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Why the Industrial Revolution Started in Great Britain. 1760 AD – 1840 AD in England 1800s-1900s in France and Germany 1840s -1920s in United States. Industrial England: "Workshop of the World". That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte.

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Why the industrial revolution started in great britain

Why the Industrial Revolution Started in Great Britain

1760 AD – 1840 AD in England

1800s-1900s in France and Germany

1840s -1920s in United States

Industrial England:


of the World"

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte

Life in england before the industrial revolution
Life in England Before the Industrial Revolution?

  • 8 out of 10 worked in countryside

  • Subsistence farming

  • Cottage industries - factories rarely employed more than 50 people

  • Handmade – buttons, needles, cloth, bricks, pottery, bread etc.

  • Developing towns – Liverpool,

    Birmingham, Glasgow

Welsh spinsters

How many objects do you have about you or can you see in the room that are handmade?

How did people get around before the industrial revolution
How did people get around before the Industrial Revolution?

  • ‘We set out at six in the morning and didn’t get out of the carriages (except when we overturned or got stuck in the mud) for 14 hours. We had nothing to eat and passed through some of the worst roads I ever saw in my life’

This is a description of a journey by Queen Anne in 1704 from Windsor to Petworth – a journey of 40 miles. What does it tell us about transport at the time?

Definitions of industrial revolution and industrialization
Definitions of Industrial Revolution and Industrialization

  • Industrial Revolution: a period of increased output of goods made by machines and new inventions; a series of dramatic changes in the way work was done

  • Industrialization: the process of developing machine production of goods that led to a better quality of life for people and also caused immense suffering

Two great economic revolutions occurred in human development
Two great economic “revolutions” occurred in human development

  • The Industrial Revolution, started in the eighteenth century, is still taking place today

    • Involves a series of inventions leading to the use of machines and inanimate power in the manufacturing process

    • Suddenly whole societies could engage in seemingly limitless multiplication of goods and services

    • Rapid bursts of human inventiveness followed

    • Gigantic population increases

Industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution development

  • Began around 1750 in Great Britain

  • New machines led to the Industrial Revolution.

  • They replaced hand labor and helped workers produce more things faster.

  • Moving water power in rivers replaced worker’s muscle.

  • One water wheel could turn hundreds of machines.

A technological revolution
A technological revolution development

A series of inventions that built on principles of mass production, mechanization and interchangeable parts

Josiah Wedgwood developed a mold for pottery that replaced the potters wheel, making mass production possible

Industrial revolution1
Industrial Revolution development

  • Machines also started the factory system.

  • The new machines were too large and costly to be put into a person’s home.

  • Large buildings called factories were built to hold many of the machines.

  • The workers in one factory manufactured more in a day than one person working in his or her home could manufacture in a lifetime.

Industrial revolution2
Industrial Revolution development

  • Steam engines began to appear in the 1700s.

  • This important invention used wood or coal as fuel to heat water in a boiler.

  • Steam from the hot water powered the engine, which ran the machines.

  • Since a steam engine could be placed anywhere, factories no longer had to be built along rivers.

  • They could be built near fuel, raw materials, or labor.

Industrial revolution included
Industrial Revolution Included: development

  • 1) the use of new basic materials, chiefly iron and steel

  • (2) the use of new energy sources, including both fuels and motive power, such as coal, the steam engine, electricity, petroleum, and the internal-combustion engine

  • (3) the invention of new machines, such as the spinning jenny and the power loom that permitted increased production with a smaller expenditure of human energy

Industrial revolution included1
Industrial Revolution Included: development

  • (4) a new organization of work known as the factory system, which entailed increased division of labor and specialization of function-- the worker acquired new and distinctive skills, and his relation to his task shifted; instead of being a craftsman working with hand tools, he became a machine operator, subject to factory discipline

  • (5) important developments in transportation and communication, including the steam locomotive, steamship, automobile, airplane, telegraph, and radio, and

  • (6) the increasing application of science to industry

Industrial revolution3
Industrial Revolution development

  • As factories produced more, better transportation was needed.

  • More canals were dug and better roads were built.

  • Here again the steam engine was able to help.

  • By 1830, steam locomotives began to pull trains.

