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SOLIDS PowerPoint Presentation

SOLIDS

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SOLIDS

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  1. SOLIDS

  2. What you need to be able to do:given any one, figure out the rest • Formula • Properties – predict and explain • Particle view

  3. Properties of Solids • Melting point • Vapor pressure – definition on next slide • Conducts heat • Conducts electricity • Brittle • Hard • Malleable • Ductile

  4. Vapor Pressure • the pressure of the vapor resulting from evaporation of a liquid (or solid) above a sample of the liquid (or solid) in a closed container • http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/vpress.html

  5. Let’s update your notes:4 Types of Solids Your Old Textbook New AP Curriculum Network (not always atomic) Metallic (not always atomic) Molecular (includes Noble gases and covalent compounds that aren’t network) Ionic • Atomic • Network • Metallic • Group 8A/Noble Gases • Molecular • Ionic Focus on the pictures

  6. Ionic Solids • Lattice points occupied by cations and anions • Held together by electrostatic attractions (an intramolecular force) • Hard, high melting point, brittle • Poor conductor of heat and electricity in SOLID state (although ionic compounds do conduct in LIQUID state  can help with identification) CaF2 CsCl 11.6 ZnS

  7. Strength of ionic bonds • Use Coulomb’s Law! • Smaller ions (little r) • Larger charges (big q) • They’ll usually only ask about one at a time • Example: LiF vs NaCl • Example: LiF vs BeO

  8. Metallic nucleus & inner shell e- mobile “sea” of e- • Lattice points occupied by metal atoms (could be 1 type or 2) • Held together by metallic bonds (nondirectional covalent bonds; share electrons with everyone; sea of electrons) • Wide range of hardnesses/melting points • Good conductor of heat and electricity due to delocalized/free electrons • Shiny • Malleable/Ductile – doesn’t change the environement immediately surrounding the metal core • Readily alloyed • 2 diff metals 11.6

  9. carbon atoms Network Solids • Lattice points occupied by atoms (usually carbon/silicon or silicon dioxide and silicon carbide) • Held together by directional covalent bonds (an intramolecular force that is very strong) • Hard, high melting point • Poor conductor of heat and electricity (insulator) graphite diamond 11.6

  10. Molecular Solids • Lattice points occupied by nonmetals, diatomic molecules, covalent molecules, and polymers • Held together by intermolecular forces (much weaker than intramolecular forces) • Soft, low melting point (because held together by weaker intermolecular forces) • Poor conductor of heat and electricity 11.6

  11. Practice - Identify the type of solid each substance would form • CaO • Cu • He • SiO2 • CO2 • Zn • SrCl2 • Brass Which would have the highest melting point? Narrow it down to one or two…. Ionic and Network will always be the highest. In this case CaO is 4662°F while SiO2 is 2912°F. Which do you think would be third? SrCl2 (~1600°F) Ionic Metallic Molecular Network Molecular Metallic Ionic Metallic

  12. Make your foldable • Draw a picture representation for each of the 4 types of solids • Network (not always atomic) • Metallic (not always atomic) • Molecular (includes Noble gases and covalent compounds that aren’t network) • Ionic

  13. Add these properties to the correct solid; include terms like high/low or good/bad if appropriate • Melting point • Vapor pressure • Conducts heat • Conducts electricity • Brittle • Hard • Malleable • Ductile

  14. IONIC • High melting point* • Low vapor pressure* • Do not conduct heat (insulator) • Do not conduct electricity* • Brittle* • Hard • Not malleable or ductile

  15. Metallic • Low vapor pressure • Good conductor of heat/electricity* • Malleable/Ductile*

  16. Network • High melting point* • Low vapor pressure • Do not conduct heat (they’re insulators) • Some conduct electricity (Si gets more conductive with increased temperatures) • Brittle/Hard* • Not malleable or Ductile

  17. Molecular • Low melting point* • High vapor pressure • Do not conduct heat • Do not conduct electricity* • Not hard (they’re soft) • Not malleable/Ductile