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Chapter 11. The Industrial Revolution in America. 8.6.1. The Big Idea The Industrial Revolution transformed the way goods were produced in the United States. Main Ideas The invention of new machines in Great Britain led to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

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slide2

The Industrial Revolution in America

8.6.1

  • The Big Idea
  • The Industrial Revolution transformed the way goods were produced in the United States.
  • Main Ideas
  • The invention of new machines in Great Britain led to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
  • The development of new machines and processes brought the Industrial Revolution to the United States.
  • Despite a slow start in manufacturing, the United States made rapid improvements during the War of 1812.
slide3
Main Idea 1: The invention of new machines in Great Britain led to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Most people at the beginning of the 1700s were farmers, who made most of what they needed by hand.
  • Skilled workers, such as blacksmiths, carpenters, and shoemakers, made goods by hand in the towns.
  • People began using machines to make the manufacturing process more efficient.
  • The Industrial Revolution, a period of rapid growth using machines to make goods, arose in Great Britain in the mid-1700s.
slide4

Textile Industry

  • The first breakthrough in the Industrial Revolution was in how textiles, or cloth goods, were made.
  • Richard Arkwright,an Englishman,invented a spinning machine in 1769 called the water frame, which replaced hand spinning.
  • The water frame used flowing water as a source of power.
    • Could produce dozens of cotton threads at the same time
    • Lowered the cost of cotton production and increased the speed of textile production
  • Merchants built textile mills near rivers and streams.
  • Great Britain soon built the world’s most productive textile manufacturing industry.
slide5

Main Idea 2:The development of new machines and processes brought the Industrial Revolution to the United States.

  • Samuel Slater brought the secret of textile mill manufacturing from Great Britain to the United States.
  • The textile industry arose in the Northeast, introducing the Industrial Revolution to the United States.
manufacturing breakthroughs
Manufacturing Breakthroughs
  • U.S. factories needed better technology, or tools, to manufacture muskets.
  • Inventor Eli Whitney developed musket factories using water-powered machinery.
  • Whitney introduced the idea of interchangeable parts, or parts of a machine that are identical, to make musket manufacturing easier.
  • Interchangeable parts sped up the process of mass production.
slide7
Main Idea 3:Despite a slow start in manufacturing, the United States made rapid improvements during the War of 1812.
  • Lower British prices on manufactured goods made it difficult for American manufacturing to grow.
  • American manufacturing was limited to cotton goods, flour milling, weapons, and iron products.
  • The War of 1812 cut off trade with Great Britain, allowing manufacturing in the United States to prosper and expand.
  • Americans realized that the United States had been relying too heavily on foreign goods.
slide8

Changes in Working Life

8.6.1

  • The Big Idea
  • The introduction of factories changed working life for many Americans.
  • Main Ideas
  • The spread of mills in the Northeast changed workers’ lives.
  • The Lowell system revolutionized the textile industry in the Northeast.
  • Workers organized to reform working conditions.
main idea 1 the spread of mills in the northeast changed workers lives
Main Idea 1:The spread of mills in the Northeast changed workers’ lives.
  • Factory jobs usually involved simple, repetitive tasks done for low pay.
    • Could not find workers because of the simple work and the fact that other jobs were available
  • The mill industry filled jobs by hiring whole families, and paying children low wages.
    • Built housing for workers and provided a company store
  • Samuel Slater’s strategy of hiring families and dividing factory work into simple tasks was called the Rhode Island system.
main idea 2 the lowell system revolutionized the textile industry in the northeast
Main Idea 2:The Lowell System revolutionized the textile industry in the Northeast.
  • Francis Cabot Lowell created a new system of mill manufacturing in 1814, called the Lowell system.
  • The Lowell system involved
    • Employing young, unmarried women, who were housed in boardinghouses
    • Providing clean factories and free-time activities for its employees
    • Having mills that included both spinning thread and weaving in the same plant
main idea 3 workers organized to reform working conditions
Main Idea 3: Workers organized to reform working conditions.
  • Deteriorating Working Conditions
  • Employees worked 12-to-14 hour days in unhealthy conditions.
  • Craftsmen’s wages dropped in competition against cheap manufactured goods.
  • Wages of factory workers dropped as they competed for jobs.
  • Trade Unions Formed
  • Craftsmen formed trade unions to gain higher wages and better working conditions.
  • Factory workers also formed trade unions.
  • Labor unions staged protests called strikes, refusing to work until employers met their demands.
labor reform efforts
Labor Reform Efforts
  • Millworker Sarah G. Bagley helped lead the union movement in Massachusetts.
  • Bagley’s union campaigned to reduce the 12-to 14-hour workday to a 10-hour workday.
  • Union workers won some victories, as several states passed 10-hour workday laws.
  • In other states the workday remained long and child labor prevailed.
slide13

