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FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911)

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  1. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) Japan humiliates China in Sino-Jap. War over Korea (1894-5) “100 Days Reforms” Quickly crushed China in further decay Conservative reaction vs. change & foreign ideas Taiping Reb. (1850-64) & 2nd Opium War (1858-60) Sporadic reforms mostly thwarted Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Defeat in war &/or revolt Needs foreign intervention Rev. in 1911 establishes moderate but weak Western style democracy Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted 1st Opium War (1839-42)  Br wins  Controls Hong Kong & free trade in 5 Chin. ports through Treaty of Nanking Other Eur. nations force China to grant similar treaties, status of most favored nation & extraterritoriality, & right to collect debts by collecting Ch. taxes Boxer Rebellion (1898-1900) Foreign intervention Serious & lasting reforms Growing reform movement China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53) Stresses from overpopulation (FC.58) Dynastic corruption cycle (FC.53) Growing chaos since Govt is too weak to stop turmoil & rise of more radical Communists (FC.147)

  2. China’s Sorrow To understand China’s history, one must understand its traditionally autocratic government and the need for massive flood control projects to contain the Yellow River, around which Chinese civilization was born. The main problem has been silting from windblown steppe soil known as loess that fills the riverbed. The response to this has been to build levees to contain the river. However, over the centuries, the riverbed achieved heights up to 10 meters above the surrounding flood plain, precariously held in by levees that were 20 meters high. They were disasters waiting to happen. 10 meters

  3. One such disaster took place in 1887 when unusually heavy melting snow and spring rains broke the levees and killed thousands from flooding and an estimated 1 million more in the resulting famine. In 1931, another flood killed between 850,000 and 4,000,000 people, making it the single worst natural disaster in history. Two years later, another flood killed 20,000 more. And in 1938, the Huang He’s levees were dynamited to slow the progress of the Japanese army. Between 1887 and 1943, drowning, flooding and disease triggered by the Yellow River’s floods, claimed an estimated 10 million lives. No wonder the Yellow River is called China’s Sorrow.

  4. In addition to flooding, the Huang He has shifted its channels many times over the years. The map below shows these shifts over the last 2600 years.

  5. FC.58 THE MING & EARLY QING DYNASTIES (1368-c.1800) Sailing exped’s to India & E. Africa to spread trade & Chinese influence Strong native rule restored by Ming Dynasty (FC.56) Strong prosperous empire ruled from Beijing in North: Restore civil service exams & position of mandarins Extend Chinese rule to old borders of Han Emp. Reforestation, canal & dike repairs & tax reform China once again politically & culturally dominates E. Asia: Architecture develops with arched bridges & curved roofs Jesuits from Europe exchange tech. & scientific ideas w/China Until hereditary offices in army caused its gradual deterioration Until emperors lose interest in govt & retreat to luxury of the forbidden City in Beijing Corruption & neglect of flood control & irrigation Famine Nomadic raids from North & pirate raids from Japan  Decline of Ming Dynasty Semi-nomadic Manchu from Manchuria rule China as Qing Dynasty (1644-1911j) while maintaining Chinese govt. & scholarship Greatest expansion of China’s borders & contact with outside world in China’s history Import new crops from Americas: sweet potatoes, corn, & better strains of rice Franciscans & dominicans preach vs. Confucianist ideas & practices Chinese agr. expands to uplands of some of its rivers Population grows to 350m. by 1800 Serious economic & environmental strains China cuts off most contact with Europe Chinese technology starts to stagnate Soil erosion & deforestation  Disastrous floods downstream China open to aggression from W. Eur. In 1800s (FC124)

  6. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81)

  7. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Differing ideas on econ?

