Chapter 15 Reaction and Reform in the Early 19th Century 1. Reactionary rule gradually gave way to a movement of reform.
2. The Reform Bill of 1832 redistributed seats in the House of Commons and granted the right to vote to most adult middle-class males. This represented the decisive shift in political power from the landed aristocracy to the middle class.(p256-258)
3. Queen Victoria’s reign (1837-1901) proved to the longest in English history. 4. The Chartist Movement and the People’s Charter (260)
5. The campaign for the repeal of the Corn Laws (the tariff on wheat and other grains) proved the increasing political power of the middle class. (p261)
6. The Irish famine (1845-1846), which claimed some 700,000 people, demonstrated the need for lower food prices, and in 1846 Sir Robert Peel, the Tory prime minister from 1841-1846, won parliamentary approval for the repeal of the Corn Laws.(p262)
7. The British opposed the intervention by the conservative powers of Europe to suppress the revolts against Spanish rule in Latin America because they did not want any interference with their profitable trade with Latin America.(p265)
8. The British traditionally sought to prevent any Russian advance into the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East. In 1820s, the British cooperated with the Russians in support of the Greek struggle for independence from the Turks (part of the Ottoman Empire), because a British presence in the region would place restraints on the Russians. (p266)
9. Russia’s continuing pressure on the declining Ottoman Empire and Russia’s claims to be the protector of the Orthodox Christian subjects of the Ottoman Sultan led to the outbreak of the Crimean War (1853-1856). The British and French intervened in the war because they wanted to block any further expansion of Russian power and esp. to prevent Russia from acquiring control of the Turkish Straits.(p269)
10. For the British, the Crimean War had two important long-term consequences: the establishment of the British Cross (nurse Florence Nightingale) and a program of army reform.(p270) 11. When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, Great Britain declared its neutrality.
12. During the early 19th century, the movement known as romanticism influenced literature, the arts, and thought in Great Britain, as it did elsewhere in Europe. The romantics emphasized feelings and emotions, faith and intuition, and imagination and spontaneity instead of reason in the 18th century Enlightenment. They rebelled against the formalism and rigid rules of the 18th century classicism. Many romantics had a fascination with the culture of the Middle Ages, an age of faith.(p271)
13. The representative figures: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and their “Lyrical Ballads”; Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats; Sir Walter Scott.(p272)
14. Architecture during the romantic period was dominated by the neoclassical and neo-Gothic styles, as well as by a fascination with the exotic, which promoted a revival of Gothic architecture.(p273)
15. The romantics’ emphasis on the mystical and supernatural led to a revival of traditional religious belief. In England, a group of Anglicans, knows as the Oxford Movement, reasserted Catholic elements in the faith and practice of the Church of England.(p273)
Chapter 16 The Age of Disraeli and Gladstone 1. Benjamin Disraeli heading the Conservative Party, served two terms’ of prime minister in 1868 and from 1874 to 1880; William E. Gladstone heading the Liberals, served four terms of prime minister: 1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886, 1892-1894.(p278)
2. The Reform Bill of 1867 redistributed the seats in Parliament, and extended franchise to most of urban workers; the farmers were not enfranchised.(p279)
3. In 1865, the British suppressed the Fenian Rebellion in Ireland. The Fenians, a secret revolutionary organization, was established in 1858 by Irish-Americans. Its purpose was to achieve Ireland’s independence.(p279)
4. The Education Act of 1870 created, for the first time, a national system of elementary education.(p280) 5. The Ballot Act of 1872 introduced the use of the secret ballot in British elections.(p281)
6. Tory Democracy: the Conservative party’s support of extensive economic and social reforms to benefit British workers.(p283)
In 1875, the Balkan provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina rebelled against Turkish misrule. The Balkan crisis ended peacefully, Russian expansionism had been contained, and the British had advanced their interests in the eastern Mediterranean.(p286)
7. Beginning of the campaign for Home Rule in 1871: the southern Irish were determined to secure Home Rule, while the six counties of northern Ireland, known as Ulster, were predominantly Protestant, and desired to maintain the union with Great Britain.(p287)
8. The establishment of the Labor Party at the turn of the century came from the idea that Britain’s industrial workers should establish their own political party to represent their interest more effectively in Parliament.(p293)
9. During the 19th century, under both Liberal and Conservative leadership, Great Britain achieved remarkable gradual reform: 1) universal manhood suffrage
2) The state assumed an expanding role in education; 3) The government became more active in urban sanitation, slum clearance, and housing construction; 4)The civil service, the army, and the judicial system also experienced reform
Chapter 17 The British Empire in the 19th Century 1. While the British did not pursue an active imperialist policy in the early 19th century, they did maintain and consolidate their existing possessions. (p299-303)
1) In the Western hemisphere, the British ruled Canada, a number of islands in the West Indies, British Honduras in Central America, and British Guiana in South America.(p299)
2) In Africa, the British had acquired the Cape of Good Hope during the Napoleonic wars, and they also had controlled a number of trading stations along Africa’s coasts.