The Transportation Revolution

8.6.1

  • The Big Idea
  • New forms of transportation improved business, travel, and communications in the United States.
  • Main Ideas
  • The Transportation Revolution affected trade and daily life.
  • The steamboat was one of the first developments of the Transportation Revolution.
  • Railroads were a vital part of the Transportation Revolution.
  • The Transportation Revolution brought many changes to American life and industry.
main idea 1 the transportation revolution affected trade and daily life
Main Idea 1: The Transportation Revolution affected trade and daily life.
  • The 1800s gave rise to Transportation Revolution: period of rapid growth in new means of transportation
  • Transportation Revolution created boom in business by reducing shipping costs and time
  • Two new forms of transportation were steamboat and steam-powered trains
    • Goods, people, and information were able to travel rapidly and efficiently across the United States.
main idea 2 the steamboat was one of the first developments of the transportation revolution
Main Idea 2:The steamboat was one of the first developments of the Transportation Revolution.
  • Robert Fulton invented the steamboat, testing the Clermont in 1807.
  • Steamboats increased trade by moving goods more quickly and more cheaply.
  • More than 500 steamboats were in use by 1840.
  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824): The Supreme Court reinforced the federal government’s authority to regulate trade between states.
    • Gibbons argued that a federal license meant he could use New York waterways without another license.
    • The Supreme Court agreed with Gibbons.
main idea 3 railroads were a vital part of the transportation revolution
Main Idea 3:Railroads were a vital part of the Transportation Revolution.
  • Steam-powered trains had been developed in Great Britain, but it took 30 years for the idea to catch on in the United States.
  • Peter Cooper raced his Tom Thumb locomotive against a horse in 1830, proving its power and speed despite losing because of a breakdown near the end of the race.
  • About 30,000 miles of railroads linked American cities by 1860.
  • The U.S. economy surged as railroads moved goods cheaply to distant markets.
main idea 4 the transportation revolution brought many changes to american life and industry
Main Idea 4:The Transportation Revolution brought many changes to American life and industry.
  • People in all areas of the nation had access to products made and grown far away.
  • Railroads contributed to the expansion of the nation’s borders.
  • Cities and towns grew up along railroad tracks.
impact of railroads
Impact of Railroads
  • Coal replaced wood as a source of fuel as trains grew bigger.
  • Railroads helped create the coal industry.
  • Coal, shipped cheaply on trains, became the main fuel in homes and in the emerging steel industry.
  • Railroads helped the lumber industry grow, leading to large-scale deforestation.
  • Railroads caused cities to grow, including Chicago, which became a transportation hub.
slide19

More Technological Advances

8.6.1

  • The Big Idea
  • Advances in technology led to new inventions that continued to change daily life and work.
  • Main Ideas
  • The telegraph made swift communication possible from coast to coast.
  • With the shift to steam power, businesses built new factories closer to cities and transportation centers.
  • Improved farm equipment and other labor-saving devices made life easier for many Americans.
  • New inventions changed lives in American homes.
main idea 1 the telegraph made swift communication possible from coast to coast
Main Idea 1:The telegraph made swift communication possible from coast to coast.
  • In 1832, Samuel F. B. Morse perfected the telegraph—a device that could send information over wires.
    • The device did not catch on until the 1844 Democratic National Convention, when the nomination was telegraphed to Washington.
  • A Morse associate created Morse code to communicate messages over the wires.
    • Morse code turned pulses of electric current into long and short clicks.
    • Clicks, also called dots and dashes, were arranged in patterns representing letters of the alphabet.
  • The telegraph grew with the railroad; the first transcontinental railroad line was completed in 1861.
slide21
Main Idea 2: With the shift to steam power, businesses built new factories closer to cities and transportation centers.
  • The shift from water power to steam power allowed owners to build factories anywhere.
  • Factories were shifted closer to cities and transportation centers.
  • Cities became centers of industrial growth.
slide22
Main Idea 3:Improved farm equipment and other labor-saving devices made life easier for many Americans.
  • John Deere designed a steel plow in 1837 that replaced the less efficient iron plow.
  • Cyrus McCormick developed a mechanical reaper in 1831, which quickly and efficiently harvested wheat.
    • McCormick used a new method to encourage sales, advertising.
    • He also allowed people to buy on credit and provided repairs and spare parts for his machines.
  • These inventions allowed farmers to plant and harvest huge crop fields, helping the country prosper.
main idea 4 new inventions changed lives in american homes
Main Idea 4:New inventions changed lives in American homes.
  • The sewing machine, invented by Elias Howe and improved by Isaac Singer, made home sewing easier.
  • Ice boxes and iron cookstoves improved household storage and preparation of food.
  • Mass-produced goods, such as clocks, matches, and safety pins, added convenience to households.
growth of the cotton industry
Growth of the Cotton Industry