  8. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Chinese attitude toward outsiders? (FC.53) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53)

  9. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. Problem trading with China? China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53)

  10. “Swaying the wide world, I have but one aim in view, namely to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfill the duties of the state. Strange and costly objects do not interest me. If I have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O king, are to be accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty’s majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under heaven, and kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things.”--letter from the Chinese emperor to George III of England, 1793 Lord Macartney trying to persuade the Chinese to trade with Britain in 1700s

  11. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) -Canton (Guanchow) only port of access w/13 co-hong allowed to trade w/W. “barbarians Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53) Canton harbor with various countries’ factories. The British East Indies Company’s garden and terrace were considered by other foreign merchants the most elegant spot in Canton

  12. Pidgin Talk Pidgin was a patois (linguistic mixture or mishmash) of Portuguese,English, & various Chinese dialects that developed fromextended trade contacts in the port city of Canton. The most popularly known adaptations were to transpose the rto l, b to p, and d to j Business became pidgin. Thus Pidgin English meant business English (i.e., the language for trade). Several other examples were: • Portuguese deos (God) became joss; and religious service was joss pidgin. • Sex was lof pidgin (love business) • Chop was document, and so chop chop meant urgent document or just urgent. • Portuguese mandar (to command) became man-ta-le (commander or boss) • Putting ee after dental consonants turned want into wantee and catch into catchee. • Lac meant 100,000 from the Hindi word for 1000. A typical sentence in Pidgin might be: “Man-ta-le sendee one piece chop. He come tomollo. Wantee too-lac dollar” meaning: A senior Chinese official is coming to demand a sizable bribe.

  13. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) -Br tea cons.(1720-1800) rose 50X -Canton (Guanchow) only port of access w/13 co-hong allowed to trade w/W. “barbarians Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53)

  14. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) -Br tea cons.(1720-1800) rose 50X -Canton (Guanchow) only port of access w/13 co-hong allowed to trade w/W. “barbarians Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53) British solution?

  15. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) -Br tea cons.(1720-1800) rose 50X -Canton (Guanchow) only port of access w/13 co-hong allowed to trade w/W. “barbarians Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53)

  16. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) -Br tea cons.(1720-1800) rose 50X -Canton (Guanchow) only port of access w/13 co-hong allowed to trade w/W. “barbarians -BEIC grew 400k acres opium in Ind. Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53)

  17. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) -Br tea cons.(1720-1800) rose 50X -Canton (Guanchow) only port of access w/13 co-hong allowed to trade w/W. “barbarians -BEIC grew 400k acres opium in Ind. - 200 crates (1724) 1k (‘67) 4.5k (1800) 10k (1825) )40k (1838) Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53)

  18. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) -Br tea cons.(1720-1800) rose 50X -Canton (Guanchow) only port of access w/13 co-hong allowed to trade w/W. “barbarians -BEIC grew 400k acres opium in Ind. - 200 crates (1724) 1k (1767 ) 4.5k (1800) 10k (1825) 40k (1838) - Each chest worth $2k Sold for 4X its cost Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53)

  19. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) -Br tea cons.(1720-1800) rose 50X -Canton (Guanchow) only port of access w/13 co-hong allowed to trade w/W. “barbarians -BEIC grew 400k acres opium in Ind. - 200 crates (1724) 1k (1767 )4.5k (1800) 10k (1825) 40k (1838) - Each chest worth $2k Sold for 4X its cost - Ch. Burn 20,283 chests Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53) Br govt’s interest in the opium trade?

  20. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) -Br tea cons.(1720-1800) rose 50X -Canton (Guanchow) only port of access w/13 co-hong allowed to trade w/W. “barbarians -BEIC grew 400k acres opium in Ind. - 200 crates (1724) 1k (1767 )4.5k (1800) 10k (1825) 40k (1838) - Each chest worth $2k Sold for 4X its cost - Ch. Burn 20,283 chests - Br. Govt. 100% import duty on tea Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53)

  21. Opium & The First Opium War (1839-1842)

  22. Seals and silver The problem Europeans had trading with China was that it didn’t want anything the Europeans made while such Chinese goods as silk, porcelain, and tea were in high demand in the West. The only things China would take in trade from foreigners were furs and silver. As a result, some species of seals were nearly driven to extinction. Meanwhile, between 1760 and 1790, Chinese silver imports grew from 3 million to 16 million ounces. Europeans needed something to restore the balance of trade. They found it in opium.

  23. The Opium Trade Opium was not a part of Chinese culture until the Europeans brought it in starting in 1650. Although China banned it in 1729, smuggling continued nonetheless. China reaffirmed the ban in 1799, but to no avail. Below: Opium production in modern Afghanistan and its results

  24. Singapore The British were relatively latecomers to the opium trade, not getting involved until 1819 with the foundation of Singapore, Which gave them a base closer to China that also controlled trade from the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. It rapidly grew into one of East Asia’s great ports despite the fact that 200 people were eaten by tigers each year.

