The Civil Rights Movement America during the 1950s and 1960s…
A Background to the Civil Rights Movement • Civil War Amendments • 13th Amendment: abolished slavery • 14th Amendment: granted citizenship to everyone born in the United States • 15th Amendment: granted the right to vote to all male citizens • Civil Rights Act (1875) • outlawed segregation in public facilities • declared unconstitutional in 1883
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) ruled that “separate but equal” does not violate the 14th amendment led to Jim Crow laws, mainly in the South
Other Milestones • The Great Migration • World War II • increased demand for workers led to more jobs for African-Americans, Latinos and women • nearly 1 million African-Americans served in the armed forces
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) • created in 1909 • legal strategy focused on the inequality between separate schools • Thurgood Marshall • lawyer who began to argue cases for the NAACP
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) • Supreme Court ruled unanimously that school segregation was unconstitutional • “In the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place.” ~Chief Justice Earl Warren
Reaction to the decision… reaction was mixed and particularly negative in the South within a year, more than 500 districts had desegregated Brown II (1955) ordered desegregation “with all deliberate speed”
Crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas Governor OrvalFaubus orders the National Guard to turn away the 9 African-American students who will integrate Little Rock Central H.S. (1957) a federal judge ordered Faubus to let the students enter they faced discrimination/abuse when they tried to desegregate
Crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas President Eisenhower placed the Arkansas National Guard under federal control and ordered paratroopers into Little Rock Faubus shut down Central H.S. the next year, rather than continue integration
Civil Rights Act of 1957 first civil rights law since Reconstruction gave the attorney general greater power over school desegregation and gave the federal government jurisdiction over violations of African-American voting rights
Montgomery Bus Boycott • December 1, 1955- Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat • after her arrest, leaders of the African-American community formed the “Montgomery Improvement Association” and organized a boycott of the buses • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is elected to lead the group
Montgomery Bus Boycott African-Americans refused to ride the buses for 381 days they remained non-violent late 1956, the Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation Why did this approach work?
Martin Luther King Jr. • became a leader of the movement • used nonviolent techniques • ex: civil disobedience-refusal to obey an unjust law
Southern Christian Leadership Conference • 1957—with other ministers and civil rights leaders founded the SCLC • purpose: “to carry on nonviolent crusades against the evils of second-class citizenship” • hoped to gain the support of ordinary African Americans
Lunch Counter Sit-Ins • 1960—students at Shaw University (N.C.) organized SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee) • February 1960-students staged a sit-in at a whites-only lunch counter at Woolworth’s • The movement spread and by late 1960, students had desegregated lunch counters in 48 cities
Civil Rights in the North de facto segregation-segregation that exists by practice and custom de jure segregation-segregation by law
Resulting Violence • Throughout the 1960s, race riots spread through the north. • July 1964: Harlem • August 1965: Watts • 1967: 100+ cities • These riots showed that African-Americans wanted and needed economic equality.
Stokely Carmichael & Black Power Carmichael was the leader of SNCC. With “Black Power” he advocated his organization stop recruiting whites and focus on African-American pride and their own goals..
Black Panthers Oakland, California (October 1966) Huey Newton and Bobby Seale preached self-defense
1968 assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. led to the worst urban rioting in U.S. history
Legacy of the Movement Kerner Commission-said the main cause of urban violence was white racism Civil Rights Act of 1968-ended discrimination in housing affirmative action- programs that make special effort to hire or enroll groups that have suffered discrimination
Modern Civil Rights Issue—Jena Louisiana http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SrIEM8X0qA&playnext_from=TL&videos=c0KiY-XOVQs