May 13, 2013 • Agenda • Joke of the Day • Roots of the French Revolution • HW: Read “Social Classes” & Chapter 18, Section1; complete the reading guide or take notes
“Man was born free, yet everywhere he is in chains.” -Rousseau, Social Contract
“Nature was creating economic problems. First, a hailstorm and a drought ruined the harvest. Then the winter of 1788 was the worst in 80 years. Frozen rivers prevented waterwheels from powering the mills that ground wheat into flour. Food and firewood were scarce and expensive. As hunger and cold made life wretched for thousands of French citizens, misery grew into anger.”
Alas, much more lies sick than poor Louis: not the French King only, but the French Kingship; this too, after long rough tear and wear, is breaking down. The world is all so changed...—Borne over the Atlantic, to the closing ear of Louis, King by the Grace of God, what sounds are these; muffled ominous, new in our centuries? Boston Harbour is black with unexpected Tea: behold a Pennsylvanian Congress gather; and ere long, on Bunker Hill, DEMOCRACY announcing, in rifle-volleys death-winged, under her Star Banner, to the tune of Yankee-doodle-doo, that she is born, and, whirlwind-like, will envelope the whole world! -- Thomas Carlyle, The French Revolution (1837)
3 Causes of the French Rev. 1. 2. 3.
Homework • Read the article “Social Classes of France” and Chapter 18, Section 1 (pp. 576-583) and complete the reading guide or take notes
May 1, 2014 • Agenda • Quick Quiz • Joke of the Day • Beginnings of the Revolution
Quick Quiz • There were 3 main causes of the French Revolution, what were they? • . • . • . • What was the Estates-General? • What was the Tennis Court Oath?
Social Divisions • The French citizenry was divided into three social groups, or estates. • First Estate: • The Clergy • Second Estate: • The Nobility • Third Estate: • Everyone else… • Bourgeoisie, artisans, & peasants
Social Divisions • What issues did the third estate face? • Most lived under a feudal system – were peasants (serfs) • Made up 80 percent of the population; owned < 40% of the land • Owed duties to the nobles • Had to “rent” tools to produce goods • Wages increased more slowly than the price of goods Only estate forced to pay the taille, or land tax. But only owned 40% of the land – what’s the big deal?
Social Divisions • Who were the Bourgeoisie? • Members of the third estate • Educated professionals • Doctors, writers, lawyers Were the bourgeoisie more like the third estate or the second? Why?
The French Budget • Despite economic hardships, the government continued to spend… • Wars: American Revolution, war with Austria • Extravagances: castles, palaces, luxuries, pageants • Marie Antoinette: lavish spending
The French Budget • Marie Antoinette • Daughter of Maria Theresa • Married to Louis XVI in 1770 at 14 • Escorted to France with an entourage of 57 carriages, 117 footmen, and 376 horses • The Anti-Louis • Energetic, out-going, and bold • Loved partying, gambling, and extravagant fashion • Commissioned herself a new palace at Petit Trianon in Versailles
May 2, 2014 • Agenda: • Collect Papers • Joke of the Day • Towards Revolution
The Estates-General • A meeting of representatives of each estate • 300 clergy / nobles • 600 peasants • What did the third estate want? • A constitution making the clergy and nobles pay taxes, as well • What went wrong?
The Estates-General • Voting • Traditionally, each estate had one vote: • Clergy ____ • Nobles ____ • Everyone Else ____ • Third Estate wanted a system in which each person present voted: • Clergy ____ • Nobles ____ • Everyone Else ____ Which system did Louis favor? Why?
The National Assembly • The third estate dissatisfied with events at the estates-general • June 17, 1789, third estate declares itself the National Assembly • Locked out – meet at indoor tennis court
The Tennis Court Oath • “The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly; • Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassembly wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of the individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.”