3) In Asia, the British had defeated France in the Seven Years’ War(1756-1763), gaining control over India. The British started and protected the opium trade with China through the two Opium Wars (1839-1842, 1856-1858).
4) In the South Pacific, British possessions included Australia and New Zealand. 5) The British also controlled a number of key strategic points around the world: Gibraltar, the island of Malta, Ceylon, and Singapore.
2. During the 1870s, like other European powers, Great Britain developed a new interest in overseas expansion for a number of factors.( p303-304)
National rivalries 1) While colonization offered a means to increase a country’s military and economic power in relation to that of its rivals, the idea also came to be widely accepted that the possession of colonies was a sign of national greatness and vitality.
Religious and humanitarian motives 2) During the late 19th century, there was a great upsurge in Christian missionary activity by both Protestants and Roman Catholics. These missionaries not only sought to follow the command of Jesus Christ to go forth into the world and make disciples of all nations, but also believed in their mission to bring the advantages of European civilization to less advanced people.
Economic motives 3) The growth of European industry led to demands for new sources of raw materials, as well as to a need for new markets for the products of industry. Besides, those who had accumulated fortunes from industry were seeking new opportunities for investment.
3. In the 1870s, the European powers began a race to acquire colonial possessions in Africa. By the first years of the 20th century, virtually all of the continent had been partitioned among the imperial states, such as Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, and Portugal. (p305-311)
1) In Great Britain purchased 45% of the total Suez Canal shares, for the Suez Canal was regarded as an essential link between Great Britain and India.
2) South Africa, the Zulus, an indigenous African people, resented the entry of Europeans into their lands, and the Zulu War of 1879 broke out, but ended with a decisive British victory.
3) In the Boer War, or the South African War (1899-1902), the British army successfully fought against two Boer Republics called the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, and made them part of the British Empire.
4. British imperialism in Asia covered India, Afghanistan, Burma, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, and China.(p311-316) 1) The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: Great Britain refused to involve in it.
2) The Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902: The British remained particularly suspicious about Russian intentions in East Asia, and in 1902, they signed a defensive alliance with Japan in the event of an attack on one signatory by a third power.
3) The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 resulted in a Russian defeat, and Japan acquired Liaotung Peninsula and southern Manchuria. The British were pleased with the victory of their Japanese ally, which effectively contained Russian expansionism in East Asia.
Chapter 18 The Triumph of Liberalism 1. A new Liberal Party had taken shape, abandoning its earlier doctrinaire commitment to laissez-faire principles and embracing a powerful philosophy of socioeconomic and political reform.
2. Liberal reforms of 1906-1909 (p320) 1) The Workmen’s Compensation Act of 1906 provided workers with benefits in the event of job-related injury.
2) The Old Age Pensions Act of 1908 provided small benefits for retirees over the age of 70 who had only very limited incomes from other sources.
3. Lloyd George’s “People’s Budget”: in April 1909, David Lloyd George, the chancellor of the exchequer, proposed a bold redistribution of national income by placing the heaviest burden of taxation on the landowners and capitalists, called for higher income tax rates for the wealthy, and suggesting raising taxes on tobacco and alcohol. (p322)
4. By weakening the power of the aristocratic House of Lords, the Parliament Act of 1911 represented another step towards the creation of full political democracy in Great Britain. (p324)
5. Other reforms of the Liberal government 1) Salaries for members of the House of Commons, which was one of the six demands in the People’s Charter of 1839
2) The National Insurance Act of 1911 included a program of compulsory health insurance supported by contributions by the government, employers and workers, and a system of unemployment insurance, which was also supported by contributions by the government, employers and workers. (p325)
6. On the eve of the outbreak of World War I in the summer of 1914, Great Britain faced three crises: the suffragette movement, mounting labor unrest, and Ireland.(p325-327)
1) In 1903, the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) was established. In their drive to secure the right to vote fro women, the suffragettes engaged in militant and often violent tactics, such as hunger strike, even suicide.
2) Despite the reforms of the Liberal government, the hardships and discontents of Britain’s workers persisted and labor unrest intensified because of inflation and declining purchasing power. The strike movement started from 1911, and continued till the time when Britain went to war.
3) In May 1914, the House of Commons passed the Home Rule Bill a third time. The Ulsterites armed themselves, and the threat of civil war loomed in Ireland. The outbreak of World War I averted civil war in Ireland and the Home Rule Act of 1911 was replaced by the Home Rule Act of 1920.