Early 20th century revolution: china(1911-1949) Emily DiMarco Michelle Bai WHAP Pd. 4
Why 1911 – 1949? • The Manchu Dynasty was finally overthrown in 1911. • The Chinese Revolution continued until 1949 because China remained unstable and went through many political evolutions due to unsatisfied Chinese peoples. • The Chinese Revolution ended in 1949 because 1949 Mao’s Red Army took over China and created a more stable government.
Causes of the Revolution • 1. Foreign intervention: The intervention of the West, especially Britain caused significant resentment amongst the Chinese because of their trading restrictions and their intrusions brought by the loss of the Opium Wars. • 2. The lack of governmental action and unsuccessful reforms (abolishing the civil service exams) to help resolve this crisis caused Chinese to become disgruntled with the weak leadership under the Manchu Dynasty. • 3. Increased corruption caused a significant loss of money for the Manchu dynasty. The government attempted to fix this by instating new, harsh taxes on their subjects, sparking revolts and leading people to find ways to avoid paying.
Stage 1: 1911 • 1911: Manchu Dynasty is overthrown and collapses. • It collapsed due to unsuccessful reforms, weak governmental rulers, and citizen revolts. • Sun Yat-sen came to power as a president and established a new government with three principles: Nationalism, Democracy, and Peoples’ Livelihood. • Yat-senaimed to establish a republic based on European democracy and equality in hopes to modernize China. • Yat-sen also established the KMT in 1912, which was the Chinese Nationalist Party.
Stage 2: 1916 • Beginning in 1916-1926: Warlord Decade • Military zones were set up with a military leader governing and, sometimes, terrorizing their zone. • Oppression of the lower class (peasants) grew and the amount of land they owned decreased. • Caused rapid distribution of Western political, social, and artistic ideas in urban centers.
Stage 3: 1919 • May 4th, 1919: May 4th Movement • After WWI, the Treaty of Versailles was signed by the Allied powers, acknowledging Japanese territorial claims in China, which angered the Chinese who refused to sign the Treaty. • Due to this, about 5,000 students from Peking University crowded the streets to demonstrate against the Versailles Treaty, leading to the May 4th Movement. • Became a National Movement in China; Protestors believed that Confucianism and imperialism were old-fashioned and China needed to be modernized.
Stage 4: 1921 • 1921: Chinese Communist Party was formed by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. Mao Zedong was an early member. • Born out of ideas of Marxism. The CCP argued that capitalism sponsored aggression between people and countries. • Peasantry supported Marxism increase their status and standard of living. • Mao Zedong soon became the leader of the CCP and adopted the ideas of Lenin (who staged a revolution in Russia). He also created a communist army.
Stage 5: 1923 • 1923: “The First United Front” The KMT and CCP form an alliance. • Joined together in attempts to end Warlords’ power. Tried to Spread Communism together through the formation of the National Revolutionary Army. • This leads to Lenin sending supplies and resources for allowing the CCP to join the KMT.
Stage 6: 1927 • 1927: The KMT purge the CCP out of fear • After a combined successful defeat of the warlords the KMT decide to split from the CCP and “purge” them. • Execution of CCP members and followers ensues and many go into hiding. • Chiang Kai-shek consolidates power within KMT.
Stage 7: 1928 • 1928: Chiang Kai-shek emerges as the President of China • This is because his “Northern Expedition” finally succeeded in removing the CCP from the government and rose to power. • He rejected Western ideas and democracy and instead promoted conservative, traditional Chinese Culture.
Stage 8: 1928- 1937 • 1928- 1937: “Nanjing Decade” Chiang Kai-shek establishes the Nationalist Republic of China; moves the capital to Nanjing. • The United States and Britain officially recognize the Republic • KMT's "New Life" movement combines Confucian and Fascist ideas. • However, the government becomes corrupt and harsh; dictator-like. • The KMT ignored the peasants and their quality of life remains stagnant unlike Mao, who fought for them.
