1 / 100

The Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement. Essential Questions:. How had legalized segregation deprived African-Americans of their rights as citizens? How did WWII experiences lay the foundation for the movement ? What were key court decisions of the movement? What were the responses to those decisions?

Download Presentation

The Civil Rights Movement

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. The Civil Rights Movement

  2. Essential Questions: • How had legalized segregation deprived African-Americans of their rights as citizens? • How did WWII experiences lay the foundation for the movement? • What were key court decisions of the movement? What were the responses to those decisions? • Who were the key leaders and organizations of the Civil Rightsmovement? • What were victories of the movement? • How did the movement expand and change?

  3. Segregation : The World of Jim Crow 1877-1960’s • Many states passed Jim Crow laws • The laws required separation of blacks and whites in schools, parks, public buildings, hospitals, and transportation systems • Whites and Blacks could not use the same toilets and water fountains, theaters were segregated as well • African American Facilities were always inferior

  4. Violence towards African- Americans was widespread • Lynchings were carried out when mobs seized innocent individuals and tortured, mutilated and hung the victim • Those who did it were not caught or punished (KKK)

  5. Discrimination: North Vs South • In the South de jure segregation was practiced because of the Jim Crow laws (The Law) • In the North de facto segregation was practiced, the not posted or unannounced separation of races ( The Fact) • Public Areas, schools, housing, and employment were effectively segregated • Bloody Race Riots occurred in NYC in 1900, and Springfield Illinois in 1908, Tulsa in 1921

  6. The Great Migration 1890-1920

  7. Success and Black Pride • The 369th Harlem Hell Fighters of WWI • Madame CJ Walker became the richest women in America • Marcus Garvey’s United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) gained support in the 1920’s • The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920’s

  8. Discrimination and Injustice • Blacks up North faced segregation and racial prejudice, down South the number of lynchings increased • Competition for jobs led to violence (Race Riots) Racism increased by the 1930’s • During the Great Depression jobs were scarce and blacks were the first fired and last hired • Discrimination existed in FDR’s New Deal Programs (CCC Segregated, and WPA) • The Scottsboro Boys case signified racial injustice in the late 1930’s

  9. Civil Rights of the 1940’s • New job opportunities for Blacks, Latinos, and women • 1million African Americans served in WWII • Double V Campaign • In 1942 Civil Rights leader James Farmer founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to confront segregation in the North • First Sit In was used in Chicago, and boycotts • In 1943 Race Riot in Detroit, 34 killed • A. Phillip Randolph’s March on Washington • FDR’s establishing the Fair Labor Practices Commission ( No Discrimination in War Work)

  10. NAACP’s Legal Strategy • The NAACP focused on the inequalities between the black/white schools • Under lawyer Thurgood Marshall the NAACP would win 29 out of 32 cases • Morgan Vs Virginia (1946) - No segregated seating on interstate buses • Sweatt Vs Painter (1950) – State Law schools must admit black applicants

  11. Brown V. Board of Education • The father of 8 yr old Linda Brown challenged the idea of his daughter traveling 21 blocks to school in Topeka, Kansas • Thurgood Marshall argued the case before the Supreme Court (1954) • Under Chief Justice Earl Warren the court unanimously struck down school segregation • It violated the 14th Amendment and “in public education the doctrine of separate but equal has no place.” • 12 million schoolchildren in 21 states were impacted

  12. Crisis in Little Rock 1957 • In September Gov. Orval Faubus of Arkansas ordered the AK National Guard to turn away nine African American students trying to attend Little Rock’s Central High school • A Federal Judge ordered the “Little Rock Nine” be admitted • The students were turned away by hostile crowds and guardsman • IKE called out the 101st Airborne in support of the Federal Court Order (Troop escort) • Civil Rights Act of 1957 gave the Attorney General power over school desegregation

  13. Montgomery Bus Boycott 1956 • In December 1st, 1955 Seamstress and NAACP officer Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus home • The Montgomery Improvement Association suggested a boycott and a young 26 yr. old Minister Martin Luther King was elected leader • African-Americans filed a lawsuit and boycotted the busses for 381 days • A bomb ripped through MLK’s home but in 1956 the Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation

  14. Dr. Martin Luther King • DR. King called his brand of non-violent resistance “Soul Force” • He was influenced by his Christian beliefs, Henry David Thoreau, A. Phillip Randolph, and Mohandas Gandhi • King graduated from Morehouse College • King earned a divinity degree from Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, PA • King earned a PH.D from Boston Univ where he met his wife Coretta Scott King

  15. Dr. King and the SCLC • In 1957 King joined with Baptist Ministers and Civil Rights leaders in forming the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) • King worked with two Northern pacifists: Beyard Rustin and Glenn Smily • Ella Baker was the backbone of SCLC by setting up branches all over the South • The Reverend Ralph Abernathy was elected treasurer

  16. The Movement Spreads: Sit-ins • In April 1960 Baker helped students at Shaw University organize The Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) • Student Activism would be essential • In February 1960 sit-in were held at the White Only lunch counter at Woolworth’s in Greensboro, NC • By late 1960 students had descended on segregated lunch counters in 48 cities in 11 states resisting violent backlash

  17. The Politics of Civil Rights The Election of 1960 • JFK supported the Sit-ins, Nixon supported Civil Rights in Congress but mentioned it little while campaigning • Robert Kennedy’s influence in getting Dr. MLK out of jail in Atlanta, and JFK’ phone call to Coretta Scott King helped • JFK won 70% of the black vote • JFK established a Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity • Robert Kennedy’s in the field lawyers/agents (Active Attorney General)

  18. The Freedom Rides • In 1961 CORE members black and white began riding interstate buses to test the courts decision to end segregation on buses and public places • Freedom Riders were attacked and beaten by white mobs in Birmingham and Anniston, AL • One bus was firebombed, in Montgomery riders were beaten with bats and pipes • RFK sent in 400 Federal Marshals for the rest of the ride to Mississippi • The ICC banned segregation in all interstate travel

  19. The Albany Movement • Activist from SNCC, NAACP and local groups of Albany, GA formed a coalition in an effort to desegregate the small city • Black citizens and activists sat-in, boycotted, marched in an effort to integrate public facilities and secure voting rights • Thousands spent time in jail (MLK 2X) • Chief Pritchett filed the jails with black demonstrators, and prevented white mob violence • Albany, GA remained segregated

  20. Integrating Old Miss • In Sept. 1962 air-force veteran James Meredith won a case to enroll • Gov. Ross Barnett refused to let him register • Riots broke out, thousands of soldiers called in, 200 arrests,160 wounded marshals and two deaths

  21. The Movement at High Tide -Birmingham, Alabama • The SCLC and Dr. MLK targeted Birmingham, AL to hold a march • In April 12, 1963 Dr. MLK was arrested • He wrote “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” • On May 2nd, 2,000 children marched • Chief Bull Conner arrested 959 of them • On May 3rd, Police Dogs, high pressure hoses, and clubs were used (National TV Audience) • Protests, Boycotts, and Negative Media forced desegregation

More Related