  25. In 1823, Singapore was opened for free trade to all nations, which led to an influx of immigrants that drew trade away from Dutch Indonesia. Its rapid growth at one point created a 15:1 ratio of men to women. In 1946 it was recognized as a Crown Colony and given its independence.

  26. Red Rover (below), the first British opium ship, arrived in China in 1820. Since opium was illegal, the British traded it offshore to corrupt Chinese officials, so they weren’t technically guilty of smuggling it into China. Americans also got involved, smuggling lower quality opium that they had bought in Turkey.

  27. History’s first international drug cartel. That’s how one could describe the British East Indies Company’s opium trade in China. Between 1820 and 1830, the number of chests of opium smuggled in went from 9,708 to 35,445 with each chest worth $2,000 (not adjusted for inflation). In 1833 the British government ended the BEIC's Canton monopoly, allowing private merchants to enter the opium trade. In 1838, there were 40,000 chests smuggled in. By then the BEIC had forcibly converted 400,000 acres of land in India from growing cotton to growing opium, which also helped reduce Britain’s trade deficit.

  28. By 1835, the number of opium addicts in China was estimated between 4-12 million, including the whole army and many bureaucrats. Chinese addicts were spending two and a half times as much on opium as the entire government budget. By 1837 the opium trade represented 57% of China’s imports. Left: an underground opium den in China, early 1900s Right: a modern rehab clinic

  29. FC. 124A THE OPIUM CYCLE IN CHINA IN THE EARLY 1800s Number of addicts & need for opium per individual rises Addicts need more $  Inflation & drain of China’s silver Govt. & landlords, need more $$  Raise taxes Imports of addictive opium Increased burden on poor who turn to opium to escape their problems

  30. FC. 124A THE OPIUM CYCLE IN CHINA IN THE EARLY 1800s Number of addicts & need for opium per individual rises Addicts need more $  Inflation & drain of China’s silver Govt. & landlords, need more $$  Raise taxes Imports of addictive opium Increased burden on poor who turn to opium to escape their problems

  31. FC. 124A THE OPIUM CYCLE IN CHINA IN THE EARLY 1800s Number of addicts & need for opium per individual rises Addicts need more $  Inflation & drain of China’s silver Govt. & landlords, need more $$  Raise taxes Imports of addictive opium Increased burden on poor who turn to opium to escape their problems

  32. FC. 124A THE OPIUM CYCLE IN CHINA IN THE EARLY 1800s Number of addicts & need for opium per individual rises Addicts need more $  Inflation & drain of China’s silver Govt. & landlords, need more $$  Raise taxes Imports of addictive opium Increased burden on poor who turn to opium to escape their problems

  33. FC. 124A THE OPIUM CYCLE IN CHINA IN THE EARLY 1800s Number of addicts & need for opium per individual rises Addicts need more $  Inflation & drain of China’s silver Govt. & landlords, need more $$  Raise taxes Imports of addictive opium Increased burden on poor who turn to opium to escape their problems

  34. In 1838 the emperor cracked down on addicts, seriously reducing the market and driving opium prices down. Up to 2,000 addicts were thrown in jails and forced to suffer sudden withdrawal, the effects of which were vomiting, cramps, excruciating headaches, nightmares, uncontrollable weeping, nervousness, anger, and paranoia. Many died from this experience.

  35. In 1839 the emperor appointed a rising civil servant, Lin Tse-shu as special high commissioner with extensive powers to stop the opium trade. Lin after researching the trade, the Chinese merchants involved in the trade, opium’s effects on users, and even treatments for addicts, arrested 1600 people, confiscated 11,000 pounds of the drug from Chinese merchants, and even wrote a letter to Queen Victoria demanding an end to the Opium traffic. When that didn’t work, Lin confiscated and burned 20,283 chests of opium, costing the British $40 million. When he refused British demands for compensation and changes in how China dealt with them, British ships launched an attack to force China to reinstate the opium trade. The First Opium War was on.