Louis gives in • June 27, the first and second estates join the Assembly
The Storming of the Bastille • Louis’ bad moves • Surrounds Paris & Versailles • Fires a popular finance minister • Continued avoidance of food shortages • Angry mob demands access to munitions • 300 National Guard soldiers defect; join the protesters Jacques Necker
The Storming of the Bastille • Was the Bastille an important, strategic fort for Louis? • Why, then, was the Bastille important? Video
The Great Fear • Violence! • Armed bands of peasants • Killed nobles & royal officials • Burned chateaus • Destroyed records of feudal obligations • Results • 2 armies: Royal Army & Revolutionary Nat. Guard • Emigration • Set off pre-emptive wars in surrounding countries
Action in the National Assembly • August 4, 1789 • Nobles & Clergy surrender feudal rights and privileges • “The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen” • Declared for ALL men: • Liberalism: • Nationalism: Civil and political rights and liberties People united by a common language and culture should control its own destiny
The End of an Era • A new constitution • Power resides with the National Assembly • King maintains weak veto • Established jury trials • Torture outlawed • Guillotine introduced (more human execution) • Internal tolls (taxes) abolished • Sounds good, but…. • Voting (full citizenship) required land • Only 4 million French able to vote Knowing what caused the revolution, what did the Assembly NOT address?
Addressing the Debt • Who’s got a lot of wealth? • National Assembly confiscates Church property • Prints assignats – bonds backed by church property • Quickly sold 400,000,000 francs worth • The government got money, what’s the issue? • People paid taxes with the assignats • Still short on cash, government prints more; cycle starts over again • What happens when you print more?!
May 15, 2013 • Agenda • Quick-Check Review • Joke of the Day • Estates Illustrated
Homework • Read Chapter 18, Section 2 and complete the reading guide
May 6, 2014 • Agenda • Finish video • Joke of the Day • Robespierre • Factions • Defending La Terreur
Maximilien Robespierre • Who is Robespierre? • What were his ideals/goals for the revolution? • Why was he killed?
French Revolution Factions • What plagues the National Convention? • In-fighting over measures • Royalist uprisings in the west and the south • Foreign invasions from the north and west • Response? • Establish the Committee of Public Safety
Law of Suspects 1. Immediately after the publication of the present decree, all suspects within the territory of the Republic and still at large, shall be placed in custody. 2. The following are deemed suspects: 1– those who, by their conduct, associations, comments, or writings have shown themselves partisans of tyranny or federalism and enemies of liberty; 2– those who are unable to justify, in the manner prescribed by the decree of 21 March, their means of existence and the performance of their civic duties; 3– those to whom certificates of patriotism have been refused; 4– civil servants suspended or dismissed from their positions by the National Convention or by its commissioners, and not reinstated, especially those who have been or are to be dismissed by virtue of the decree of 14 August; 5– those former nobles, together with husbands, wives, fathers, mothers, sons or daughters, brothers or sisters, and agents of the émigrés, who have not constantly demonstrated their devotion to the Revolution; 6– those who have emigrated between 1 July 1789, and the publication of the decree of 30 March (8 April 1792), even though they may have returned to France within the period established by said decree or prior thereto. Source: Jean-BaptisteDuvergier, Collection complète des lois, décrets, ordonnances, règlements, avis du conseil d'état . . . de 1788 a 1830 . . . , 2d ed., 110 vols. (Paris, 1834–1906), 6:172–73.
Justifying Terror • Form groups of 4 (no more; no less) • Retrieve primary documents • Read primary documents • We will share/discuss tomorrow
May 7, 2014 • Agenda: • Joke of the Day • Justifying Terror • Photo-stories
Justifying the Terror • Get with your partners and do the following: • Summarize the primary source you read • Share the reasons/justifications for violence/terror
The Terror • The “morals” of civil war: • “How can civil war be ended? • By punishing traitors and conspirators, particularly if they are deputies or administrators; • by sending loyal troops under patriotic leaders to subdue the aristocrats of Lyon, Marseille, Toulon, the Vendée, the Jura, and all other regions in which the standards of rebellion and royalism have been raised: • and by making frightful examples of all scoundrels who have outrage liberty and spilled the blood of patriots.”
The Terror • To establish the “Republic of Virtue”: • “If the basis of popular government in peacetime is virtue, the basis of popular government during a revolution is both virtue and terror; virtue, without which terror is baneful (harmful); terror, without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing more than speedy, severe and inflexible justice; it is thus an emanation of virtue; it is less a principle in itself, than a consequence of the general principle of democracy, applied to the most pressing needs of the patrie.”
The “Republic of Virtue” • What is the “Republic of Virtue”? • A republic in which the people seek the happiness of their fellow humans rather than their own material wealth