Man of steel henry bessemer

Before 1850, railroads and trains were made of iron development

Iron is brittle

Railroads were unsafe

1850 Henry Bessemer (England) invents a way to turn iron ore into steel

Man of Steel: Henry Bessemer

The role of the railroads
The Role of the Railroads development

  • The railroads, built during the 1830s and 1840s:

    • Enabled people to leave the place of their birth and migrate easily to the cities.

    • Allowed cheaper and more rapid transport of raw materials and finished products.

    • Created an increased demand for iron and steel and a skilled labor force.

The Industrial Revolution development

The Spinning Mill

In the 18th century, English merchants were leaders in world commerce. It created a demand for more goods and a cheaper system of production. Besides, there were new ideas in England : an interest in scientific investigation and invention, and the doctrine of “laissez-faire” : letting business be regulated by supply and demand rather than by laws. Most important of all, new machines and techniques were developed by British inventors (for example : James Hargreaves, James Watt, John Blenkinsop…)

Consequences on society

Stephenson's Rocket

On your left side with your partner
On your Left Side with your partner: development

  • Compare and contrast this Industrial Revolution to the Technological Revolution of the last twenty years.

  • What are the similarities?

  • What are the differences?

Origins why england
Origins---Why England? development

  • Agricultural Revolution

    • Horse and steel plow

    • Fertilizer use

    • Yields improved 300% 1700-1850

  • Growth of foreign trade for manufactured goods

    • Foreign colonies

    • Increase in ships and size

  • Successful wars and foreign conquest

Origins why england1
Origins – Why England? development

  • Factors in England

    • No civil strife

    • Government favored trade

    • Laissez-faire capitalism

    • Large middle class

    • Island geography

    • Mobile population

    • Everyone lived within 20 miles of navigable river

    • Tradition of experimental science

    • Weak guilds

The Agricultural Revolution development

During the early 1700's, a great change in farming called the Agricultural Revolution began in Great Britain.

The revolution resulted from a series of discoveries and inventions that made farming much more productive than ever before.

By the mid-1800's, the Agricultural Revolution had spread throughout much of Europe and North America.

One of the revolution's chief effects was the rapid growth of towns and cities in Europe and the United States during the 1800's.

Because fewer people were needed to produce food, farm families by the thousands moved to the towns and cities.

Agricultural revolution
Agricultural Revolution development

  • More food was available.

  • Food production increased over 60% during the 1700s; twice the rate between the 1500s and 1700s.

  • Introduction of new crops, Columbian Exchange, from the New World.

  • English farmers began to raise potatoes which proved cheap and nourishing.

  • Other new crops indirectly benefitted humans as they improved animal feed: corn, buckwheat, carrots and cabbage.

  • This new animal feed produced larger quantities of better tasting meat and milk.

Agricultural revolution1
Agricultural Revolution development

  • Enclosure Movement---allowed landowners to fence off land through the use of hedges and resulted in the loss of common lands used by many small farmers

  • Development of More Effective Farming Methods

    a)Townshend---crop rotation

    b)Bakewell---animal breeding

    c)Tull---seed drill

    *These advances displaced smaller farmers who now needed new employment

    *Provided large land-owning farmers with more money to invest

Agricultural Revolution development

15th and 18th

Century Farming

The Open-field System development

  • Cooperative plowing

  • Conserved the quality of land

  • Balanced distribution of good land

  • Farmers were part of a “team”

  • Gleaning

Open field system old system
OPEN FIELD SYSTEM---Old System development

  • All villagers worked together

  • All the land was shared out

  • Everyone helped each other

  • Everyone had land to grow food

  • For centuries enough food had been grown


Open field system old system1
OPEN FIELD SYSTEM---Old System development

  • Strips in different fields

  • Fallow land

  • Waste of time

  • Waste of land

  • Common land


Disadvantages of the open field system
Disadvantages of the Open Field System development

People have to walk over your strips to reach theirs

Field left fallow

Difficultto take advantage of new farming techniques

No hedges or fences

No proper drainage

Animals can trample crops and spread disease

Because land in different fields takes time to get to each field

Why did the open field system change
Why did the Open Field System change? development

What was

happening to population?