  36. A combination of superior armaments and the addiction of most of the Chinese army led to a quick and easy victory for the British who started with 16 warships and were reinforced by 31 more from India.

  37. When the British government agreed to a ceasefire and treaty, the public back home was so outraged at its easy terms they sent a new expeditionary force with 10,000 men to extort better terms. After demolishing coastal defenses(some dating from the Ming Dynasty), shelling several Chinese cities, seizing several ports, including Shanghai, and besieging Nanjing, the Chinese again agreed to peace.

  38. The resulting Treaty of Nanjing (1842) imposed several humiliating terms on China: • It abolished the Co-hongand Chinese monopolies on foreign trade. • It opened 5 new ports to British trade: Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo, Xiamen, & Shanghai, • Import duties were reduced from 65% to 5%. • Br. could also lease or buy special zones called Concessions, which amounted to virtual spheres of influence where they could collect money and influence policies without taking responsibility for administering or defending its provinces. As a result, the Chinese gentry now assumed the task of quelling any rebellions, which led to the buildup of regional warlords who would be a serious problem in years to come. • Britain was also awarded a $21 million ounce silver indemnity to cover the cost of the war and could collect Chinese customs dues to get it. • Finally, it forced China to accept other countries on equal terms, which was a terrible blow to its pride.

  39. As a result of Britain’s expanded trade leverage, tea exports from China more than quintupled, while silk exports went from 2,000 bales in 1843 to 56,000 in 1855. Because of the lucrative market, many Chinese farmers switched from growing food to raising silk and tea, which further aggravated China’s hunger problems while triggering even higher food prices. At the same time, imports from Britain’s rapidly expanding textile industry were undercutting China’s own textile industries.

  40. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) • 1st Opium War (1839-42) • Sup. Br. armaments + most of Ch. • army being addicted easy Br. vict • 16 warships & 31 other ships come • from Ind.-> vict's-> negot. Tr.  Br pub outraged at its easy terms  new BEF w/10K men • Br. demolish coastal def's, some from • Ming Dyn, & shell sev. Ch cities • 1842- Treaty of Nanjing abolished • Chin. monopolies of foreign trade • Tr. opened Shanghai, Foochow, • Ningpo, Xiamen, & Amoy for trade, • - Banned Cohongmonop. & introd. • uniform & lower tariffs & recog. • - Hong Kong given to Britain  • - Cut import duties fr. 65% 5% • - Br. could lease or buy special • zones called ConcessionsSOI's • - Extra-territoriality: live under own law • - Most favored status Got any • rights given anyone else • - $21m. oz. silver indemnity •  Br. collected Ch’s customs dues • Tr.Series of "unequal treaties" • for Fr. (1849), US (1849), Russia • Ch. Tea exports. up over 5X; silk 28X  Farmers turn to raising silk & tea  less food food prices rose China in further decay Defeat in war &/or revolt Needs foreign intervention Conservative reaction vs. change & foreign ideas Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted 1st Opium War (1839-42)  Br wins  Controls Hong Kong & free trade in 5 Chin. ports through Treaty of Nanking Other Eur. nations force China to grant similar treaties, status of most favored nation & extraterritoriality, & right to collect debts by collecting Ch. taxes China’ foreign policy? Growing reform movement China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53) Stresses from overpopulation (FC.58) Dynastic corruption cycle (FC.53)

  41. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) • 1st Opium War (1839-42) • Sup. Br. armaments + most of Ch. • army being addicted easy Br. vict • 16 warships & 31 other ships come • from Ind.-> vict's-> negot. Tr.  Br pub outraged at its easy terms  new BEF w/10K men • Br. demolish coastal def's, some from • Ming Dyn, & shell sev. Ch cities • 1842- Treaty of Nanjing abolished • Chin. monopolies of foreign trade • Tr. opened Shanghai, Foochow, • Ningpo, Xiamen, & Amoy for trade, • - Banned Cohongmonop. & introd. • uniform & lower tariffs & recog. • - Hong Kong given to Britain  • - Cut import duties fr. 65% 5% • - Br. could lease or buy special • zones called ConcessionsSOI's • - Extra-territoriality: live under own law • - Most favored status Got any • rights given anyone else • - $21m. oz. silver indemnity •  Br. collected Ch’s customs dues • Tr.Series of "unequal treaties" • for Fr. (1849), US (1849), Russia • Ch. Tea exports. up over 5X; silk 28X  Farmers turn to raising silk & tea  less food food prices rose Initial Chinese reaction? China in further decay Defeat in war &/or revolt Needs foreign intervention Conservative reaction vs. change & foreign ideas Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted 1st Opium War (1839-42)  Br wins  Controls Hong Kong & free trade in 5 Chin. ports through Treaty of Nanking Other Eur. nations force China to grant similar treaties, status of most favored nation & extraterritoriality, & right to collect debts by collecting Ch. taxes China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53) Stresses from overpopulation (FC.58) Dynastic corruption cycle (FC.53)

