Chapter 11. The Industrial Revolution in America. 8.6.1. The Big Idea The Industrial Revolution transformed the way goods were produced in the United States. Main Ideas The invention of new machines in Great Britain led to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
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Main Idea 2:The development of new machines and processes brought the Industrial Revolution to the United States.
Cotton had many advantages as cash crop: inexpensive to market and easy to store and transport.
Cotton had major disadvantage—used up nutrients in soil—so farmers began crop rotation.
Farmers developed stronger types of cotton through crossbreeding, which expanded the cotton industry.
Cotton industry was labor intensive; need for more slaves caused increase in internal slave trade. Instead of paying free workers, planters used enslaved Africans.
Many city dwellers, particularly immigrants, lived in tenements: poorly designed apartment buildings that housed large numbers of people.
Public services were poor—no clean water, public health regulations, or healthy way to get rid of garbage.
Cities became centers of criminal activity, and most had no organized police force.
Fire was a constant and serious danger in crowded cities.
Many women writers, including Ann Sophia Stephens, wrote historical fiction that was popular in the mid-1800s.
Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote The Scarlet Letter, one of the great classics of Romantic literature. Herman Melville wrote Moby Dick, a novel about the sea that many people believe is the finest American novel ever written.
American Romantic authors also wrote poetry, including Edgar Allen Poe, who became famous for “The Raven.”
Other gifted poets included Emily Dickinson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,and Walt Whitman.
Education in the Early 1800s
William Lloyd Garrison published an abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator, and helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Angelina and Sarah Grimké,two white southern women, were activists who wrote antislavery works, including American Slavery As It Is.
Frederick Douglass escaped slavery and became one of the most important African American leaders of the 1800s.
Sojourner Truth,another former slave, traveled around the country preaching the truth about slavery and women’s rights. Other African Americans also wrote narratives about their experiences as slaves in order to expose slavery’s cruelties.
The Movement Grows
Opposition to Women’s Rights
Lincoln stressed that central issue of campaign was spread of slavery in the West
Douglas criticized Lincoln for saying nation could not remain “half slave and half free”
Douglas put forth Freeport Doctrine: people had right to introduce or exclude slavery, and police would enforce their decision even if it contradicted the Supreme Court
Freeport Doctrine helped Douglas win, but Lincoln became an important Republican Party leader and later president.
Lincoln inaugurated on March 4, 1861
Opposed idea that southern states could leave the Union because they were unhappy with government’s position on slavery
Announced in inaugural address that he would keep all government property in the seceding states
Hoped that southern states would return to the Union