Chapter 22 An Age of Nationalism and Realism, 1850 - 1871
The France of Napoleon III: Louis Napoleon & the 2nd Napoleonic Empire • Louis Napoleon: Toward the Second Empire • National Assembly rejected his call for revision of constitution to allow him to stand for reelection • Responded by seizing government by force • Restored universal male suffrage and asked that the empire be restored • How does this call for voting rights seem on the outside like a call for liberalism but is more a way to solidify power for himself • Assumed the title of Napoleon III, December 2, 1852 • 7.5 million to 640 thousand won the election
The France of Napoleon III: Louis Napoleon & the 2nd Napoleonic Empire • The Second Napoleonic Empire • Authoritarian government • Early domestic policies • Economic prosperity • Used government resources to stimulate the economy • Built Railroads canals and harbors • Tripled France’s iron production • Improved social Welfare-- Free Medicine and Healthcare • Improved Housing • Reconstruction of Paris • Baron Haussmann • Took down Medieval Paris and Modernized the streets and buildings • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5cvAJcPBlk • Liberalization of the regime in the face of opposition • Allowed Unions and allowed strikes • Moved away from Laissez-faire
Foreign Policy: The Mexican Adventure • Sent troops to Mexico in 1861 to intervene in struggle between Mexican liberals and conservatives • French forces remained after order had been restored • Installed Archduke Maximilian of Austria as emperor in 1864 • Maximilian overthrown and executed in 1867
New Period After Failed Revolutions • REALPOLITIK • Governing by practical means • Achieve goals step by step in logical order • Do what is necessary to achieve its goals • Ending the romantic era
The Crimean War [1854-1856] Russia[claimed protectorship over the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire] Ottoman Empire Great Britain France Piedmont-Sardinia
Foreign policy: Crimean War • The Ottoman Empire • Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire • Encroachment of the Russian Empire • Loss of territory • The War • Russian demand to protect Christian shrines (Privilege already given to the French) • Ottomans refuse; Russia invades Moldavia and Wallachia • Turks declare war, October 4, 1853 • Britain and France declare war on Russia, March 28, 1854 • Destroys the Concert of Europe • War ends in March, 1856 • Political effects of the war
The Charge of the Light Brigade:The Battle of Balaklava  Tactics remain the same despite technology changing. Charging into the fire http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzCOL6ewpPw Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward,All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred."Forward, the Light Brigade!"Charge for the guns!" he said:Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aKchwAWMpDA A romanticized poem of the battle by Alfred Lord Tennyson
Results of the Crimean War 3) Russia had to give up its claim to the protectorship of the Orthodox faith in the Ottoman Empire 4) 1841– No War Ship allowed on the Black Sea Means Russia cant use any warm water Harbor in the Black Sea– Russia Stuck • 1) Russia gives up all claims to land they tried to gain along the Danube River • 2) The Mouth of the Danube is free for everyone can use it… Gowes a long way into Europe
Florence Nightingale [1820-1910] “The Lady with the Lamp” Starts Red Cross
Treaty of Paris  • Give up trade on Danube River • No Russian or Ottoman naval forces on the Black Sea. • Claims to Moldavia and Wallachia (later known as Romania) • All the major powers agreed to respect the political integrity of the Ottoman Empire. • Black Sea Neutral (no military ships)
Quick and Dirty Crimean War • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a1yrAVPALxw
Review • Who is included in the Concert of Europe • Which empire was on decline and the other powers wanted to get the pieces • What was Russia’s pretext for moving in? • Why did France and Britain intervene? • What women helped lead to better sanitary care for wounded
Crimean War Political effects of the war • Russia Defeat sends them into decades of isolation • Russia and Austria have tensions over their unwillingness to side with Russia • Britain disillusioned by the war withdraws from continental issues • Austria left without friends • Helps lead to unification in Italy and Germany
National Unification: Italy • Kingdom of Piedmont • Victor Emmanuel II (1849-1878) of Kingdom of Piedmont • Count Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861) • Napoleon III’s alliance with Piedmont, 1858 • War with Austria, 1859 • Northern states join Piedmont • Guiseppi Garibaldi (1807-1882) • The Red Shirts • Invasion of Kingdom of the Two Sicily's, 1860 • Kingdom of Italy, March 17, 1861 • Annexation of Venetia, 1866 • Annexation of Rome, 1870
Realpolitik • Political Movement after 1848 • The idea that you can accomplish your political goals via practical means rather than having idealism drive political decisions • Came from ideas of Machiavellian – not romantics
Italian Nationalist Leaders King Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppi Garibaldi[The “Sword”] Giuseppi Mazzini[The “Heart”] Count Cavour[The “Head”]
Cavour and Napoleon III Cavour Napoleon III Would alley with Piedmont to drive out Austrians from Italy Receive Nice and Savoy Kingdom of Central Italy would go to Napoleon III’s cousin who would marry King Emmanuel’s daughter • Piedmont would extend into the kingdom of upper Italy • Add Lombard, Venetia, Parma, Modena and Part of the Papal States
The War begins • Piedmont provokes Austria • French win battles against Austria and then declare a peace “prematurely” and without consulting Cavour • Why • The War seemed more difficult than anticipated • Prussians were likely to aid Austria • Turns out OKAY as other Italian states join the unification movement and the Piedmont
Garabaldi Giuseppi Garibaldi[The “Sword”]
Sardinia-Piedmont: The “Magnet” Italian unification movement:Risorgimento [“Resurgence”]
Step #1: Carbonari Insurrections:1820-1821 “Coalmen.”
Step #2: Piedmont-Sardinia Sends Troops to the Crimea What does Piedmont-Sardinia get in return?
Step #5: Austro-Prussian War,1866 Austria loses control of Venetia. Venetia is annexed to Italy.
Step #7: French Troops Leave Rome, 1870 to go to the Franco- Prussian War Italy is united!
A Unified Peninsula! A contemporary British cartoon, entitled "Right Leg in the Boot at Last," shows Garibaldi helping Victor Emmanuel put on the Italian boot.
National Unification: Germany • William I, 1861-1888 • Wanted military reforms • Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) • Reorganization of the army • Realpolitik • The Danish War (1864) • Schleswig and Holstein • Joint administration with Austria • Austro-Prussian War (1866) • Austrian defeat at Königgratz, July 3, 1866 • North German Confederation • Military agreements with Prussia
German Unifcation • Unifs under the Hohzollerns • During period fter 1815 Prussia emerged as an alternative to a Habsburg-based Germany
Zollverein • German Customs union • Created in 1834-leads to signidicant industrial growth • Biggest source of tension between Prussia and Austria • It excluded Austria • 1853– all German states except Austria are part of Zollverein • Created a basis for a German state without Austria
Question is how to Unite the German Principalities? • Kleinsdeutch vs. Grossdeutch • Grossdeutch • Failed plan for unifed Germany which included Prussia and Austria • Kleinsdeutch • A unified Germany without Austria
Kaiser Wilhelm I • “Gap theory” gained Bismarck’s favor with the king. • Army Bill Crises cretaed stalemate between king and legislature over reforms of the army • Bismarck insisted Prussian Constution contained a “gap” • Constitution doesn’t say what should happen if there is a stalemates • Since the king had granted the consitution, • Bismarck insisted if its not stated the • legislature should follow the king’s will
Chancellor Otto von Bismarck The “IronChancellor” Realpolitik “Blood&Iron”
Otto von Bismarck . . . . The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they’ll sleep at night. Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied. The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions—that was the mistake of 1848-1849—but by blood and iron.
Otto von Bismarck . . . . I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made. A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one. Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans will provoke the next war.