  42. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) • 1st Opium War (1839-42) • Sup. Br. armaments + most of Ch. • army being addicted easy Br. vict • 16 warships & 31 other ships come • from Ind.-> vict's-> negot. Tr.  Br pub outraged at its easy terms  new BEF w/10K men • Br. demolish coastal def's, some from • Ming Dyn, & shell sev. Ch cities • 1842- Treaty of Nanjing abolished • Chin. monopolies of foreign trade • Tr. opened Shanghai, Foochow, • Ningpo, Xiamen, & Amoy for trade, • - Banned Cohongmonop. & introd. • uniform & lower tariffs & recog. • - Hong Kong given to Britain  • - Cut import duties fr. 65% 5% • - Br. could lease or buy special • zones called ConcessionsSOI's • - Extra-territoriality: live under own law • - Most favored status Got any • rights given anyone else • - $21m. oz. silver indemnity •  Br. collected Ch’s customs dues • Tr.Series of "unequal treaties" • for Fr. (1849), US (1849), Russia • Ch. Tea exports. up over 5X; silk 28X  Farmers turn to raising silk & tea  less food food prices rose What happened to those reforms? China in further decay Defeat in war &/or revolt Needs foreign intervention Conservative reaction vs. change & foreign ideas Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted 1st Opium War (1839-42)  Br wins  Controls Hong Kong & free trade in 5 Chin. ports through Treaty of Nanking Other Eur. nations force China to grant similar treaties, status of most favored nation & extraterritoriality, & right to collect debts by collecting Ch. taxes China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53) Stresses from overpopulation (FC.58) Dynastic corruption cycle (FC.53) Growing reform movement

  43. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) • 1st Opium War (1839-42) • Sup. Br. armaments + most of Ch. • army being addicted easy Br. vict • 16 warships & 31 other ships come • from Ind.-> vict's-> negot. Tr.  Br pub outraged at its easy terms  new BEF w/10K men • Br. demolish coastal def's, some from • Ming Dyn, & shell sev. Ch cities • 1842- Treaty of Nanjing abolished • Chin. monopolies of foreign trade • Tr. opened Shanghai, Foochow, • Ningpo, Xiamen, & Amoy for trade, • - Banned Cohongmonop. & introd. • uniform & lower tariffs & recog. • - Hong Kong given to Britain  • - Cut import duties fr. 65% 5% • - Br. could lease or buy special • zones called ConcessionsSOI's • - Extra-territoriality: live under own law • - Most favored status Got any • rights given anyone else • - $21m. oz. silver indemnity •  Br. collected Ch’s customs dues • Tr.Series of "unequal treaties" • for Fr. (1849), US (1849), Russia • Ch. Tea exports. up over 5X; silk 28X  Farmers turn to raising silk & tea  less food food prices rose China in further decay Defeat in war &/or revolt Needs foreign intervention Conservative reaction vs. change & foreign ideas Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted 1st Opium War (1839-42)  Br wins  Controls Hong Kong & free trade in 5 Chin. ports through Treaty of Nanking Other Eur. nations force China to grant similar treaties, status of most favored nation & extraterritoriality, & right to collect debts by collecting Ch. taxes Growing reform movement China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53) Stresses from overpopulation (FC.58) Dynastic corruption cycle (FC.53)

