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Chapter 15 Reaction and Reform in the Early 19th Century. 1. Reactionary rule gradually gave way to a movement of reform.
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1. Reactionary rule gradually gave way to a movement of reform.
4. The Chartist Movement and the People’s Charter (260)
11. When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, Great Britain declared its neutrality.
1. Benjamin Disraeli heading the Conservative Party, served two terms’ of prime minister in 1868 and from 1874 to 1880; William E. Gladstone heading the Liberals, served four terms of prime minister: 1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886, 1892-1894.(p278)
5. The Ballot Act of 1872 introduced the use of the secret ballot in British elections.(p281)
1) universal manhood suffrage
3) The government became more active in urban sanitation, slum clearance, and housing construction;
4)The civil service, the army, and the judicial system also experienced reform
1. While the British did not pursue an active imperialist policy in the early 19th century, they did maintain and consolidate their existing possessions. (p299-303)
5) The British also controlled a number of key strategic points around the world: Gibraltar, the island of Malta, Ceylon, and Singapore.
1) While colonization offered a means to increase a country’s military and economic power in relation to that of its rivals, the idea also came to be widely accepted that the possession of colonies was a sign of national greatness and vitality.
2) During the late 19th century, there was a great upsurge in Christian missionary activity by both Protestants and Roman Catholics. These missionaries not only sought to follow the command of Jesus Christ to go forth into the world and make disciples of all nations, but also believed in their mission to bring the advantages of European civilization to less advanced people.
3) The growth of European industry led to demands for new sources of raw materials, as well as to a need for new markets for the products of industry. Besides, those who had accumulated fortunes from industry were seeking new opportunities for investment.
1) The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: Great Britain refused to involve in it.
1. A new Liberal Party had taken shape, abandoning its earlier doctrinaire commitment to laissez-faire principles and embracing a powerful philosophy of socioeconomic and political reform.
1) The Workmen’s Compensation Act of 1906 provided workers with benefits in the event of job-related injury.
1) Salaries for members of the House of Commons, which was one of the six demands in the People’s Charter of 1839
2) Thomas Huxley;
5) Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Robert Browning
6) William Makepeace Thackery and his “Vanity Fair”
7) Charles Dickens and his works
9) Charlotte Bronte and her “Jane Eyre”, and Emily Bronte and her “Wuthering Heights”
11) Robert Louis Stevenson and his adventure story “Treasure Island”
13) H.G.. Wells and his science fiction “The Time Machine”
14) Arthur Conan Doyle and his detective hero Sherlock Holmes
16) William Butler Yeats was the leading figure in the Irish literary renaissance.
17) George Bernard Shaw, an Irish-born playwright, won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1925.
1. The European alliance system (p336-338)
1) The Three Emperors’ League (1872): Germany’s Emperor William I, Austria’s Emperor Francis Joseph, and Russia’s Tsar Alexander II pledged to cooperate to preserve peace and the status quo. This alliance revived in 1881.
4) The Franco-Russian Alliance (1894): a diplomatic revolution began as long-isolated France and newly isolated Russia began to draw closer.
3. In 1902, the British signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance , the first step in Britain’s abandonment of isolation. This alliance reflected Britain’s concern about Russian expansion in East Asia. (p339)
1) the Triple Entente of France, Great Britain, and Russia
2) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy
1) On June 28, 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo by a South Slav nationalist. The Austrians declared war on Serbia on July 28.
3) Following Germany’s assault on Belgium, the British went to war in August.
1. Following World War I, Great Britain confronted serious economic problems, which became even more intense during the depression decade of the 1930s.
1) The war disrupted Britain’s trade links.
3) Industry had to be reconverted to peacetime production.
5) The loss of 900,000 people in the war deprived Britain of an important part of its male population.
10. King Edward VIII had to abdicate in order to marry Mrs. Simpson, a twice-divorced American woman, and later became the Duke of Windsor.(p375)
1) Three pre-war writers remained prominent in the postwar era: Shaw, Wells, and Galsworthy. Shaw won the Nobel Prize in 1925. Galsworthy, who won the Nobel Prize in 1933, is best known for his trilogy “The Forsyte Saga”.
4) T.S. Eliot and his “The Waste Land”
5) James Joyce, the Irish writer, and his “ A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man”
1. The Appeasement Policy on the part of Britain and France
1) Soon after taking power in1933, Adolf Hitler seized the initiative in foreign affairs and met little resistance from Great Britain and France.
3) In Britain, there was a widespread belief that the Treaty of Versailles had been unduly harsh and that it should be revised in Germany’s favor.
5) In both countries, intense memories of the carnage of World War I created a powerful desire to do everything possible to avoid another conflict.
3. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Two days later, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. The Second World War began.
5. Under the leadership of Winston Churchill, one of the greatest war ministers in English history, the British people united with grim determination to win what quickly became a total global war.
