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Chapter 15 Reaction and Reform in the Early 19th Century. 1. Reactionary rule gradually gave way to a movement of reform.

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chapter 15 reaction and reform in the early 19th century
Chapter 15 Reaction and Reform in the Early 19th Century

1. Reactionary rule gradually gave way to a movement of reform.

2. The Reform Bill of 1832 redistributed seats in the House of Commons and granted the right to vote to most adult middle-class males. This represented the decisive shift in political power from the landed aristocracy to the middle class.(p256-258)
3. Queen Victoria’s reign (1837-1901) proved to the longest in English history.

4. The Chartist Movement and the People’s Charter (260)

5. The campaign for the repeal of the Corn Laws (the tariff on wheat and other grains) proved the increasing political power of the middle class. (p261)
6. The Irish famine (1845-1846), which claimed some 700,000 people, demonstrated the need for lower food prices, and in 1846 Sir Robert Peel, the Tory prime minister from 1841-1846, won parliamentary approval for the repeal of the Corn Laws.(p262)
7. The British opposed the intervention by the conservative powers of Europe to suppress the revolts against Spanish rule in Latin America because they did not want any interference with their profitable trade with Latin America.(p265)
8. The British traditionally sought to prevent any Russian advance into the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East. In 1820s, the British cooperated with the Russians in support of the Greek struggle for independence from the Turks (part of the Ottoman Empire), because a British presence in the region would place restraints on the Russians. (p266)
9. Russia’s continuing pressure on the declining Ottoman Empire and Russia’s claims to be the protector of the Orthodox Christian subjects of the Ottoman Sultan led to the outbreak of the Crimean War (1853-1856). The British and French intervened in the war because they wanted to block any further expansion of Russian power and esp. to prevent Russia from acquiring control of the Turkish Straits.(p269)
10. For the British, the Crimean War had two important long-term consequences: the establishment of the British Cross (nurse Florence Nightingale) and a program of army reform.(p270)

11. When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, Great Britain declared its neutrality.

12. During the early 19th century, the movement known as romanticism influenced literature, the arts, and thought in Great Britain, as it did elsewhere in Europe. The romantics emphasized feelings and emotions, faith and intuition, and imagination and spontaneity instead of reason in the 18th century Enlightenment. They rebelled against the formalism and rigid rules of the 18th century classicism. Many romantics had a fascination with the culture of the Middle Ages, an age of faith.(p271)
13. The representative figures: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and their “Lyrical Ballads”; Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats; Sir Walter Scott.(p272)
14. Architecture during the romantic period was dominated by the neoclassical and neo-Gothic styles, as well as by a fascination with the exotic, which promoted a revival of Gothic architecture.(p273)
15. The romantics’ emphasis on the mystical and supernatural led to a revival of traditional religious belief. In England, a group of Anglicans, knows as the Oxford Movement, reasserted Catholic elements in the faith and practice of the Church of England.(p273)
chapter 16 the age of disraeli and gladstone
Chapter 16 The Age of Disraeli and Gladstone

1. Benjamin Disraeli heading the Conservative Party, served two terms’ of prime minister in 1868 and from 1874 to 1880; William E. Gladstone heading the Liberals, served four terms of prime minister: 1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886, 1892-1894.(p278)

2. The Reform Bill of 1867 redistributed the seats in Parliament, and extended franchise to most of urban workers; the farmers were not enfranchised.(p279)
3. In 1865, the British suppressed the Fenian Rebellion in Ireland. The Fenians, a secret revolutionary organization, was established in 1858 by Irish-Americans. Its purpose was to achieve Ireland’s independence.(p279)
4. The Education Act of 1870 created, for the first time, a national system of elementary education.(p280)

5. The Ballot Act of 1872 introduced the use of the secret ballot in British elections.(p281)

6. Tory Democracy: the Conservative party’s support of extensive economic and social reforms to benefit British workers.(p283)
In 1875, the Balkan provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina rebelled against Turkish misrule. The Balkan crisis ended peacefully, Russian expansionism had been contained, and the British had advanced their interests in the eastern Mediterranean.(p286)
7. Beginning of the campaign for Home Rule in 1871: the southern Irish were determined to secure Home Rule, while the six counties of northern Ireland, known as Ulster, were predominantly Protestant, and desired to maintain the union with Great Britain.(p287)
8. The establishment of the Labor Party at the turn of the century came from the idea that Britain’s industrial workers should establish their own political party to represent their interest more effectively in Parliament.(p293)
9. During the 19th century, under both Liberal and Conservative leadership, Great Britain achieved remarkable gradual reform:

1) universal manhood suffrage

2) The state assumed an expanding role in education;

3) The government became more active in urban sanitation, slum clearance, and housing construction;

4)The civil service, the army, and the judicial system also experienced reform

chapter 17 the british empire in the 19th century
Chapter 17 The British Empire in the 19th Century

1. While the British did not pursue an active imperialist policy in the early 19th century, they did maintain and consolidate their existing possessions. (p299-303)

1) In the Western hemisphere, the British ruled Canada, a number of islands in the West Indies, British Honduras in Central America, and British Guiana in South America.(p299)
2) In Africa, the British had acquired the Cape of Good Hope during the Napoleonic wars, and they also had controlled a number of trading stations along Africa’s coasts.
3) In Asia, the British had defeated France in the Seven Years’ War(1756-1763), gaining control over India. The British started and protected the opium trade with China through the two Opium Wars (1839-1842, 1856-1858).
4) In the South Pacific, British possessions included Australia and New Zealand.