8.7.1

8.7.2

  • The Big Idea
  • The invention of the cotton gin made the South a one-crop economy and increased the need for slave labor.
  • Main Ideas
  • The invention of the cotton gin revived the economy of the South.
  • The cotton gin created a cotton boom in which farmers grew little else.
  • Some people encouraged southerners to focus on other crops and industries.
main idea 1 the invention of the cotton gin revived the economy of the south
Main Idea 1: The invention of the cotton gin revived the economy of the South.
  • Prices for major southern crops—tobacco, rice, and indigo—fell after the American Revolution.
  • Cotton was not profitable, because of the difficulty of removing seeds.
  • Demand for American cotton grew rapidly with the rise of British textile mills.
  • Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin, a machine to remove seeds from cotton, in 1793.
  • Planters—large-scale farmers—soon adopted the cotton gin and were able to process tons of cotton much faster than hand processing.
  • A healthy cotton crop could now guarantee financial success because of high demand.
main idea 2 the cotton gin created a cotton boom in which farmers grew little else
Main Idea 2: The cotton gin created a cotton boom in which farmers grew little else.
  • Cotton gin made cotton so profitable that southern farmers abandoned other crops
  • Removal of Native Americans opened up more land
  • Development of new types of cotton helped spread production throughout South, as far west as Texas
    • United States produced more than half the cotton grown in the world by 1840
  • Economic boom attracted new settlers, built up wealth among white southerners, and helped keep slavery established in the South.
cotton belt
Cotton Belt

Cotton had many advantages as cash crop: inexpensive to market and easy to store and transport.

Cotton had major disadvantage—used up nutrients in soil—so farmers began crop rotation.

Farmers developed stronger types of cotton through crossbreeding, which expanded the cotton industry.

Cotton industry was labor intensive; need for more slaves caused increase in internal slave trade. Instead of paying free workers, planters used enslaved Africans.

cotton trade
Cotton Trade
  • Southern cotton was used to make cloth in England and the North.
  • Great Britain became the South’s most valued foreign trading partner.
  • Increased trade led to the growth of port cities, including Charleston, Savannah, and New Orleans.
  • Crop brokers, called factors, managed the cotton trade.
main idea 3 some people encouraged southerners to focus on other crops and industries
Main Idea 3: Some people encouraged southerners to focus on other crops and industries.
  • Agriculture
  • Corn—primary food crop
  • Other food crops—rice, sweet potatoes, wheat, and sugarcane
  • Tobacco production increased when a slave developed an improved drying process.
  • Hemp and flax also became cash crops.
  • As long asagriculture profits remained high, investors preferred to invest in land.
  • Industry
  • Factories in South built to serve farmers’ needs
  • Nation’s first steam-powered sawmill built in Louisiana in 1803
  • Entrepreneurs began investing in cotton mills by 1840s
  • Tredegar Iron Works: one of nation’s most productive iron works
  • Industry remained a small part of southern economy
slide39