Causes of the Industrial Revolution development

A. Farming Changes: During the 1700’s, farmers were able to reclaim more land to plant, made better use of land, and used fertilizer to improve the soil.

B. Enclosure Movement: In the 1700’s, rich landowners and the English Parliament began taking away land from peasants and were able to harvest more which made farming profitable.

Enclosures? development

This meant enclosing the land with fences or hedges.

The open fields were divided up and everyone who could prove they owned some land would get a share.

Dividing the open land into small fields and putting hedges and fences around them.

Everyone had their own fields and could use them how they wished.

Open land and common land would also be enclosed and divided up.

Enclosure movement
Enclosure Movement development

  • By the late eighteenth century enclosures were becoming very common in Great Britain.

  • Enclosure simply meant joining the strips of the open fields to make larger compact units of land.

  • These units were then fenced or hedged off from the next person’s land.

  • This meant that a farmer had his land together in one farm rather than in scattered strips.

  • The farmer now had a greater amount of independence.

  • This was not a new idea

  • Enclosures had been around since Tudor times, but increased dramatically in the 1700s because they made it easier for farmers to try out new ideas.

Methods of enclosure
Methods of Enclosure development

  • During the later 1770s, the number of enclosures in Britain increased because they made it easier for farmers to try out new farming techniques.

  • Farmers could now invest in new machinery for use on their land, work in one area and not waste time walking between strips of land.

  • The enclosed land was also useful for farmers wanting to experiment with selective breeding and new crops from abroad.

  • There were two ways for villages to enclose land.

  • One was by getting the whole village to agree among themselves, which was more common during the early 18th century.

  • The second was by an Act of Parliament. By 1770, landowners were forcing enclosure on their local village by using an Act of Parliament.

Ways to enclose
Ways to Enclose development

  • There were two ways to enclose a field.

  • Before 1740 most villages were enclosed by agreement.

  • This was when all of the major landowners in the village made a private agreement to join their strips together.

  • This possibly meant buying out smaller farmers.

  • When a small number or farmers did not want to sell their land an Act of Parliament had to be obtained.

  • This became seen as perfectly acceptable after 1750 because it had a number of really good points:

  • 1. Each piece of enclosed land had legal documentation.

  • 2. It provided a forum for opposition to be heard.

  • 3. It allowed the whole village to be enclosed at the same time.

Role of parliament with enclosure movement
Role of Parliament with Enclosure Movement development

  • So how did Parliamentary enclosures take place?

  • A village meeting was held and the owners of three quarters of the village's land had to agree to enclosure. In many cases, the Lord of the Manor and his friends owned three quarters of the land.

  • A petition was drawn up by landowners asking Parliament to pass an act enclosing local land.

  • A notice about the petition was placed on the village church door.

  • Parliament considered the petition and then passed an Enclosure Act and sent three commissioners to supervise the enclosure and decide who had the right to land in the village.

  • The commissioners then drew up a new map of the enclosed fields.

So did people want to enclose their land? development

  • Well, some did and some didn’t. If they did not agree it was hard luck.

  • If the owners of four-fifths of the land agreed, they could force an Act of Parliament-

  • There was a great increase in the number of these in the eighteenth century, from 30 a year to 60, then from 1801 to 1810 there were 906, nearly 3 million hectares were enclosed.

Benefits to the enclosure movement
Benefits to the Enclosure Movement development

  • Some agricultural improvers enclosed their land so as to reduce wastage.

  • It also meant it was easier for them to make decisions about changing the use of the land.

  • Because enclosure brought a farmer’s lands together, it was worth investing in machinery, lime, manure or seed from one strip to another.

  • Enclosures would also help farmers interested in selective breeding.

  • It also made it worthwhile to dig drainage ditches around their fields.

  • Historians generally agree that farmers enclosed land in order to produce a greater tonnage, thereby earning bigger profits.

  • In addition, where land was enclosed, landlords could charge tenants higher rents.

So what’s wrong with that? development

Nothing - if you could

prove you owned the land,

if you had the money for

fences and hedges and if you

could afford to pay the

commissioners to come

and map the land,

not to mention the cost of an Act

of Parliament.

Groups that supported the enclosure movement
Groups That Supported The Enclosure Movement development

  • Landowners: They made large profits from the enclosures because the new fields were more efficient, and they could charge their tenants higher rents.