5) The British also controlled a number of key strategic points around the world: Gibraltar, the island of Malta, Ceylon, and Singapore.

2. During the 1870s, like other European powers, Great Britain developed a new interest in overseas expansion for a number of factors.( p303-304)
national rivalries
National rivalries

1) While colonization offered a means to increase a country’s military and economic power in relation to that of its rivals, the idea also came to be widely accepted that the possession of colonies was a sign of national greatness and vitality.

religious and humanitarian motives
Religious and humanitarian motives

2) During the late 19th century, there was a great upsurge in Christian missionary activity by both Protestants and Roman Catholics. These missionaries not only sought to follow the command of Jesus Christ to go forth into the world and make disciples of all nations, but also believed in their mission to bring the advantages of European civilization to less advanced people.

economic motives
Economic motives

3) The growth of European industry led to demands for new sources of raw materials, as well as to a need for new markets for the products of industry. Besides, those who had accumulated fortunes from industry were seeking new opportunities for investment.

3. In the 1870s, the European powers began a race to acquire colonial possessions in Africa. By the first years of the 20th century, virtually all of the continent had been partitioned among the imperial states, such as Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, and Portugal. (p305-311)
1) In Great Britain purchased 45% of the total Suez Canal shares, for the Suez Canal was regarded as an essential link between Great Britain and India.
2) South Africa, the Zulus, an indigenous African people, resented the entry of Europeans into their lands, and the Zulu War of 1879 broke out, but ended with a decisive British victory.
3) In the Boer War, or the South African War (1899-1902), the British army successfully fought against two Boer Republics called the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, and made them part of the British Empire.
4. British imperialism in Asia covered India, Afghanistan, Burma, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, and China.(p311-316)

1) The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: Great Britain refused to involve in it.

2) The Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902: The British remained particularly suspicious about Russian intentions in East Asia, and in 1902, they signed a defensive alliance with Japan in the event of an attack on one signatory by a third power.
3) The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 resulted in a Russian defeat, and Japan acquired Liaotung Peninsula and southern Manchuria. The British were pleased with the victory of their Japanese ally, which effectively contained Russian expansionism in East Asia.
chapter 18 the triumph of liberalism
Chapter 18 The Triumph of Liberalism

1. A new Liberal Party had taken shape, abandoning its earlier doctrinaire commitment to laissez-faire principles and embracing a powerful philosophy of socioeconomic and political reform.

2. Liberal reforms of 1906-1909 (p320)

1) The Workmen’s Compensation Act of 1906 provided workers with benefits in the event of job-related injury.

2) The Old Age Pensions Act of 1908 provided small benefits for retirees over the age of 70 who had only very limited incomes from other sources.
3. Lloyd George’s “People’s Budget”: in April 1909, David Lloyd George, the chancellor of the exchequer, proposed a bold redistribution of national income by placing the heaviest burden of taxation on the landowners and capitalists, called for higher income tax rates for the wealthy, and suggesting raising taxes on tobacco and alcohol. (p322)
4. By weakening the power of the aristocratic House of Lords, the Parliament Act of 1911 represented another step towards the creation of full political democracy in Great Britain. (p324)
5. Other reforms of the Liberal government

1) Salaries for members of the House of Commons, which was one of the six demands in the People’s Charter of 1839

2) The National Insurance Act of 1911 included a program of compulsory health insurance supported by contributions by the government, employers and workers, and a system of unemployment insurance, which was also supported by contributions by the government, employers and workers. (p325)
6. On the eve of the outbreak of World War I in the summer of 1914, Great Britain faced three crises: the suffragette movement, mounting labor unrest, and Ireland.(p325-327)
1) In 1903, the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) was established. In their drive to secure the right to vote fro women, the suffragettes engaged in militant and often violent tactics, such as hunger strike, even suicide.
2) Despite the reforms of the Liberal government, the hardships and discontents of Britain’s workers persisted and labor unrest intensified because of inflation and declining purchasing power. The strike movement started from 1911, and continued till the time when Britain went to war.
3) In May 1914, the House of Commons passed the Home Rule Bill a third time. The Ulsterites armed themselves, and the threat of civil war loomed in Ireland. The outbreak of World War I averted civil war in Ireland and the Home Rule Act of 1911 was replaced by the Home Rule Act of 1920.
3) Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism: Spencer contended that in human society, just as in nature, life involves a struggle for existence as a result of which the fittest survive. This doctrine provided support for the economic doctrine of laissez-faire, which emphasized free competition and opposed state intervention in the economy. (p328)
4) Alfred, Lord Tennyson was the most popular of the Victorian poets.

5) Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Robert Browning

6) William Makepeace Thackery and his “Vanity Fair”

7) Charles Dickens and his works

8) George Elliot (real name was Mary Ann Evans) and her “The Mill on the Floss”

9) Charlotte Bronte and her “Jane Eyre”, and Emily Bronte and her “Wuthering Heights”

10) Thomas Hardy and his “Tess of the D’Urbervilles” and other works

11) Robert Louis Stevenson and his adventure story “Treasure Island”

12) Joseph Conrad and his “Heart of Darkness”

13) H.G.. Wells and his science fiction “The Time Machine”

14) Arthur Conan Doyle and his detective hero Sherlock Holmes

15) Oscar Wilde was a leading figure in the Aesthetic Movement that emphasized art for art’s sake.

16) William Butler Yeats was the leading figure in the Irish literary renaissance.

