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Ch. 4, Scientific Method in Abnormal Psychology . Prepared by Elizabeth Jacobs, Ph.D. Theoretical Research. Each theory conducts its own research to support its diagnoses and treatments…. …some good, some bad, some horrible and dangerous…. Schizophrenogenic parenting, estrogen….

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ch 4 scientific method in abnormal psychology

Ch. 4, Scientific Method in Abnormal Psychology

Prepared by Elizabeth Jacobs, Ph.D.

theoretical research
Theoretical Research

Each theory conducts its own research to support its diagnoses

and treatments…

…some good, some bad,

some horrible and dangerous…

Schizophrenogenicparenting, estrogen….

driving
Driving!!!

Welcome

to

phoenix

the better driver
The better driver?
  • Males???
  • Females???
a reaction time experiment by betsy jacobs
A Reaction Time Experiment, By Betsy Jacobs
  • First thing I need?
    • Hypothesis… (educated guess)
  • Next thing I need?
    • Operational definitions… (of reaction time…)
  • Next?
    • Measurement…
    • I choose…
      • A yardstick!! (Reliable/valid?)
my experiment continued
My Experiment continued…
  • Some variables are in order here…
    • Independent… sex (quasi-experimental)
    • Dependent…(measurement)
running the experiment
Running the experiment
  • Need a male first… Time:
  • Now a female…. Time:
  • Statistical analysis (your next class?)to determine whether there is a real difference or the difference occurred only by chance.
  • Statistical vs. clinical significance
correlational studies
Correlational studies…

From 0 (no Correlation ) to +1.00 or -1.00 Perfect Correlation)

NOT Cause and Effect

more studies
More studies…
  • Analog… effects of alcohol using rats
  • Simulation…”sexual sadism” followed by survey
  • Field studies…observe in nature (aggression)
one vs many
One vs. many
  • Nomothetic studies: study a large group of people and formulate a general law of behavior
  • Idiographic = one person…
    • Case study (tests, observe, interview)
    • Single N (baseline, treatment, behavior, withdraw, behavior)
    • Multiple baseline (more than one behavior or one place)
    • Can’t generalize from an N of 1…
more studies1
More studies…
  • Genetic connection (e.g., schizophrenia)
  • Penetrance(to what extent is the gene expressed)
  • Biological (affect of substance on behavior….sugar?)
other types of research
Other types of research
  • Survey (GCC survey )
  • Longitudinal (over long period of time)
  • Historical (reconstructing the past)
  • Twin studies (twins – Thomas Bouchard)
  • Treatment outcomes
  • Treatment process (how/why treatment is effective)
  • Program evaluation (Dare, Head Start)
  • Prevalence(% in population with a disorder)
  • Incidence rate (# of new case in specific time period – PTSD in last 9 years?)
ethics in research
Ethics in Research
  • Withholding treatment? (hip research)
  • Deception?
  • Invasion of privacy?
  • Risk patient’s mental/physical health?
  • Cause pain in animals?

Heavy…

apa ethical guidelines
APA Ethical Guidelines
  • Informed consent
  • Ability to withdraw any time
  • Dignified Treatment
  • Minimal pain
  • Confidentiality