Immigrants and Urban Challenges

8.6.1

8.6.3

  • The Big Idea
  • The population of the United States grew rapidly in the early 1800s with the arrival of millions of immigrants.
  • Main Ideas
  • Millions of immigrants, mostly German and Irish, arrived in the United States despite anti-immigrant movements.
  • Industrialization led to the growth of cities.
  • American cities experienced urban problems due to rapid growth.
slide40
Main Idea 1: Millions of immigrants, mostly German and Irish, arrived in the United States despite anti-immigrant movements.
  • Large numbers of immigrants crossed the Atlantic in the mid-1800s to begin new lives in the United States.
  • More than 4 million came between 1840 and 1860, mostly from Europe.
  • More than 3 million of them were from Ireland and Germany.
push pull factors of immigration
Push-Pull Factors of Immigration
  • Push Factors
  • Starvation
  • Poverty
  • Lack of political freedom
  • Pull Factors
  • Jobs
  • Greater freedom and equality
  • Abundant land
immigrants from ireland and germany
Immigrants from Ireland and Germany
  • Irish Immigrants
  • Fled Ireland because of potato famine in 1840s
  • Most were very poor.
  • Settled in cities in Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania
  • Men worked at unskilled jobs or by building canals and railroads.
  • Women worked as domestic servants for wealthy families.
  • German Immigrants
  • Some educated Germans fled for political reasons.
  • Most were working class and came for economic reasons.
  • Many became farmers and lived in rural areas.
  • In cities they had to take low-paying jobs, such as tailors, seamstresses, bricklayers, servants, clerks, and bakers.
anti immigration movements
Anti-Immigration Movements
  • Many native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants, who might work for lower wages.
  • Most Americans were Protestants before the new immigration.
    • Conflict between Protestants and newly arrived Catholic immigrants
  • Americans who opposed immigration were called nativists.
  • Nativists founded a political organization called the Know-Nothing Party in 1849 to make it difficult for immigrants to become citizens or hold public office.
    • Wanted to keep Catholics and immigrants out of public office
    • Wanted immigrants to live in United States for 21 years before becoming citizens
main idea 2 industrialization led to the growth of cities
Main Idea 2:Industrialization led to the growth of cities.
  • Industrial Revolution led to creation of new jobs in cities
    • Drew rural Americans and immigrants from many nations
  • Transportation Revolution helped to connect cities and make movement easier
  • Rise of industry and growth of cities led to creation of new middle class
    • Merchants, manufacturers, professionals, and master craftspeople
    • New economic level between wealthy and poor
  • People found entertainment and enriched cultural life in cities.
  • Cities were compact and crowded during this time.
main idea 3 american cities experienced urban problems due to rapid growth
Main Idea 3:American cities experienced urban problems due to rapid growth.

Many city dwellers, particularly immigrants, lived in tenements: poorly designed apartment buildings that housed large numbers of people.

Public services were poor—no clean water, public health regulations, or healthy way to get rid of garbage.

Cities became centers of criminal activity, and most had no organized police force.

Fire was a constant and serious danger in crowded cities.

slide46

American Arts

8.6.7

  • The Big Idea
  • New movements in art and literature influenced many Americans in the early 1800s.
  • Main Ideas
  • Transcendentalists and utopian communities withdrew from American society.
  • American Romantic painters and writers made important contributions to art and literature.
main idea 1 transcendentalists and utopian communities withdrew from american society
Main Idea 1: Transcendentalists and utopian communities withdrew from American society.
  • Transcendentalism was the belief that people could transcend, or rise above, material things.
  • Important transcendentalists included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller,and Henry David Thoreau.
  • Some formed a community at Brook Farm, Massachusetts, in the 1840s.
    • It was one of many experiments in utopian communities,places where people tried to form a perfect society.
    • In reality, most members did not work together well and the communities did not last long.
slide48
Main Idea 2:American Romantic painters and writers made important contributions to art and literature.
  • Ideas about simple life and nature inspired painters and writers.
    • Some joined the Romantic movement that had begun in Europe.
  • Romanticism involved an interest in nature, emphasis on individual expression, and rejection of many established rules.
  • Painters and writers felt that each person brings a unique view to the world.
  • They believed in using emotion to guide their creativity.
art of the romantic movement
Art of the Romantic Movement
  • Some Romantic artists, like Thomas Cole, painted the American landscape.
  • Their works celebrated the beauty and wonder of nature in the United States.
  • Their images contrasted with the huge cities and corruption of nature that many Americans saw as typical of Europe.
american romantic writers
American Romantic Writers

Many women writers, including Ann Sophia Stephens, wrote historical fiction that was popular in the mid-1800s.

Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote The Scarlet Letter, one of the great classics of Romantic literature. Herman Melville wrote Moby Dick, a novel about the sea that many people believe is the finest American novel ever written.

American Romantic authors also wrote poetry, including Edgar Allen Poe, who became famous for “The Raven.”

Other gifted poets included Emily Dickinson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,and Walt Whitman.

