • NEWFOUNDLAND • HUDSON’S BAY

    4. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • BACKGROUND • RIVALRY BETWEEN ENGLAND & FRANCE

    5. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • ENGLISH ADVANTAGES • ENGLISH COLONISTS OUTNUMBER FRENCH 20-1 • ENGLAND CONTROLS THE SEAS

    6. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • OUTBREAK • MAJOR GEORGE WASHINGTON ATTACKS FORT DUQUESNE, 1754

    7. George Washingtonby Peale

    8. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • OUTBREAK • WASHINGTON IS DEFEATED & CAPTURED

    9. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • ESCALATION • BRITISH GENERAL BRADDOCK ATTACKS FORT DUQUESNE, 1755 • 1,500 BRITISH AND COLONIAL TROOPS ARE DEFEATED BY 850 FRENCH AND INDIANS • BRADDOCK IS DEFEATED & KILLED

    10. “Braddock’s Defeat” by Alonzo Chappel

    11. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • WAR IS DECLARED, 1756 • BRITISH ARMY CONTINUES TO LOSE

    12. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • WILLIAM PITT BECOMES WAR MINISTER IN 1758 & TURNS THE TIDE

    13. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • KEY BATTLE • LOUISBURG IS CAPTURED BY THE BRITISH, 1758 • FORT DUQUESNE IS CAPTURED BY THE BRITISH, 1758

    14. “Washington raises the British flag at Fort Duquesne.”

    15. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • DECISIVE BATTLE • BRITISH GENERAL WOLFE DEFEATS FRENCH UNDER GENERAL MONTCALM AT QUEBEC, 1759

    16. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR • TREATY OF PARIS, 1763 • END OF FRENCH EMPIRE IN NORTH AMERICA

    17. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY

    18. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • PROCLAMATION OF 1763 • THE INDIAN LEADER PONTIAC LEADS A REBELLION AGAINST THE BRITISH COLONISTS IN 1763

    19. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • PROCLAMATION OF 1763 • THE BRITISH DEFEAT THE REBELLION, BUT DO NOT WANT TO FIGHT ANOTHER WAR

    20. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • PROCLAMATION OF 1763 • TO AVOID CONTACT BETWEEN THE COLONISTS & THE INDIANS, THE BRITISH ORDER AN END TO ALL SETTLEMENT WEST OF THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    21. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • PROCLAMATION OF 1763 • THE COLONISTS PROTEST • THE PROCLAMATION DEPRIVES AMERICANS OF LAND • INTERFERES WITH CHARTER RIGHTS • LAND SPECULATORS

    22. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • STRICTER ENFORCEMENT OF TRADE LAWS • SELECTION OF GEORGE GRENVILLE AS MINISTER OF FINANCE • REQUIRED CUSTOMS OFFICERS TO GO TO AMERICA

    23. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • STRICTER ENFORCEMENT OF TRADE LAWS • ISSUED WRITS OF ASSISTANCE • TRIALS HELD IN ADMIRALTY COURTS

    24. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • NEW TAXES • THE SUGAR ACT, 1764 • LOWER RATES THAN THE MOLASSES ACT, 1733 • STRICTER ENFORCEMENT

    25. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • NEW TAXES • THE STAMP ACT, 1765 • DIRECT TAX • FROM ONE CENT TO TEN DOLLARS

    26. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • NEW TAXES • THE STAMP ACT, 1765 • PROTEST • BOYCOTT • NONIMPORTATION AGREEMENTS

    27. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • THREATS TO COLONIAL SELF-GOVERNMENT • 10,000 REDCOATS SENT TO AMERICA FOR OUR “PROTECTION”

    28. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • REDCOATS • POSTED IN TOWNS, NOT ON FRONTIER • STRENGTHENED COLONIAL GOVERNORS • FRIGHTENED LEGISLATURES

    29. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • THREATS TO COLONIAL SELF-GOVERNMENT • ROYAL GOVERNORS & OTHER OFFICIALS TO BE PAID BY THE BRITISH, NOT BY THE LEGISLATURES