  44. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) • 1st Opium War (1839-42) • Sup. Br. armaments + most of Ch. • army being addicted easy Br. vict • 16 warships & 31 other ships come • from Ind.-> vict's-> negot. Tr.  Br pub outraged at its easy terms  new BEF w/10K men • Br. demolish coastal def's, some from • Ming Dyn, & shell sev. Ch cities • 1842- Treaty of Nanjing abolished • Chin. monopolies of foreign trade • Tr. opened Shanghai, Foochow, • Ningpo, Xiamen, & Amoy for trade, • - Banned Cohongmonop. & introd. • uniform & lower tariffs & recog. • - Hong Kong given to Britain  • - Cut import duties fr. 65% 5% • - Br. could lease or buy special • zones called ConcessionsSOI's • - Extra-territoriality: live under own law • - Most favored status Got any • rights given anyone else • - $21m. oz. silver indemnity •  Br. collected Ch’s customs dues • Tr.Series of "unequal treaties" • for Fr. (1849), US (1849), Russia • Ch. Tea exports. up over 5X; silk 28X  Farmers turn to raising silk & tea  less food food prices rose Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted Boxer Rebellion (1898-1900) Foreign intervention Serious & lasting reforms Conservative reaction vs. change & foreign ideas Japan humiliates China in Sino-Jap. War over Korea (1894-5) 00 Days Reforms” Quickly crushed 1st Opium War (1839-42)  Br wins  Controls Hong Kong & free trade in 5 Chin. ports through Treaty of Nanking TaipingReb. (1850-64) & 2nd Opium War (1858-60)Sporadic reforms mostly thwarted First major disturbances? China in further decay Other Eur. nations force China to grant similar treaties, status of most favored nation & extraterritoriality, & right to collect debts by collecting Ch. taxes Defeat in war &/or revolt Needs foreign intervention Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods Growing reform movement China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53) Stresses from overpopulation (FC.58) Dynastic corruption cycle (FC.53)

  45. FC. 124 CHINA AND THE WEST (c.1800-1911) • Extra-territoriality: Living under one’s own laws in a foreign land • Most Favored Nation: The right to any privilege any other nation gets • Farmers grow silk & tea for export • & to buy opium  food shortages • Taiping Revolt (1850-64) • -Hong Xiuchuan fails Civ Ser. exam • ”Vision” of Jesus urging him to • revolt Drain of silver from Br. since Chinese don’t want Br. goods China in further decay Other Eur. nations force China to grant similar treaties, status of most favored nation & extraterritoriality, & right to collect debts by collecting Ch. taxes Br. E. Ind. Co. sells opium from India to get silver for Chin. tea  Millions of Chinese addicted 1st Opium War (1839-42)  Br wins  Controls Hong Kong & free trade in 5 Chin. ports through Treaty of Nanking Japan humiliates China in Sino-Jap. War over Korea (1894-5) 00 Days Reforms” Quickly crushed TaipingReb. (1850-64) & 2nd Opium War (1858-60)Sporadic reforms mostly thwarted Conservative reaction vs. change & foreign ideas Defeat in war &/or revolt Needs foreign intervention Boxer Rebellion (1898-1900) Foreign intervention Serious & lasting reforms Growing reform movement China’s trade & contact w/West (FC.81) Eur. free trade vs. centralized Chin. econ. (FC.100) Chinese feel superior toward outsiders (FC.53) Stresses from overpopulation (FC.58) Dynastic corruption cycle (FC.53)

  46. The Taiping Rebellion (1843-64) The Taiping Rebellion (1843-64) was led by Hong Xiuchuan who, after failing the civil service exam several times, fell ill in 1836 and recovered with a somewhat altered personality. He claimed he had a vision (below right) that he was the younger brother of Jesus and that an old man in a palace gave him a sword to purge China of the foreign Manchu devils (rulers).

  47. He believed Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism were false teachings of the Devil and that God defeated Confucius in Heaven. Ironically, Jesus wanted Hung to pass the civil service exam that was based on Confucianism and was angry when Hung failed it. Luckily, Jesus' wife softened Jesus' anger for his failure. Below: Some of the 7500 individual cells in one hall where candidates took the civil service exam

  48. Hong’s movement grew in the 1840s and rebelled against the Manchus in 1850. In 1851, after a major victory, Hong Xiuquan declared himself "Heavenly King" (Tianwang) of a new dynasty, the "Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace".