Themes: • Louisiana and the World Timeline (pp. 96-97) • Early Explorations; La Salle Claims Louisiane (pp. 98-100) • Pierre Le Moyne; Sieur de Iberville (pp. 100-104) • A New Governor; Economics; French Government (pp. 104-107) • A Proprietor (pp. 107-109)
Themes: • A Proprietor; Growth (pp. 110-114) • The Code Noir (pp. 115-117) • A New Governor; Bienville Returns (pp. 118-120) • Vaudreuil; Kerlerec; End of French Louisiane (pp. 121-122) • Review (p. 123)
I. Early Exploration • European nations began sending explorers to the New World in hopes of finding riches. GLEs:66, 71, 73, 78
A. Hernando De Soto • De Soto and approximately 600 men landed in Florida to search for gold. • They wandered across the southeastern United States and treated Indians brutally as they hunted for riches. • De Soto discovered the Mississippi River, crossed into Arkansas, discovered Hot Springs, and then traveled down the Ouachita River. • De Soto died from fever in southeast Arkansas. • Few of his men survived, and they had no gold or riches. • Europeans did not send another expedition for over 100 years.
II. La Salle Claims Louisiane • In the late 1600s, Spain, England, and France established colonies in North America. • Spain had colonies in Texas and Mexico. • The English were establishing colonies along the Atlantic seaboard. • France had created New France in Canada.
A. La Salle, the Opportunist • French explorers Marquette and Joliet discovered the upper Mississippi River while exploring the Great Lakes region. • La Salle realized he had found the same river De Soto had found. • La Salle wanted France to establish a colony at the mouth of the River. • He thought the Gulf Coast would be an ideal location for a French naval base.
What did La Salle think would fit perfectly on the Gulf Coast? • A: A French Naval Base
B. Louisiane • The lower Mississippi had to be explored before a colony could be established. • King Louis XIV of France gave La Salle permission to lead an exploration party down the river. • They traveled from Canada to the Gulf in two months. • La Salle declared that France owned the land drained by the Mississippi River and said it would be known thereafter as Louisiane, which means “Louis’s land.”
C. Fort Louis • La Salle returned to France to gather settlers, supplies, and ships to establish a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi. • On his return trip, he missed the mouth of the river and ended up lost in Texas. • He and his men built Fort Louis, but starvation and hostile Indians took their toll. • La Salle was killed in East Texas by his own men.
III. Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur de Iberville • France and England were enemies. • The French learned the English were planning to build a colony at the mouth of the river. • France was worried about that the English would travel up the river and invade Canada. • Soon France and England were racing to gain control of the Mississippi River. GLEs: 65, 66, 72, 78
A. Iberville Comes to Louisiane • French Minister Pontchartrain chose Sieur de Iberville to lead the expedition. • Iberville and his brother, Bienville, arrived in the Gulf of Mexico and anchored at Ship Island.
B. Finding the Mississippi • Iberville and Bienville explored the mainland and met the Biloxi Indians. • They searched for and found the Mississippi River on March 3—Mardi Gras Day!
On what historic day did Iberville and Bienville enter the MS River? • A: Mardi Gras Day, March 3
C. Baton Rouge and Pontchartrain • Iberville and a group of Indian guides who were helping him found a red pole sticking out of the ground. • Iberville called the area Baton Rouge, or “red stick.” • Iberville and his guides also found a shortcut to the Gulf and the largest lake he had ever seen. Iberville named the lake Pontchartrain after his superior, Count Pontchartrain. • Iberville named the smaller lake after his son, Count Maurepas, and established Fort Maurepas, the first French settlement in Louisiane. • Twice, Iberville had to return to France for supplies.
Ft. Maurepas http://www.louisiana101.com/rr_fortmaurepas.html
D. English Turn • Bienville entered the Mississippi River and spotted a large English ship anchored in the river. • Bienville told the ship’s officers that it was too late to start a colony because France had already established one. He also told the English that they were in danger because French troops were nearby. • Bienville claimed the French would attack if they did not leave. • The English turned the ship around and left. This is how that section of the river became known as English Turn.
E. Fort de la Boulaye • Bienville established this fort on land 50 miles upstream from the Gulf of Mexico.
F. Fort Louis de la Mobile and Dauphin Island • Fort Louis de la Mobile became the colony’s capital, and most of the settlers moved there. • Dauphin Island was another post built for the French.
Give the names of two of Louisiana’s early French forts. Include both their military and Indian names. • A: Fort Maurepas / Biloxi • Fort Louis de la Mobile/ Mobile • Fort St. Jean Baptiste/Nachitoches • Fort Rosalie/Natchez
G. The Early Colonists • The most significant problem of the period was the low population, which consisted of soldiers, sailors, explorers, voyageurs, and 13 Caribbean pirates. • Voyageurs made their living by paddling canoes, pirogues, and other boats for explorers and traders.
IV. A New Governor • Short on supplies, Iberville returned to France and found the French at war. • He was unable to send supplies, and then he died in Cuba on the return voyage in 1706. GLEs: 64, 66, 72, 73, 74, 76, 78, 80, 81
A. Bienville Takes Charge • Iberville’s younger brother, Bienville, became governor at age 22.
B. The Coureurs de Bois • The lack of European women in the colony was a major problem. • Coureurs de bois or “runners of the woods” were hunters and trappers who depended upon Indians to keep them alive. • They often dressed and acted like Native Americans and often married Indian women. • Bienville wanted these men to marry French Christian women and farm the land to end the chronic food shortage in the colony.
What did Bienville feel the coureurs de bois must do to save their souls? • A: marry French Christian women
C. The Pelican Girls • The Pelican Girls were 23 young women sent from Paris to marry the early explorers and help the population grow.
V. Economics in Louisiane • Mercantilism was the belief that each country or empire should have access to, and control of, raw materials needed to build and maintain a healthy economy.
A. A Closed System • Mercantilism was a closed system, so colonists in Louisiane could not trade with any country other than France. • Louisiane shipped raw materials such as fur, timber, and indigo to France. • France sent finished goods such as clothing, furniture, and ink back to the colony. • It was not a very profitable system, and since it was easier and cheaper to trade with the Spanish, illegal trade was common.
B. The Fur Trade • Fur trading was the main economic activity, but it was not very profitable.
C. Farming • There was never enough food. • Lack of knowledge, poor soil, flooding, and few seeds contributed to the problem, and the period became known as the Starvation Times. • Indians taught the French how to grow corn, squash, and beans and how to hunt and fish.
VI. French Government in the Colony • The top official in the colony was a governor who was chosen carefully by the French government.