slide51

Reforming Society

8.6.4

8.6.5

  • The Big Idea
  • Reform movements in the early 1800s affected religion, education, and society.
  • Main Ideas
  • The Second Great Awakening sparked interest in religion.
  • Social reformers began to speak out about temperance and prison reform.
  • Improvements in education reform affected many segments of the population.
  • Northern African American communities became involved in reform efforts.
main idea 1 the second great awakening sparked interest in religion
Main Idea 1: The Second Great Awakening sparked interest in religion.
  • Second Great Awakening: Christian renewal movement during 1790s and early 1800s
  • Swept upstate New York and frontier regions and later spread to New England and the South
  • Charles Grandison Finney was important leader
    • Believed each person was responsible for own salvation
    • Should prove faith by doing good works
  • These ideas angered some traditional ministers, like Boston’s Lyman Beecher.
  • Church membership increased significantly during this period.
    • Renewed religious faith of people throughout America
main idea 2 social reformers began to speak out about temperance and prison reform
Main Idea 2: Social reformers began to speak out about temperance and prison reform.
  • Reform Movements
    • Renewed religious faith led to movements to reform society.
    • Urban growth had caused problems.
    • Members of the middle class, especially women, led the efforts.
    • They tackled alcohol abuse, prison and education reform, and slavery.
reform movements
Reform Movements
  • Temperance Movement
  • Many Americans thought alcohol abuse caused family violence, poverty, and criminal behavior.
  • Temperance Movement was effort to have people stop drinking hard liquor
  • Message spread by American Temperance Society and American Temperance Union
  • Prison Reform
  • Dorothea Dix led movement to reform prison system
  • Reformers worked to remove the mentally ill, runaway children, and orphans from prisons.
  • Governments responded by building mental hospitals, reform schools for children, and houses of correction that provided education for prisoners.
main idea 3 improvements in education reform affected many segments of the population
Main Idea 3: Improvements in education reform affected many segments of the population.

Education in the Early 1800s

  • Few teachers were trained, and schoolhouses were small and had only one room for all students.
  • Social background and wealth affected education quality.

Common-School Movement

  • Common-School Movement reformers wanted all children taught in a common place regardless of wealth.
  • Horace Mann was a leader in this movement.
    • Became Massachusetts’s first secretary of education
    • Convinced the state to double the school budget, raise teachers’ salaries, lengthen the school year, and begin the first school for teacher training
more educational reforms
More Educational Reforms
  • Education reform created opportunities for women.
  • Catharine Beecher started an all-women academy.
  • Women’s colleges opened, the first in 1837.
  • Education reform also helped people with special needs.
  • Thomas Gallaudet opened a school for the hearing impaired in 1817; a school for the blind opened in 1831.
main idea 4 northern african american communities became involved in reform efforts
Main Idea 4: Northern African American communities became involved in reform efforts.
  • Free African Americans usually lived in segregated, or separate, communities in the North.
  • The Free African Religious Society, founded by former slave Richard Allen, became a model for other groups that worked for racial equality and education for blacks.
  • Many influential African Americans pushed for the creation of schools for black Americans.
    • New York, Philadelphia, and Boston opened elementary schools for African American children.
    • Few colleges would accept African Americans, however.
  • In the South, laws barred most enslaved people from receiving any education.
slide58

The Movement to End Slavery

8.9.1

  • The Big Idea
  • In the mid-1800s, debate over slavery increased as abolitionists organized to challenge slavery in the United States.
  • Main Ideas
  • Americans from a variety of backgrounds actively opposed slavery.
  • Abolitionists organized the Underground Railroad to help enslaved Africans escape.
  • Despite efforts of abolitionists, many Americans remained opposed to ending slavery.
main idea 1 americans from a variety of backgrounds actively opposed slavery
Main Idea 1: Americans from a variety of backgrounds actively opposed slavery.
  • Some Americans opposed slavery before the country was even founded.
  • Americans took more organized action supporting abolition,or the complete end to slavery, in the 1830s.
  • Abolitionists came from different backgrounds and opposed slavery for various reasons.
    • Some believed African Americans should have the same treatment as white Americans, while others were opposed to full equality.
  • The American Colonization Society was founded in 1817 to establish a colony of freed slaves in Africa.
    • Liberia was founded on the west coast of Africa in 1822.
spreading the abolitionist message
Spreading the Abolitionist Message

William Lloyd Garrison published an abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator, and helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Angelina and Sarah Grimké,two white southern women, were activists who wrote antislavery works, including American Slavery As It Is.

Frederick Douglass escaped slavery and became one of the most important African American leaders of the 1800s.

Sojourner Truth,another former slave, traveled around the country preaching the truth about slavery and women’s rights. Other African Americans also wrote narratives about their experiences as slaves in order to expose slavery’s cruelties.

main idea 2 abolitionists organized the underground railroad to help enslaved africans escape
Main Idea 2: Abolitionists organized the Underground Railroad to help enslaved Africans escape.
  • By the 1830s a loosely organized group had begun helping slaves escape from the South.
  • Abolitionists created the Underground Railroad: a network of people who arranged transportation and hiding places for fugitives, or escaped slaves.
  • Fugitives would travel along routes leading them to northern states or to Canada.
  • Harriet Tubman,an escaped slave, led her family and more than 300 slaves to freedom.
the underground railroad
The Underground Railroad
  • Enslaved African Americans followed many routes to freedom.
  • They could not be certain of freedom in the free states.
  • U.S. law still considered them property.
  • Bounty hunters were paid to capture and return any fugitive slaves they found.
main idea 3 despite efforts of abolitionists many americans remained opposed to ending slavery
Main Idea 3: Despite efforts of abolitionists, many Americans remained opposed to ending slavery.
  • Many white northerners agreed with the South and supported slavery.
    • Thought that ending slavery would take jobs from white workers
  • Congress forbade its members from discussing antislavery petitions.
  • Many white southerners saw slavery as vital to the South’s economy and culture.
slide64

Women’s Rights

8.6.6

  • The Big Idea
  • Reformers sought to improve women’s rights in American society.
  • Main Ideas
  • Influenced by the abolition movement, many women struggled to gain equal rights for themselves.
  • Calls for women’s rights met opposition from men and women.
  • The Seneca Falls Convention launched the first organized women’s rights movement in the United States.
slide65
Main Idea 1: Influenced by the abolition movement, many women struggled to gain equal rights for themselves.
  • Fighting for the rights of African Americans led many women abolitionists to fight for their own rights.
  • They found that they had to defend their right to speak in public.
  • Critics did not want women to leave traditional female roles.
early women reformers
Early Women Reformers
  • Grimké Sisters
  • Sarah Grimké wrote pamphlet in 1838 arguing for equal rights for women
  • Angelina Grimké refused to promise to obey her husband during their marriage ceremony.
  • Transcendentalist Margaret Fuller wrote Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845),stressing importance of individualism to people, especially to women
  • Sojourner Truth
  • Powerful supporter of both abolition and women’s rights
  • Born into slavery in 1797
  • Took name Sojourner Truth because she felt her mission was to be a sojourner, or traveler, and spread the truth
  • Never learned to read or write, but impressed people with her speeches
main idea 2 calls for women s rights met opposition from men and women
Main Idea 2: Calls for women’s rights met opposition from men and women.

The Movement Grows

  • Women’s concerns became a national issue when women took a more active and leading role in reform and abolition.
  • Some men also began to fight for women’s rights.

Opposition to Women’s Rights

  • Some women believed they did not need new rights.
  • Some people thought that women lacked the physical or mental strength to survive without men’s protection.
slide68
Main Idea 3: The Seneca Falls Convention launched the first organized women’s rights movement in the United States.
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized the Seneca Falls Convention.
  • The convention was the first public meeting about women’s rights held in the United States.
  • The convention opened on July 19, 1848, in Seneca Falls, New York.
  • Organizers wrote a Declaration of Sentiments.
declaration of sentiments
Declaration of Sentiments
  • Document detailed beliefs about social injustice toward women
    • Used Declaration of Independence as basis for language
    • Authors included 18 charges against men
    • Signed by some 100 people
  • About 240 people attended Seneca Falls Convention
    • Men included such reformers as Frederick Douglass.
    • Many other reformers who worked in the temperance and abolitionist movements were present.
women s rights leaders
Women’s Rights Leaders
  • Lucy Stone
  • Well-known spokesperson for Anti-Slavery Society
  • Was a gifted speaker who stirred the nation on women’s rights
  • Susan B. Anthony
  • Turned fight for women’s rights into a political movement
  • Argued for equal pay for equal work—no woman could be free without a “purse of her own”
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Wrote many documents and speeches of the movement
  • Founder and leader of National Woman Suffrage Association
slide79

The Debate over Slavery

8.9.4

8.10.1

  • The Big Idea
  • Antislavery literature and the annexation of new lands intensified the debate over slavery.
  • Main Ideas
  • The addition of new land in the West renewed disputes over the expansion of slavery.
  • The Compromise of 1850 tried to solve the disputes over slavery.
  • The Fugitive Slave Act caused more controversy.
  • Abolitionists used antislavery literature to promote opposition.
main idea 1 the addition of new land in the west renewed disputes over the expansion of slavery
Main Idea 1:The addition of new land in the West renewed disputes over the expansion of slavery.
  • Additional land gained after Mexican-American War caused bitter slavery dispute
  • Missouri Compromise of 1820 prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30’
  • President Polk wanted to extend the line to the West Coast, dividing Mexican Cession into free and enslaved parts
  • Some leaders wanted popular sovereignty, the idea that political power belongs to the people,to decide on whether to ban or allow slavery in their territory.
regional differences about slavery
Regional Differences about Slavery

Growing Sectionalism

  • Some northerners wanted to ban slavery in the Mexican Cession.
  • The Wilmot Proviso,prohibiting slavery there, was proposed but not enacted.
  • Sectionalism,favoring the interests of one section or region over the interests of the entire country, was on the rise.
  • Antislavery northerners formed a new party–the Free-Soil Party–to support the Wilmot Proviso.

California Question

  • California applied to enter the Union.
  • Southerners did not want California to be a free state because it would upset the balance of slave and free states.
main idea 2 the compromise of 1850 tried to solve the disputes over slavery
Main Idea 2:The Compromise of 1850 tried to solve the disputes over slavery.
  • Senator Henry Clay offered Compromise of 1850
    • California would enter the Union as a free state.
    • The rest of the Mexican Cession would be federal land. The slavery question would be decided by popular sovereignty.
    • Texas could give up land east of the upper Rio Grande. In return, the government would pay Texas’s debt from when it was an independent republic.
    • Slave trade, but not slavery, would end in the nation’s capital.
    • A more effective fugitive slave law would be passed.
  • The compromise was enacted and settled most disputes between slave and free states.
main idea 3 the fugitive slave act caused more controversy
Main Idea 3: The Fugitive Slave Act caused more controversy.
  • Fugitive Slave Act
  • Made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest runaway slaves in free areas
  • Slaveholders could take suspected fugitives to U.S. commissioners who, decided their fate. Commissioners received more money for returning them to slaveholders.
  • Accused fugitives could not testify on their own behalf
  • Reaction to Act
  • Enforcement of act immediate
  • Thousands of northern African Americans fled to Canada in fear
  • Act upset northerners
  • Anthony Burns was fugitive returned to slavery with federal help in 1854
  • Persuaded many to join abolitionist cause
main idea 4 abolitionists used antislavery literature to promote opposition
Main Idea 4:Abolitionists used antislavery literature to promote opposition.
  • Northern abolitionists used stories of fugitive slaves to gain sympathy for their cause.
  • Fiction also informed people about the evils of slavery.
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe was an influential antislavery novel published in 1852.
    • More than 2 million copies sold within a decade
    • Still widely read as source about harsh realities of slavery
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Trouble in Kansas

8.9.5

8.10.2

  • The Big Idea
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act heightened tensions in the conflict over slavery.
  • Main Ideas
  • The debate over the expansion of slavery influenced the election of 1852.
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed voters to allow or prohibit slavery.
  • Pro-slavery and antislavery groups clashed violently in what became known as “Bleeding Kansas.”
main idea 1 the debate over the expansion of slavery influenced the election of 1852
Main Idea 1:The debate over the expansion of slavery influenced the election of 1852.
  • Franklin Pierce was Democratic candidate
    • Promised to honor Compromise of 1850 and Fugitive Slave Act
    • Trusted by southerners.
  • Whig Party chose Winfield Scott, a Mexican-American War hero
    • Southerners did not trust Scott because he had not fully supported Compromise of 1850
  • Pierce won election by large margin
main idea 2 the kansas nebraska act allowed voters to allow or prohibit slavery
Main Idea 2:The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed voters to allow or prohibit slavery.
  • Stephen Douglas introduced a bill in Congress to divide the remainder of Louisiana Purchase into two territories—Kansas and Nebraska
  • Would allow people in each territory to decide on slavery
  • Would eliminate the Missouri Compromise’s restriction on slavery north of the 36°30’ line
  • Antislavery northerners were outraged that free territory could be turned into slave territory.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed in 1854 with southern support
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Main Idea 3:Pro-slavery and antislavery groups clashed violently in what became known as “Bleeding Kansas.”
  • Antislavery and pro-slavery groups rushed supporters to Kansas since popular vote would decide the slavery issue.
  • Pro-slavery voters crossed the border to vote, allowing their side to win the vote. The new government created strict laws, including that those who helped fugitive slaves could be put to death.
  • Antislavery group created a new government in protest
  • President Pierce recognized only pro-slavery legislature
  • Controversy over slavery affected everyone in Kansas.
bleeding kansas
Bleeding Kansas
  • Sack of Lawrence
  • Proslavery grand jury charged antislavery government with treason
  • Proslavery forces attacked city of Lawrence, the location of antislavery leaders
  • John Brown’s Response
  • Abolitionist John Brown and sons killed five pro-slavery men in what was called Pottawatomie Massacre
  • Kansas collapsed into civil war.
  • Congress
  • Senator Charles Sumner criticized pro-slavery people and insulted Senator Pickens Butler.
  • Representative Preston Brooks beat Sumner unconscious.
political divisions
Political Divisions