1. By the end of World War II, two superpowers, the United States, and the Soviet Union, had come to dominate international relations.
1) The National Insurance Act of 1946 included unemployment insurance, pensions for retirees, sickness insurance, maternity and widow’s benefits, and death grants.
3) The National Health Service in 1948 provided free medical care for the British people, which covered physicians’ and dentists’ services, prescription drugs, hospital care, eyeglasses, and dentures.
15. The Suez Crisis of 1956 demonstrated the dramatic decline in Britain’s power and position in world affairs. (p429-430)
1. From 1964-1979, the Labor Party dominated the British government, with the exception of the years from 1970-1974, when the Conservatives held office. During this period, the welfare state remained intact.
19. Thatcher’s reform measures:
1) Financial deregulation enhanced London’s already substantial position as an international financial center.
3) The Trade Union Act of 1984 further reduced the power of the union leaders.
Historians tend to begin English history with the Celts, who crossed from the European continent and settled in the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland) during the first millennium B.C. The Celts consisted of numerous tribes that shared a culture dating back to the Bronze Age in Central Europe (1200 B.C.)
1.social classes: nobles, freemen, slaves
2.Celtic religion: known as druidism, involved the worship of nature deities
1)immortality; transmigration of souls
2)monument at Stonehenge
From the 5th century Roman Britain came under the control of the Anglo-Saxons. In the next several centuries, Anglo-Saxon institutions developed, Roman Catholic Christianity became the religion of the land, the several Saxon kingdoms became the united kingdom of England, and the English fought a long struggle against the Danes.
2. The Anglo-Saxons worshipped nature gods.
4. The Celtic Christians didn’t acknowledge the pope as the head of the church, and the Celtic church didn’t require its priests to be celibate.
6. The class structure: nobility, freemen, serfs, and slaves
8. the law: the customary law emphasized the payment of monetary compensation; compurgation (proof by oath); the ordeal
1). King Alfred of Wessex was considered the greatest figure in the history of Anglo-Saxon England, and the first king of a united England. (P18-19)
2). King Edward the Confessor regained the throne.
10. literature: the poet Caedmon, and the epic poem Beowulf
In 1066, William, the Duke of Normandy, crossed the English Channel and began his conquest of England, which is an important turning point in English history. William the Conqueror established a powerful monarchy and created the best-organized state to exist in Western Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire in the West.
2. French became the language of government and law, and educated people were fluent in French and Latin. English was reduced to a spoken language; as a result, English grammar became simplified, and the vocabulary was enriched with French words.
6. Henry I, who gained the title “lion of justice”, also began the practice of sending out itinerant justices, who went from the curia Regis to the shire courts to administer justice in the name of the king.
8. Henry began to take money payments, known as scutage (shield money), from bishops in lieu of service
9. In October 1154, Stephen, the grandson of William the Conqueror and nephew of Henry I, died. The direct line of Norman kings ended, and England now had a new royal family, the Angevins, also known as the Plantagenets.
King Henry II, the first of the Angevin(安茹), or Plantagenet(金雀花 1154-1485), kings of England, was a capable, intelligent, and energetic monarch. He combated the anarchy that had developed during the reign of King Stephen.
His mother Matilda was Henry I’s daughter, and the widow of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V.
His father Geoffrey was the son of the Count of Anjou, and was known as the Plantagenet for the sprig of broom he wore in his helmet.
3. King Henry II created a new system of royal law common to the entire kingdom----the foundations of English common law.
5. King Richard I the lionhearted and the three Crusades
7. Magna Carta (P52): the first step in the rcreation of constitutional government in England
1. The conflict between the king and barons led to the emergence of Parliament, which was the most important development in English government and politics in the 13th century.
2. The Friars （男修道士）conducted an active ministry among the people.
4. In the late 12th century, the graceful Gothic style developed to supplant the heavy Norman Romanesque. (perpendicular)
6. William Wallace was regarded by the Scots as a national hero.
8. limited representation of knights and burgesses in Parliament----- the origins of Parliament’s development as a legislative body
The 14th and the 15th centuries were a time a turmoil and intensified violence: the Hundred Years’ War, the Black Death, the peasants’ revolt, and the Wars of the Roses. The authority of the monarchy and the nobility declined, which hastened the end of feudalism and helped the expansion of Parliament’s power.
2. King Edward III fought an intermittent war against France for nearly 25 years.
4. The Black Death (1348-1349) claimed one-third of England’s population.
6. The Wars of the Roses (p87; 91)
8. In 1362, English replaced French as the language of the courts of law.
9. Geoffrey Chaucer and his Canterbury Tales
Henry VII restored order and stability to the kingdom following the turmoil of the Wars of the Roses.
Henry VIII succeeded in breaking England’s ties with the papacy, and this religious reformation marked the beginning of a new era of turmoil.
2. During the 15th century the enclosure movement had gained momentum in England.
4. In the early 16th century, the Protestant Reformation began on the European continent with Martin Luther and John Calvin as representatives.