17) George Bernard Shaw, an Irish-born playwright, won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1925.

chapter 19 great britain and the first world war
Chapter 19 Great Britain and the First World War

1. The European alliance system (p336-338)

1) The Three Emperors’ League (1872): Germany’s Emperor William I, Austria’s Emperor Francis Joseph, and Russia’s Tsar Alexander II pledged to cooperate to preserve peace and the status quo. This alliance revived in 1881.

2) The Dual Alliance (1879): Germany and Austria formed the alliance after the Three Emperors’ League collapsed during the Balkan crisis in the late 1870s.
3) The Triple Alliance (1882): Italy joined Germany and Austria in a defensive alliance.

4) The Franco-Russian Alliance (1894): a diplomatic revolution began as long-isolated France and newly isolated Russia began to draw closer.

2. Britain’s relations with Germany deteriorated.

3. In 1902, the British signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance , the first step in Britain’s abandonment of isolation. This alliance reflected Britain’s concern about Russian expansion in East Asia. (p339)

4. The Anglo-French Entente (1904): In spite of the tension arising from colonial disputes in Anglo-French relations, the French sought to improve that relationship, believing that Germany, rather than Great Britain, posed the real threat to France.
5. The Anglo-Russian Entente (19070 settled imperial disputes concerning Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.(p341)
6. The two alliance systems:

1) the Triple Entente of France, Great Britain, and Russia

2) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy

7. The outbreak of the war

1) On June 28, 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo by a South Slav nationalist. The Austrians declared war on Serbia on July 28.

2) The Russians decided to back Serbia, and Germany declared war on Russia on August 1. On August 3, Germany declared war on France.

3) Following Germany’s assault on Belgium, the British went to war in August.

8. the Battle of the Somme: in July 1916, the British and French launched a great offensive on the Somme River, with British casualties of 410,000, the French of 200,000, and German of 650,000. (p348)
9. Defeat of Russia: By the end of 1916, the Germans had defeated the Russians. The Russian Revolutions of 1917 ended any possibility that the Russians might continue fighting. (p350)
10. The German submarine fleet presented a more substantial threat, and hoped to knock Great Britain out of the war.
11. The United States declared war on Germany in early April 1917, but American forces were not present in large numbers on the front in France until almost a year later. (p353)
12. In mid-July 1918, the French, British and American armies began a counterattack that marked the beginning of the long offensive that ended the war. On August 13, German general admitted losing the war.
13. The war imposed heavy burden on the British people---high national debt and inflation, and with war dead totaling 947,000.
14. As increasing numbers of British men entered the armed services, women became more numerous in the domestic labor force. Women workers could only earn half the wages earned by men doing the same jobs, but they gained greater freedom, helped change male attitudes on the controversial subject of women’s suffrage.
chapter 20 the age of baldwin and macdonald
Chapter 20 The Age of Baldwin and MacDonald

1. Following World War I, Great Britain confronted serious economic problems, which became even more intense during the depression decade of the 1930s.

1) The war disrupted Britain’s trade links.

2) Due to the national debt, the British finances were under a severe strain.

3) Industry had to be reconverted to peacetime production.

4) Jobs had to be found for discharged veterans.

5) The loss of 900,000 people in the war deprived Britain of an important part of its male population.

2. The most significant political development was the decline of the Liberal Party and the emergence of Labor Party as one of the major parties in the British two-party system.
3.The British confronted continuing problems in Ireland, and in 1918, Sinn Feiners declared Irish independence, and proclaimed the establishment of an Irish republic, which led to civil war in Ireland. In October 1921, the six counties of Ulster became a part of what was known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, while the southern Ireland established an independent state, the Irish Free State.
4. In the Empire, demands for independence mounted in Egypt and India, while the dominions--- Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa --- called for greater rights of self-government.
5. The Treaty of Versailles (1919): The Paris Peace Conference produced five treaties for Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, among which the most important was the Treaty of Versailles. It imposed restrictions on the German armed forces, forced Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war, and required the Germans to pay reparations.
6. The Mandate System: the Treaty of Versailles deprived Germany of its colonies in Africa and the pacific and assigned them as mandates to the allies. The system was designed to protect the indigenous population and prepare them for independence, but in practice, it proved to be little more than disguised annexation.
7. During 1919 and 1920, Great Britain enjoyed a brief postwar economic boom, but during late 1920, an economic downturn began.
8. The 1929 Elections: for the first time in English history, the Labor party held the largest number of seats in the House of Commons, and MacDonald returned to the prime ministership. (p372)
9. The return of Conservative government (1935-1937) with Stanley Baldwin as Prime Minister.

10. King Edward VIII had to abdicate in order to marry Mrs. Simpson, a twice-divorced American woman, and later became the Duke of Windsor.(p375)

11. British literature

1) Three pre-war writers remained prominent in the postwar era: Shaw, Wells, and Galsworthy. Shaw won the Nobel Prize in 1925. Galsworthy, who won the Nobel Prize in 1933, is best known for his trilogy “The Forsyte Saga”.

2) Virginia Woolf used the stream-of –consciousness technique in her novels, and was admired by the feminists, for her essays focus on a woman’s need for independence and the opportunity for creative work.
3) D. H. Lawrence shocked his contemporaries with his frankness about sexuality.

4) T.S. Eliot and his “The Waste Land”

5) James Joyce, the Irish writer, and his “ A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man”

chapter 21 great britain and the second world war
Chapter 21 Great Britain and the Second World War

1. The Appeasement Policy on the part of Britain and France

1) Soon after taking power in1933, Adolf Hitler seized the initiative in foreign affairs and met little resistance from Great Britain and France.

2) France believed it could act to contain Hitler only with the full support of the British.

3) In Britain, there was a widespread belief that the Treaty of Versailles had been unduly harsh and that it should be revised in Germany’s favor.

4) Both Britain and France were preoccupied with domestic economic problems resulting from the Great Depression.

5) In both countries, intense memories of the carnage of World War I created a powerful desire to do everything possible to avoid another conflict.

2. the Axis powers---- Germany, Italy, and Japan

3. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Two days later, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. The Second World War began.

4. On June 5, 1940, Germany took Paris.

5. Under the leadership of Winston Churchill, one of the greatest war ministers in English history, the British people united with grim determination to win what quickly became a total global war.

6. British Royal Air Force (RAF) fought against the Luftwaffe, the German air force in August and September 1940.
7. In mid-January 1945, the Soviets took Warsaw, Poland’s capital. The Soviets entered Berlin on April 19, 1945, and the Germans surrendered on May 7.
8. The Second World War brought an end to the depression that had afflicted the British economy. There was a shortage of labor, and wages increased.
9. As one of the wartime Big Three, Great Britain established a close “special relationship” with the United States.
chapter 22 socialist britain
Chapter 22 Socialist Britain

1. By the end of World War II, two superpowers, the United States, and the Soviet Union, had come to dominate international relations.

2. In the Cold War, the great new international conflict that developed in the late 1940s, Britain firmly allied itself with the United States.
3. The Labor Party won the 1945 elections for the House of Commons, and for the first time in British history, a majority Labor government took office.
4. The Labor Party called for the creation of “a new Socialist Commonwealth, and its Program included the establishment of a planned economy, assurances of full employment, an expanded system of social insurance, and the construction of more housing.
5. The war had resulted in the loss of Britain’s export market, and the loss of income from merchant shipping and overseas investments. In 1946, Great Britain secured a $3.75 billion loan from the US, and a credit of $1.25 billion from Canada to overcome the crisis.
6. Marshall Plan Aid: In 1948, the US initiated the Marshall Plan to assist the economic recovery of Western Europe. Britain received some $2 billion, which helped stimulate a modest economic upswing. (p417)
7. Nationalization: From 1946-1948, the Labor government nationalized the Bank of England, the coal industry, electric and gas production, civil aviation, telecommunications, and the railroads and other transport service.
8. Social Insurance

1) The National Insurance Act of 1946 included unemployment insurance, pensions for retirees, sickness insurance, maternity and widow’s benefits, and death grants.

2) The National Assistance Act of 1948 was a government program of aid for the poor.

3) The National Health Service in 1948 provided free medical care for the British people, which covered physicians’ and dentists’ services, prescription drugs, hospital care, eyeglasses, and dentures.

9. Austerity program was imposed to restrict imports, increase exports, and reduce the balance of payments deficit. The rationing of meat, sugar, clothing, gasoline, and tobacco continued.
10. In 1949, the Irish Free State withdrew completely from the Commonwealth of Nations, becoming the Republic of Ireland.
11. In November 1947, the UN voted to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish sections. Britain withdrew from Palestine in May 1948. (p420)
12. In August 1947, two independent states came into being: India, with its capital at New Delhi, and Pakistan, with its capital at Karachi. The control of the province of Kashmir became the main dispute of the two countries.
13. Creation of two German States in 1949: the Federal Republic of Germany, and the German Democratic Republic (p424)
14. Britain supported the intervention in Korea, sent a small force to South Korea, and increased its defense budget. (p425)

15. The Suez Crisis of 1956 demonstrated the dramatic decline in Britain’s power and position in world affairs. (p429-430)

16. The British failed to modernize their industry, and British industry lacked innovative management. Besides, the economy continued to be hurt by labor-management conflict.
17. Instead of tying the British economy closer to that of the European continent by joining the EEC, there was a desire for stronger relations with the Commonwealth and the US.
18. In 1959, the British took the lead in organizing the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), a customs union with Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria, and Portugal, which was called the “outer seven”, contrasted with the “inner six” (France, Italy, West Germany, and the Benelux states).
19. The spread of nationalism in the post-World War II era resulted in the conversion of the British Empire into the loose association of independent states that constitute the Commonwealth of Nations.
chapter 23 contemporary britain
Chapter 23 Contemporary Britain

1. From 1964-1979, the Labor Party dominated the British government, with the exception of the years from 1970-1974, when the Conservatives held office. During this period, the welfare state remained intact.

2. The Labor government pressed forward with modest programs of further nationalization. The renationalization of the steel industry began in 1967.
3. Britain’s chronic economic problems ---- inflation, inefficiency in industry, and the balance of payment ---- persisted. These economic and financial problems forced the government in November 1967 to devalue the pound from $2.80 to $2.40.
4. Roy Jenkins, the chancellor of the exchequer, imposed further controls designed to cut the government’s budget deficit, reduce consumer spending, increase exports, increase interest rates, increase income and sales taxes, and place restrictions on consume credit. By 1970, Britain enjoyed a modest balance of payments surplus. (p442-443)
5. During the early 1960s, the growing number if immigrants from the Commonwealth, esp. India, Pakistan, and the West Indies, led to growing racial and social tensions in Britain.
6. British society during the 1960s was a more permissive society: the Beetles, the Rolling Stones, rock’n’rollers, miniskirts, and the “mod’ fashions; declining church membership and attendance; increase in the crime rate and the number of illegitimate births. (p444)
7. The Heath Government 1970-1974 had to face both the crisis in Northern Ireland and the persistent problems of the economy.
8. Heath believed that British entry into the Common Market would provide powerful impetus to the economy. On January 1, 1973, Great Britain became a member of the Common Market, along with Ireland and Denmark.
9. By 1972, the British economy enjoyed a short-lived prosperity. An increase in world prices of raw materials, esp. petroleum, along with labor-management conflict and shortage of skilled labor, led to an increase in the inflation rate and a slowdown of economic expansion.
10. The Second Wilson Government 1974-1976 was confronted with the economic crisis. His “ tax the rich” program served to undermine business confidence still further.
11. The inflation rate reached almost 25% in the summer of 1976, the highest in history. Unemployment and the budget deficit increased. The balance of payments deficit remained large, and the value of the pound continued to decline against major Western currencies, falling to about $1.70 in June 1976.
12. Although Britain joined the Common Market in 1973, many left-wing Laborites continued to oppose British participation in what they viewed as a capitalist economic endeavor, while many unions feared that their traditional privileges would be undermined by those countries that were less supportive of unions.
13. The Callaghan Government 1976-1979: The new prime minister found it hard to come up with enduring solutions for the country’s economic problems. He failed to find a means to promote the modernization of British industry and to take other measures needed to get the economy off its “stop-and-go” track.
14. The Thatcher Government 1979-1990: Margaret Thatcher became prime minister in 1979. “The Iron Lady” was not only the first woman in British history to hold the prime ministership, but she also held that office longer than any person since Lord Liverpool in the early 19th century.
15. Emphasis was placed on bringing inflation under control, curbing the power of the unions, and reducing the role of the state in the economy. By 1982, the rate of inflation had declined to under 8%, and there was a balance of payments surplus.
16. During the world recession of the early 1980s, the British were unable to find jobs for much of their work force, and unemployment increased from 4% in 1979 to 13% in 1983.
17. In 1981, the Social Democratic Party was formed. It was intended to be a center force in British politics between the Conservatives and the radicalized Labor Party.
18. A 1984 treaty with the PRC provided for the restoration of Hong Kong to China in 1997.

19. Thatcher’s reform measures:

1) Financial deregulation enhanced London’s already substantial position as an international financial center.

2) Decentralization or privatization of state-owned enterprises

3) The Trade Union Act of 1984 further reduced the power of the union leaders.

4) During the early and mid-1980s, Thatcher remained a firm ally of President Ronald Reagan in maintaining a hard-line stance in dealings with the Soviet Union.
chapter 1 celtic and roman britain
Chapter 1 Celtic and Roman Britain

Historians tend to begin English history with the Celts, who crossed from the European continent and settled in the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland) during the first millennium B.C. The Celts consisted of numerous tribes that shared a culture dating back to the Bronze Age in Central Europe (1200 B.C.)

Their warrior aristocracy possessed considerable wealth and power. In the first century B.C., the Romans began their incursions into Britain, and in the first century A.D., Britain became a province of the Roman Empire.
The Romans ruled Britain for 4 centuries, but the influence of Roman culture on Britain was slight. In Roman times, Christianity proved to be the most enduring.
Celts classes: nobles, freemen, slaves

2.Celtic religion: known as druidism, involved the worship of nature deities

1)immortality; transmigration of souls

2)monument at Stonehenge

roman britain
Roman Britain
  • 1.The Celtic Queen Boudicca’s revolt against the Romans in A.D. 60 2.Hadrian’s Wall was intended to protect Roman Britain from incursions by Caledonian tribesmen.
3.London, the commercial center, became the center of government for Roman Britain.4.By the 3rd century, Christianity was becoming widespread. St. Patrick became the patron saint of Ireland.
Hadrian’s Wall: a stone wall built by the Roman Emperor Hadrian across the north of England in 122 AD from the east to the west, in order to defend Roman Britain from attack by northern Caledonian tribes.
chapter 2 anglo saxon england
Chapter 2 Anglo-Saxon England

From the 5th century Roman Britain came under the control of the Anglo-Saxons. In the next several centuries, Anglo-Saxon institutions developed, Roman Catholic Christianity became the religion of the land, the several Saxon kingdoms became the united kingdom of England, and the English fought a long struggle against the Danes.

The history of England from the 9th century to the early 11th century was dominated by the struggle of the English against the Danes. Although the royal house of Wessex regained the throne by Edward the Confessor, soon after his death England was conquered by the Normans, and a new era in English history began.
1. Resistance from Britons: the legendary King Arthur of the Roundtable

2. The Anglo-Saxons worshipped nature gods.

3. The seven kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy developed; Northumbria, Mersia, East Anglia, Essex, Wessex, Kent, and Sussex.

4. The Celtic Christians didn’t acknowledge the pope as the head of the church, and the Celtic church didn’t require its priests to be celibate.

5. King Ethelbert became the first Anglo-Saxon king to embrace Christianity, and Augustine, the first archbishop of Canterbury.

6. The class structure: nobility, freemen, serfs, and slaves

7. The government: the hundreds as administrative and judicial units; the shires as the largest administrative units in Anglo-Saxon England; the king and the witan (a council)

8. the law: the customary law emphasized the payment of monetary compensation; compurgation (proof by oath); the ordeal

9. In the struggle against the Danes, or the Vikings;

1). King Alfred of Wessex was considered the greatest figure in the history of Anglo-Saxon England, and the first king of a united England. (P18-19)

2). King Edward the Confessor regained the throne.

10. literature: the poet Caedmon, and the epic poem Beowulf

chapter 3 the normans
Chapter 3 The Normans

In 1066, William, the Duke of Normandy, crossed the English Channel and began his conquest of England, which is an important turning point in English history. William the Conqueror established a powerful monarchy and created the best-organized state to exist in Western Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire in the West.

The Norman nobility replaced the old Anglo-Saxon nobility, and the institutions of Norman feudalism fused with Anglo-Saxon traditions. England was brought into closer contact with the European continent, from which the English gained a lot, but England often became embroiled in French affairs.
Lanfranc’s efforts to reform the English church: enforcing clerical celibacy and monastic discipline, improving the education of the clergy, and eliminating simony(买卖圣职)
William supported the reform, but refused to acknowledge the supremacy of papal authority, and didn’t permit the pope to control the selection of bishops and abbots.. He separated the systems of secular and ecclesiastical justice .
1. Norman feudalism: suzerain (feudal overlord) and vassals; manors and serfs

2. French became the language of government and law, and educated people were fluent in French and Latin. English was reduced to a spoken language; as a result, English grammar became simplified, and the vocabulary was enriched with French words.

3. Norman architecture was typical of Western European architecture during the 11th and 12th centuries, which was characterized by the use of round arches, massive, heavy walls, and small windows.
4. In 1087, William the Conqueror left the duchy of Normandy to Robert, his eldest son, and passed the English crown to his second son, William II, known as William Rufus (William the Red-faced).
5. Henry, the king’s younger brother became king of England and, in 11o6, invades Normandy and defeated Robert.

6. Henry I, who gained the title “lion of justice”, also began the practice of sending out itinerant justices, who went from the curia Regis to the shire courts to administer justice in the name of the king.

7. In less than a century after its establishment by William the Conqueror, the feudal system began to decline in England.

8. Henry began to take money payments, known as scutage (shield money), from bishops in lieu of service


9. In October 1154, Stephen, the grandson of William the Conqueror and nephew of Henry I, died. The direct line of Norman kings ended, and England now had a new royal family, the Angevins, also known as the Plantagenets.

10. During Stephen’s reign, the prestige and power of the monarchy established by William the Conqueror had declined as the nobility asserted its claims against the crown.
chapter 4 henry ii and his sons
Chapter 4 Henry II and His Sons

King Henry II, the first of the Angevin(安茹), or Plantagenet(金雀花 1154-1485), kings of England, was a capable, intelligent, and energetic monarch. He combated the anarchy that had developed during the reign of King Stephen.

Henry’s two sons proved to be less capable rulers. For most of his reign, King Richard I was absent from England, fighting either on the Third Crusade or in France. King John confronted three opponents ---- King Philip Augustus of France, Pope Innocent III, and the English barons, and defeated by all three.
One of the greatest of England’s kings, he is known for his enduring contributions to the English system of justice and also for his bitter conflict with Thomas a Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury.
1. King Henry II became king at the age of 21.

His mother Matilda was Henry I’s daughter, and the widow of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V.

His father Geoffrey was the son of the Count of Anjou, and was known as the Plantagenet for the sprig of broom he wore in his helmet.

2. The Angevin Empire extended from Scotland to the Pyrenees.

3. King Henry II created a new system of royal law common to the entire kingdom----the foundations of English common law.

4. The conflict between King Henry II and Thomas a Becket resulted in Becket’s murder.

5. King Richard I the lionhearted and the three Crusades

6. King John’s conflicts with King Philip Augustus of France, Pope Innocent III, and the English barons weakened his position.

7. Magna Carta (P52): the first step in the rcreation of constitutional government in England

chapter 5 the thirteenth century
Chapter 5 The Thirteenth Century

1. The conflict between the king and barons led to the emergence of Parliament, which was the most important development in English government and politics in the 13th century.

2. The Friars (男修道士)conducted an active ministry among the people.

3. The universities offered education in four areas: the liberal arts, law, medicine, and theology. (Oxford and Cambridge)

4. In the late 12th century, the graceful Gothic style developed to supplant the heavy Norman Romanesque. (perpendicular)

5. Economic activities and guilds of all kinds

6. William Wallace was regarded by the Scots as a national hero.

7. The Westminster Statutes---- the change in relationship from lord and vassal to seller and buyer or landlord and tenant

8. limited representation of knights and burgesses in Parliament----- the origins of Parliament’s development as a legislative body

9. Edward I won the nickname of the “English Justinian” for his contributions to law and justice. During his reign, feudalism declined, and parliament became firmly established.
chapter 6 the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
Chapter 6 The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries

The 14th and the 15th centuries were a time a turmoil and intensified violence: the Hundred Years’ War, the Black Death, the peasants’ revolt, and the Wars of the Roses. The authority of the monarchy and the nobility declined, which hastened the end of feudalism and helped the expansion of Parliament’s power.

Industry and commerce expanded, advances in education occurred, and the English language and literature emerged. English national consciousness developed.
  • Henry Tudor’s victory in 1485 ended the turmoil in the 14th and the 15th centuries.
1. King Edward II was a weak monarch, dependent on favorites.

2. King Edward III fought an intermittent war against France for nearly 25 years.

3. The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) (p77-81)

4. The Black Death (1348-1349) claimed one-third of England’s population.

5. In the 14th century the English Church began to decline, and the ideas of John Wycliffe foreshadowed the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. (p83)

6. The Wars of the Roses (p87; 91)

7. Emergence of Henry Tudor

8. In 1362, English replaced French as the language of the courts of law.

9. Geoffrey Chaucer and his Canterbury Tales

chapter 7 the tudor century henry vii and viii 1485 1547
Chapter 7 The Tudor Century: Henry VII and VIII (1485-1547)

Henry VII restored order and stability to the kingdom following the turmoil of the Wars of the Roses.