Stage 9: 1934 • 1934-1935: The Long March • The nationalists imposed a blockade on the Communists andMao Zedong decided to evacuate the area and establish a new stronghold in northwest China. • Around 100,000 men headed west through mountainous areas and experienced terrible hardships along the journey. • An estimated 30,000 survived due to the terrible conditions and harsh mountainous terrain.
Stage 10: 1949 • 1949: Era of Communism begins • Mao Zedung’sRed Army takes over China’s major cities and assumes control over entire country after successfully defeating the KMT in the Chinese Civil War (1946-1949). • Mao creates a more stable Chinese government, ending the revolution. • The opposition, Chiang Kai-shek and KMT, escape to Taiwan.
SUN YAT SEN • Headed the Revolutionary Alliance, which toppled the Qing Dynasty • Claimed mandate to rule China • Founder and first president of the Republic of China • Abdicated power in 1912 to Yuan • Head of Nationalist Party from 1911 to 1925
Yuan shikai • Warlord after fall of Qing Dynasty • Hoped to seize vacated Manchu throne and rule a new dynasty • Became President in 1912 with the goal to unify China under a single government in Beijing • Resigned in 1916 in the face of Japanese invasion because refused to accept or reject the Japanese’s Twenty-One Demands • Allowed rival, who was hostile to Japan, to gain support
Li dazhao • Most influential thinker who called for modification of Marxism to suit China • Saw the peasants as the vanguard for revolutionary change, different from Lenin’s view • Justified this view from the orthodox Marxist emphasis on working class by saying that China was proletarian • Influenced Mao Zedong greatly
CHIANG KAI-SHEK • First head of the Whampoa Military Academy • Not pleased by communist alliance • Seized control of Nationalist Party (KMT) in 1925, after Sun’s death • Rejected Western ideals and wanted to preserve traditional Chinese culture. • Recognized as new president of China after campaigns that captured Shanghai and Beijing • Fled to Taiwan when Beijing was seized in 1949
MAO ZE DONG • Influenced by Li Dazhao, shared modified Marxism ideology • Communist leader in revolutionary China, • Advocated authoritarian state, extensive government intervention • Fought against Guomingdang (KMT) and spearheaded a Long March to escape Hunan • Gains control of China in 1949
Results of the revolution • Ideals of the revolution definitely changed as the leaders changed. Sun-Yatsen Yuan Shikai Chiang kai-shek Mao Zedong At first, democratic ideals modeled from Western Europe. Then switched to communism. • China was unified under one government by 1949. Probably the only prominent goal that was achieved. Many of Sun’s democratic aspirations were abandoned. • Lower classes—specifically peasant class—gained the most. The wealthy and upper middle class lost. Democratic ideas were not ideal in a society whose majority was a starving, destitute peasant class. Thus, Mao championed reforms and policies that implemented great government intervention in industry and welfare.
Results of the revolution • Ideas that once dictated the Ancien Regime were abandoned completely. May Fourth Movement new youth opposition against elders, promotion of Western idealsand almost transformed China into a liberal democracy Recognized that these of Confucian principles prevented Chinese society from improving and modernizing
Works cited • “1911 Special: The First Chinese Revolution.” Proletarian Online. Communist Party of Great • Britain (Marxist-Leninist), Oct. 2011. Web. 01 Apr. 2014. • Chinese Revoltuion of 1911-49 PPT. WHAP Homepage.n.p, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2014. • “The Chinese Revolution of 1949.” U.S. Department of State: Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2014. • “Fall of Qing.” China’s 1911 Revolution: A Centenary Retrospective. George Washington University, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. • “People’s Republic of China at 60: 1925-1949 – Origins of the Chinese Revolution.” LINKS: International Journal of Socialist Renewal. LINKS, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2014.
Works cited • “Republic of China (1911-1949).” Cultural Essentials. UCLA, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2014. • “Sun Yat-sen: Fundamentals of National Reconstruction.” Chinese Cultural Studies. City University of New York at Brooklyn, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. • “Timeline for China.” Indiana University. Indiana University, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.