8.10.4

  • The Big Idea
  • The split over the issue of slavery intensified due to political division and judicial decisions.
  • Main Ideas
  • Political parties in the United States underwent change due to the movement to expand slavery.
  • The Dred Scott decision created further division over the issue of slavery.
  • The Lincoln-Douglas debates brought much attention to the conflict over slavery.
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Main Idea 1:Political parties in the United States underwent change due to the movement to expand slavery.
  • Some Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, and abolitionists joined in 1854 to form the Republican Party.
    • United against spread of slavery in the West
    • Nominated explorer John C. Frémont,who stood against spread of slavery
  • Democrats were in trouble. Those who supported the Kansas-Nebraska debate were not re-elected.
    • Nominated James Buchanan,Polk's secretary of state, who had not been involved in Kansas-Nebraska debate
  • Buchanan was elected by winning 14 of 15 slave states.
main idea 2 the dred scott decision created further division over the issue of slavery
Main Idea 2:The Dred Scott decision created further division over the issue of slavery.
  • Dred Scott was slave of Missouri physician
  • Had been taken to free territory by owner
  • Sued for freedom in 1846 after owner died, arguing he had become free when he lived in free territory
  • Case reached Supreme Court in 1857
dred scott v sandford
Dred Scott v. Sandford
  • Chief Justice Roger B. Taney wrote majority opinion
  • Ruled that African Americans, whether free or slave, were not citizens and had no right to sue in federal court; also ruled Missouri Compromise restriction on slavery was unconstitutional
  • Most white southerners were cheered by the decision.
  • Ruling stunned many northerners, including Illinois lawyer Abraham Lincoln,who warned about its consequences
main idea 3 the lincoln douglas debates brought much attention to the conflict over slavery
Main Idea 3:The Lincoln-Douglas debates brought much attention to the conflict over slavery.
  • Illinois Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Senate in 1858.
  • His opponent was Democrat Stephen Douglas, who had been senator since 1847.
  • Lincoln challenged Douglas to what became the historic Lincoln-Douglas debates.
lincoln douglas debates
Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Lincoln stressed that central issue of campaign was spread of slavery in the West

Douglas criticized Lincoln for saying nation could not remain “half slave and half free”

Douglas put forth Freeport Doctrine: people had right to introduce or exclude slavery, and police would enforce their decision even if it contradicted the Supreme Court

Freeport Doctrine helped Douglas win, but Lincoln became an important Republican Party leader and later president.

the nation divides
The Nation Divides

8.9.1

8.10.3

  • The Big Idea
  • The United States broke apart due to the growing conflict over slavery.
  • Main Ideas
  • John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry intensified the disagreement between free states and slave states.
  • The outcome of the election of 1860 divided the United States.
  • The dispute over slavery led the South to secede.
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Main Idea 1:John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry intensified the disagreement between free states and slave states.
  • John Brown tried to start uprising in 1858
    • Planned to arm local slaves by attacking federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia
  • John Brown’s raid began on night of October 16, 1859, when he and his men took over arsenal
  • Could not get slaves to join uprising
  • Federal troops captured Brown and men in attack on arsenal
  • Brown was convicted of treason, murder, and conspiracy, and was hanged.
    • Many northerners mourned his death, but criticized methods
    • Most southern whites felt threatened, and newspapers started to call for leaving the Union in order to remain safe.
main idea 2 the outcome of the election of 1860 divided the united states
Main Idea 2:The outcome of the election of 1860 divided the United States.
  • Northern Democrats chose Senator Stephen Douglas; Southern Democrats, Vice President John C. Breckinridge.
  • The Constitutional Union Party selected John Bell of Tennessee.
  • Republicans nominated Lincoln, who won with most votes of the free states.
    • Lincoln promised not to abolish slavery where it already existed.
  • The result angered southerners.
    • Lincoln had not campaigned in the South or carried any southern states in the election.
main idea 3 the dispute over slavery led the south to secede
Main Idea 3: The dispute over slavery led the South to secede.
  • Lincoln insisted he would not change slavery in South, but would not let it expand
  • People in South believed that their economy and way of life would be destroyed
  • South Carolina legislature met to consider secession,formally withdrawing from the Union
  • South Carolina seceded, believing it had the right because it had voluntarily joined the Union
confederate states of america
Confederate States of America
  • Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas joined South Carolina to form Confederate States of America
  • Jefferson Davis of Mississippi elected Confederate president
  • Senator John Crittenden proposed series of constitutional amendments hoping to satisfy the South by protecting slavery
  • Lincoln believed there could be no compromise about the extension of slavery, and the plan was rejected.
lincoln takes office
Lincoln Takes Office

Lincoln inaugurated on March 4, 1861

Opposed idea that southern states could leave the Union because they were unhappy with government’s position on slavery

Announced in inaugural address that he would keep all government property in the seceding states

Hoped that southern states would return to the Union