Catherine----mother of the future Queen Mary
Anne Boleyn----mother of the future Queen Elizabeth
6. The Act of Union of 1536 incorporated Wales completely into England.
8. Henry VIII succeeded in breaking England’s ties with the papacy.
Under King Edward VI, the Church of England (Anglican Church) became more Protestant in doctrine and practice.
Queen Mary attempted to restore Roman Catholicism.
moderate settlement that would satisfy the great majority of her subjects, and thus resolved the religious turmoil.
2. Queen Mary I, England’s first reigning queen, attempted to restore Roman Catholicism, and prosecuted some 300 Protestants, which led to her acquisition of the nickname “Bloody Mary”.
4. Efforts to establish colonies in the New World turned out to be unsuccessful; while new trading companies were established, such as the East India Company (1600).
7. English efforts to establish colonies in the New World were unsuccessful. (Sir Walter Raleigh, an explorer, was the first to bring tobacco to England)
Shakespeare (1564-1616) and his works
In the early 17th century, James I and Charles I tried to establish an absolute monarchy and enforce their views on religion, and this resulted in the Civil War and the execution of Charles I in 1649.
2. The King James Bible (1611)
3. The Gunpowder Plot and Guy Fawkes (Nov. 5, 1605)
5. King Charles I ruled England without Parliament for 11 years (1629-1640)
7. The English Civil War(1642)
9. The eleven-year Interregnum and the experiment in republican government
The 17th century was an era of political and religious turmoil for England, but it was also a time of remarkable achievements in the arts, literature, science, and political thought.
2. The Dutch War of 1665--- the English seizure of the Dutch colony of New Netherland (later split into New York and New Jersey)
4. The Glorious Revolution (the Bloodless Revolution)-----the Whigs and the Tories (p152)
6. The Bill of Rights (p152)
8. Some figures to be remembered: Anthony Van Dyck; John Milton and his “Paradise Lost”; Francis Bacon; Sir Isaac Newton; Thomas Hobbes; John Locke( “knowledge from experience”, “social contract”)(p166)
1. King George I, the elector of the German state of Hanover, never learned English.
2. The Tories failed in supporting James Edward Stuart’s claim to the English throne.
4. Robert Walpole served as the King’s chief minister (prime minister) for some 20 years (1721-1742). His economic policies were to encourage industry and commerce, and to reduce interest and taxes.
6. The British Museum was built in 1753.
1. the Quadruple Alliance (p187): Great Britain, Austria, France and the Netherlands to restrain Spain
2. “Second Hundred Years’ War” between Great Britain and Spain
4. The British focused their attention on the colonial war against France (in North America, the West Indies, and India)
8. The Treaty of Paris(1763): Great Britain won a decisive victory over France, and little was left of the French Empire in the New World
10. Economic Reform Acts lessened the ability of the Crown to influence Parliament.
12. In 1788, the first 750 British settlers, most of whom were convicts, established Sydney
13. British policy of opposing Russian expansionism in the Near East (the Middle East)
1) establishing an auditing commission to supervise government finances;
3) simplifying the complicated system of tax collection;
4) reducing restrictions on foreign trade-----the first step on Britain’s road to a free-trade policy.
1. The French Revolution in 1789 initiated a generation of warfare in Europe. France was at war with most of Europe. The war continued until the final defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815.
2) Russia formed a new alliance with Great Britain, Austria, Portugal, Naples and the Ottoman Empire to fight against France.(1799-1801)
1. the development of scientific agriculture; the practice of crop rotation
2. Tull’s horse drawn seed drill; “Turnip Townshend”
4. The introduction of new crops ( potatoes, peas, cauliflower, asparagus)
5. The Enclosure Movement starting in the 16th century (p235)
1. Reasons for Great Britain’s leadership in the industrial revolution
1) ample resources of coal and iron
2) available capital for investment
4) policies designed to promote industry and commerce
2. Innovation of machinery: the flying shuttle, spinning machine, the cotton gin
4. The development of the steam engine provided a dependable and efficient source of power, and made possible the development of industry in towns far from rivers.
6. The first efficient method for the mass production of steel (1856)
1. The construction of canals and roads
2. The development of the steam engine and improvements in the quality of iron led to the invention of railroads (Stephenson’s locomotive in 1825).
1. In 1836, Samuel F. B. Morse, an American, invented the telegraph. Submarine telegraph cables and trans-Atlantic cables were built.
2. In 1840, Great Britain introduced the penny post, the first modern postal system.
1. the principle of limited liability (p243)
2. population growth and distribution
4. liberalism; the doctrine of laissez-faire and Adam Smith (p244);mercantilism
6. Ricardo and the Iron Law of Wages (p245)
7. Bentham’s utilitarianism led to the creation of the 20th century welfare system
9. different kinds of socialism: Utopian Socialism (Robert Owen), Christian socialism (brotherly love)