    30. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • DISOBEDIENCE OF BRITISH LAWS • REVENUE LAWS DISOBEYED; SMUGGLING CONTINUED • QUARTERING ACT, 1765, DISOBEYED • PROCLAMATION OF 1763 DISOBEYED

    31. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • QUESTION OF REPRESENTATION • PATRICK HENRY, VIRGINIA HOUSE OF BURGESSES, 1765, “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION”

    32. PatrickHenry

    33. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • QUESTION OF REPRESENTATION • VIRTUAL REPRESENTATION: HOUSE OF COMMONS WAS PLEDGED TO REPRESENT EVERY PERSON IN THE EMPIRE • AMERICANS BELIEVED IN DIRECT REPRESENTATION

    34. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • THE STAMP ACT CONGRESS • DELEGATES FROM NINE COLONIES SENT DELEGATES TO NEW YORK, 1765 • OTHERS SENT MESSAGES OF SUPPORT

    35. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • THE STAMP ACT CONGRESS • ORGANIZED A BOYCOTT OF BRITISH GOODS

    36. Patriots burn stamps in Boston.

    37. “A Tory stamp agent is strung up by the seat of his pants.”

    38. “Boston’s Sons of Liberty . . . Ransack the house of Thomas Hutchinson.”

    39. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • Sons of Liberty • After assault on Hutchinson’s mansion Sons of Liberty formed to prevent violence on that level. • Late 1765 stamp distributors had resigned or fled

    40. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • Elites moved to take over Sons of Liberty groups • Elites feared the situation was getting out of hand • Boycott continues / previously colonies had purchased 40% of all British goods

    41. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • Rockingham succeeded Grenville as Prime Minister • Member of the House of Commons William Pitt supported the repeal of the Stamp Act • Stamp Act Repealed March 1766

    42. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • Declaratory Act • Affirmed parliamentary power to legislate for the colonies “in all cases whatsoever” • Interpreted as in reference to Ireland (1719) in which Ireland was exempt from all British Taxes. • Stamp Act ended in fundamental disagreement.

    43. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • Colonists question imperial relationship • The educated turn to philosophers, historians and political writers. (Locke) • Educated and uneducated turn to religion

    44. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY Locke – “Natural Rights”, life, liberty, and property -”social contract” – government protects individual rights • If government breaks contract people have right to overturn government

    45. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY “Republicans” – admired a sense of civic duty -free people had to avoid moral and political corruption and practice disinterested “public virtue” -elected leaders would command obedience “more by the virtue of the people, than by the terror of his power.

    46. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY “oppositionists” – English political writers including: John Trenchard, Thomas Gordon • Since 1720 prime ministers had exploited the treasury’s vast resources to provide pensions, contracts, and profitable offices to politicians or buy voters • Most members of Parliament no longer represented the true interests of their constituents

    47. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY Protestant clergymen preached sermons to gain support for the cause “..stand up for God and liberty.” -Clergy men had an enormous influence on the people -Far more people heard sermons than read the paper -Community leader proclaimed days of fasting and public humiliation

    48. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • August 1767 – George III dismissed Rockingham and placed William Pitt as Prime Minister. • Pitt was against taxing the colonies, but was in poor health • Leadership passed to Chancellor of the Exchequer (treasurer) Charles Townshend

    49. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • 1765 Conflict in New York • Quartering Act requires payment of some of the needs of British soldiers by local colonists • Candles, window panes, mattress straw, polish, and small liquor ration • Reinforced the presence of the British Army • Seen as tyranny • George III threatened to nullify all colonial laws in NY if they did not comply (pay)

    50. ENGLISH COLONIAL POLICY • NEW TAXES • House of Commons (landed gentry) cut own taxes 25% • Townshend proposes laws to increase colonial revenue • Use oversight in their arguments against the Stamp Act (no internal taxes) • THE TOWNSHEND ACTS, 1767 • IMPORT DUTIES ON TEA, PAPER, GLASS, & PAINT