Henry VIII succeeded in breaking England’s ties with the papacy, and this religious reformation marked the beginning of a new era of turmoil.

Henry VII and Henry VIII provided orderly and effective government, winning the support of the prosperous middle classes, who appreciated the peace and stability the kings brought to the nation.
1. The power of the monarchs increased, while the authority of Parliament declined.

2. During the 15th century the enclosure movement had gained momentum in England.

3. Decline of the craft guilds

4. In the early 16th century, the Protestant Reformation began on the European continent with Martin Luther and John Calvin as representatives.

5. King Henry VIII’s six marriages

Catherine----mother of the future Queen Mary

Anne Boleyn----mother of the future Queen Elizabeth

6. The Act of Union of 1536 incorporated Wales completely into England.

7. The English Renaissance----Thomas More and his Utopia (1516)

8. Henry VIII succeeded in breaking England’s ties with the papacy.

chapter 8 the tudor century edward vi mary i and elizabeth i1547 1603
Chapter 8 The Tudor Century: Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I1547-1603

Under King Edward VI, the Church of England (Anglican Church) became more Protestant in doctrine and practice.

Queen Mary attempted to restore Roman Catholicism.

Queen Elizabeth I led England during one of the most glorious periods in its history. In religion, she sought to find a broad,

moderate settlement that would satisfy the great majority of her subjects, and thus resolved the religious turmoil.

1. Under King Edward VI, the Church of England became more Protestant.

2. Queen Mary I, England’s first reigning queen, attempted to restore Roman Catholicism, and prosecuted some 300 Protestants, which led to her acquisition of the nickname “Bloody Mary”.

3. Queen Elizabeth I, the last of the Tudors (1485-1603), established the monarch as the “supreme governor” of the Church of England.

4. Efforts to establish colonies in the New World turned out to be unsuccessful; while new trading companies were established, such as the East India Company (1600).

5. Queen Elizabeth I, who never married, used the possibility of marriage as an instrument of diplomacy with France and Spain.
6. Puritan movement came to challenge the established Church of England and the authority of the monarchy.

7. English efforts to establish colonies in the New World were unsuccessful. (Sir Walter Raleigh, an explorer, was the first to bring tobacco to England)

8. Elizabethan literature

Shakespeare (1564-1616) and his works

chapter 9 the 17th century the stuarts versus parliament
Chapter 9 The 17th Century: The Stuarts Versus Parliament

In the early 17th century, James I and Charles I tried to establish an absolute monarchy and enforce their views on religion, and this resulted in the Civil War and the execution of Charles I in 1649.

The eleven-year experiment (1649-1659) in republican government failed to provide England with stability in politics and religion. The army leaders took over.
1. King James I from Scotland had to face two issues: the relationship between the crown and Parliament, and the relationship between the Calvinist Puritans and the Church of England.

2. The King James Bible (1611)

3. The Gunpowder Plot and Guy Fawkes (Nov. 5, 1605)

4. Involvement in the Thirty Years’ War in Germany (1618-1648)

5. King Charles I ruled England without Parliament for 11 years (1629-1640)

6. The Short Parliament (3 weeks) was summoned to suppress the Scottish revolt ( Presbyterian was the dominant religion).

7. The English Civil War(1642)

8. In 1644, a Scottish Roundhead army defeated the Cavaliers.

9. The eleven-year Interregnum and the experiment in republican government

10. Cromwell, an ardent Puritan, pursued an aggressive foreign policy designed to promote England’s commercial interests.( the Dutch War and the War with Spain) His experiment in republican government failed.
chapter 10 the 17th century restoration and revolution
Chapter 10 The 17th Century: Restoration and Revolution

The 17th century was an era of political and religious turmoil for England, but it was also a time of remarkable achievements in the arts, literature, science, and political thought.

The long conflict between Parliament and the Stuart monarchs led to the Glorious Revolution of 1688, which restricted the power of the crown, and established a constitutional monarchy, and reaffirmed the position of the church of England as the country’s established church.
1. King Charles II made no attempt to reestablish royal absolutism and avoided conflicts with Parliament.

2. The Dutch War of 1665--- the English seizure of the Dutch colony of New Netherland (later split into New York and New Jersey)

3. King James II attempted to impose royal absolutism and promote a restoration of Roman Catholicism.

4. The Glorious Revolution (the Bloodless Revolution)-----the Whigs and the Tories (p152)

5. In 1689, Parliament awarded the English Crown to William of Orange, the Dutch ruler, and he became King William III.

6. The Bill of Rights (p152)

7. The Nine Years’ War (1688-1697) between the French and the Holy Roman Emperor and his allies

8. Some figures to be remembered: Anthony Van Dyck; John Milton and his “Paradise Lost”; Francis Bacon; Sir Isaac Newton; Thomas Hobbes; John Locke( “knowledge from experience”, “social contract”)(p166)

chapter 11 the 18th century the first hanoverians 1714 1901
Chapter 11 The 18th Century: The First Hanoverians (1714-1901)

1. King George I, the elector of the German state of Hanover, never learned English.

2. The Tories failed in supporting James Edward Stuart’s claim to the English throne.

3. King George I and George II maintained close ties with the Whigs.

4. Robert Walpole served as the King’s chief minister (prime minister) for some 20 years (1721-1742). His economic policies were to encourage industry and commerce, and to reduce interest and taxes.

