Topic 12. The Great Migration Begins - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Topic 12. The Great Migration Begins

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  1. Topic 12. The Great Migration Begins

  2. Mobility and Migration: Causes

  3. Annual Growth Rate of Athens


  4. Push Factors • Rural poverty • Paucity of land and land fragmentation • The rise and demise of plantation-based export agricultural • Failure to develop alternative sources of livelihoods

  5. Industrialization:focussed on Athens and Piraios • Semi-peripheral industries • Mining and other extractive industries • Export driven agriculture: ship building and porters Pull Factors

  6. Manufacturing Jobs

  7. Occupations associated with trade and commerce, dockworkers, longshoremen, etc, were more important than factory jobs. Secondary Sector Jobs

  8. Service Industries and Street Life

  9. Service Jobs: low paying and erratic. Could only absorb a modest percentage of men in search of work.

  10. Overcrowding • Poor sanitation • Lack of Water • Disease: esp. cholera • Crime and violence • Poverty Shantytowns

  11. Urban Ills

  12. Poverty

  13. Violence and Public Order

  14. Murder Capital of the World

  15. The Shift to Out-migration

  16. Rural poverty and land shortage

  17. Rural Underemployment

  18. Collapse of the currant market and debt

  19. Low Wages & Underemployment

  20. “Why remain here to struggle for a piece of bread without any security, without honor (timi) or independence? Why not open your eyes and see the good that awaits you in America: Harden your heart and seek your fortune abroad, where so many of your countrymen already have made theirs?” Aion (Athens newspaper, 1903)

  21. The Numbers

  22. Percentage of Greek emigrants by gender, 1900-1924.

  23. The Journey

  24. The Padrone System Agents would recruit them, and book them passage to America. In return, the migrant was forced to work where they padrone told them and under conditions over which they had no control. One such man, Leonidas G. Skliris, known as the “Tzar of the Greeks”, brought over 7,000 men to work in the mines of Utah. Textile mills in New England and the shoe-shining was other occupations in which the padrone system flourished. Recruited in the poor villages and slums

  25. Free Agents & Chain Migration

  26. Boarding the Ship

  27. The Atlantic crossing was arduous and the conditions appalling.

  28. Destinations

  29. New York Detroit Chicago Lowell/Manchester Boston New Orleans Utah Ohio Nevada Nebraska • The South • Atlanta • Memphis • Birmingham