The Civil Rights Movement. America during the 1950s and 1960s…. What rights are worth fighting for?. A Background to the Civil Rights Movement. Civil War Amendments 13 th Amendment: abolished slavery 14 th Amendment: granted citizenship to everyone born in the United States
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America during the 1950s and 1960s…
ruled that “separate but equal” does not violate the 14th amendment
led to Jim Crow laws, mainly in the South
(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
~Chief Justice Earl Warren
reaction was mixed and particularly negative in the South
within a year, more than 500 districts had desegregated
Brown II (1955) ordered desegregation “with all deliberate speed”
Governor OrvalFaubus orders the National Guard to turn away the 9 African-American students who will integrate Little Rock Central H.S. (1957)
a federal judge ordered Faubus to let the students enter
they faced discrimination/abuse when they tried to desegregate
President Eisenhower placed the Arkansas National Guard under federal control and ordered paratroopers into Little Rock
Faubus shut down Central H.S. the next year, rather than continue integration
first civil rights law since Reconstruction
gave the attorney general greater power over school desegregation and gave the federal government jurisdiction over violations of African-American voting rights
African-Americans refused to ride the buses for 381 days
they remained non-violent
late 1956, the Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation
Why did this approach work?
de facto segregation-segregation that exists by practice and custom
de jure segregation-segregation by law
Carmichael was the leader of SNCC.
With “Black Power” he advocated his organization stop recruiting whites and focus on African-American pride and their own goals..
Oakland, California (October 1966)
Huey Newton and Bobby Seale
assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
led to the worst urban rioting in U.S. history
Kerner Commission-said the main cause of urban violence was white racism
Civil Rights Act of 1968-ended discrimination in housing
affirmative action- programs that make special effort to hire or enroll groups that have suffered discrimination