5. “The Forty-Five” (1745) was the last attempt to restore the Stuarts to the throne.

6. The British Museum was built in 1753.

7. King George III tried to undermine the Whig oligarchy and weaken the cabinet system that placed limits on his authority. The party of “King’s Friends” in 1760s resulted in the return of the Tories to power since 1714.
8. Methodism began as a reform movement within the Church of England, but it became a separate denomination by the end of the 18th century.
9. Literary figures: Alexander Pope (the England’s greatest 18th-century poet; Daniel Defoe and his “Robinson Crusoe”; Jonathan Swift and his “Gulliver’s Travels”; Henry Fielding and his “Tom Jones”.
10. Robert Walpole owed his long tenure as the country’s first real prime minister to his ability to manage the House of Commons.
chapter 12 the 18th century empire and politics
Chapter 12 The 18th Century: Empire and Politics

1. the Quadruple Alliance (p187): Great Britain, Austria, France and the Netherlands to restrain Spain

2. “Second Hundred Years’ War” between Great Britain and Spain

3. the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748): Prussia, France, Bavaria and Saxony as one side, Austria, Great Britain, and the Netherlands as the other

4. The British focused their attention on the colonial war against France (in North America, the West Indies, and India)

5. The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) involved both a continental war and a colonial conflict, resulting in a considerable expansion of the British Empire.
6. When Prussia invaded the kingdom of Saxony, the British contributed substantial financial support to Prussia, hoping to divert France’s resources away from the colonial war overseas.
7. The British benefited from their control of the sea.

8. The Treaty of Paris(1763): Great Britain won a decisive victory over France, and little was left of the French Empire in the New World

9. The American Revolution

10. Economic Reform Acts lessened the ability of the Crown to influence Parliament.

11. In 1807, Parliament abolished the slave trade.

12. In 1788, the first 750 British settlers, most of whom were convicts, established Sydney

13. British policy of opposing Russian expansionism in the Near East (the Middle East)

14. William Pitt the Younger, the leader of the resurgent Tories, became Prime Minister. His reform efforts included:

1) establishing an auditing commission to supervise government finances;

2) reducing tariffs in order to discourage smuggling;

3) simplifying the complicated system of tax collection;

4) reducing restrictions on foreign trade-----the first step on Britain’s road to a free-trade policy.

chapter 13 great britain the french revolution and napoleon
Chapter 13 Great Britain, the French Revolution and Napoleon

1. The French Revolution in 1789 initiated a generation of warfare in Europe. France was at war with most of Europe. The war continued until the final defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815.

2. The British initially sought to remain uninvolved, but the war threatened British control of the English Channel, so in 1793, Great Britain went to war against France. Three Coalitions were formed.
1) Great Britain joined Austria, Prussia, Spain and Sardinia in the War of the First Coalition against France.(1793-1796)

2) Russia formed a new alliance with Great Britain, Austria, Portugal, Naples and the Ottoman Empire to fight against France.(1799-1801)

3. The British interference with American shipping, combined with the expansionist ambitions of American “War hawks” who hoped to annex Canada, led to America’s entry into the war of 1812 against Britain.
4. The British made important territorial gains, but the war against France and Napoleon left Great Britain with a huge national debt, and it experienced a severe postwar economic depression that lasted until 1820.
5. The fear of revolution that had led to repressive policies during the war years continued to influence the British government in the postwar era.
chapter 14 the agricultural and industrial revolutions
Chapter 14 The Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions
  • The Agricultural Revolution

1. the development of scientific agriculture; the practice of crop rotation

2. Tull’s horse drawn seed drill; “Turnip Townshend”

3. The scientific breeding of cattle and sheep

4. The introduction of new crops ( potatoes, peas, cauliflower, asparagus)

5. The Enclosure Movement starting in the 16th century (p235)

The Industrial Revolution

1. Reasons for Great Britain’s leadership in the industrial revolution

1) ample resources of coal and iron

2) available capital for investment

3) mercantile experience

4) policies designed to promote industry and commerce

2. Innovation of machinery: the flying shuttle, spinning machine, the cotton gin

3. Factories replaced small workshops and cottage-based industries.

4. The development of the steam engine provided a dependable and efficient source of power, and made possible the development of industry in towns far from rivers.

5. The interrelationship among the steam engine, coal mining and iron production

6. The first efficient method for the mass production of steel (1856)

The Revolution in Transportation

1. The construction of canals and roads

2. The development of the steam engine and improvements in the quality of iron led to the invention of railroads (Stephenson’s locomotive in 1825).

The revolution in Communications

1. In 1836, Samuel F. B. Morse, an American, invented the telegraph. Submarine telegraph cables and trans-Atlantic cables were built.

2. In 1840, Great Britain introduced the penny post, the first modern postal system.

Developments in others Areas

1. the principle of limited liability (p243)

2. population growth and distribution

3. the human cost of industrialization: long working hours, low wages, crowded slums; without adequate sewage facilities, a safer water supply, educational opportunities, or access to health care

4. liberalism; the doctrine of laissez-faire and Adam Smith (p244);mercantilism

5. Malthus on population

6. Ricardo and the Iron Law of Wages (p245)

7. Bentham’s utilitarianism led to the creation of the 20th century welfare system

8. John Stuart Mill’s ideas about universal suffrage

9. different kinds of socialism: Utopian Socialism (Robert Owen), Christian socialism (brotherly love)