  • Tenant Farmers: They did not mind the higher rents, because they were making so much profit that they could afford new machinery and the best fertilizer.

  • Labourers: They were given more work digging ditches, planting hedges, and building roads. Many of them even gained new homes on their master’s estates.

Groups that were against the enclosure movement
Groups That Were Against The Enclosure Movement development

  • Smallholders: Many villagers lost land and were forced to become labourers, either because they could not prove their right to the enclosed land or because they could not afford to enclose the land.

  • Landless Labourers: People like squatters really suffered, because the common land was turned into enclose land. Many of them were left hungry.

Were there winners and losers
Were there winners and losers? development

  • Yes, the better off farmers and landowners gained the most - the rich got richer and the poor got poorer.

  • People who had no written proof of ownership lost their land altogether.

  • Some couldn’t afford to pay for fences and had to sell their land.

  • These people either became labourers on other peoples land or headed for the towns to try and get a job.

  • One farm labourer said: ‘All I know is that I had a cow and an Act of Parliament has taken it from me.’

  • There were riots in some villages.

Better food production methods are developed. Nitrogen was recognized as an important fertilizer. Turnips and clover replaced lost nutrients. Science and Agriculture merged.

The appliance of organic chemistry solved the old problem of keeping soil fertile.

A scientist, Justus von Leibig, discovered that chemicals known as nitrates and phosphates were the most important nutrients needed by plants and crops.

The best source for this was crushed animal bones which could be spread on the fields.

Organic Chemistry

Rothamstead Scientific keeping soil fertile.

Research Station

  • Another important development came in 1843.

  • A landowner, called J.B. Lawes set up a scientific research station on his fields at Rothamstead.

  • He experimented and noted the effects of different fertilisers on different plots of land.

  • His greatest success was the production of superphosphates which he made by using sulphuric acid on bones.

  • Britain had discovered artificial fertilisers.

Selective breeding
Selective Breeding? keeping soil fertile.

  • Some farmers such as Robert Bakewell and the Culley brothers

  • This meant only allowing the fittest and strongest of their

  • cattle, sheep, pigs and horses to mate.

  • You can tell how successful they were:

  • In 1710 the average weight for cattle was

  • 168 Kg by 1795 - it was 363 Kg

Robert bakewell
Robert Bakewell keeping soil fertile.

Selective breeding1
Selective Breeding keeping soil fertile.

  • Robert Bakewell

  • He was a pioneering selective breeder. His new methods were simple:

  • He only chose the best farm animals and bred from them. His most successful animals were the New Leicester Sheep and the Dishley Longhorn cattle.

  • They were bigger animals, but they did not have better meat.

  • Bakewell kept detailed records about his livestock, made sure they were very healthy and their stables and pens were always clean.

  • He was so successful that other farmers often hired his animals to breed from.

  • Bakewell also wrote articles and pamphlets describing his new breeding techniques and their advantages.

Development of the breed by bakewell in 1700s
Development of the Breed by Bakewell in 1700s keeping soil fertile.

  • Bakewell was the first to utilize modern animal breeding techniques in the selection of livestock.

  • His selection techniques changed a coarsely boned, slow growing Leicester into an animal that put on weight more rapidly and produced less waste when slaughtered.

  • Robert Bakewell deserves recognition for his work with these sheep because it changed livestock farming forever and because it influenced the work of people such as Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel.

The colling or culley brothers
The Colling or Culley Brothers keeping soil fertile.

  • They were also selective breeders, but not as well known as Robert Bakewell.

  • They improved on Robert Bakewell's methods and their main success was breeding the Durham Shorthorn cattle, which were able to produce large amounts of milk and high quality lean meat for sale at market.

Charles townshend crop rotation
Charles Townshend-Crop Rotation keeping soil fertile.

  • Charles 'Turnip' Townshend

  • He popularised new techniques and proved that they were more profitable.

  • He introduced the Norfolk Four-Course Crop Rotation (wheat, turnips, barley, clover) to Britain.

  • Turnips were used as a cleansing crop to allow the land to be hoed to kill the weeds, and clover was grown to replace the nutrients in the soil that the crops had depleted.

  • This rotation prevented land from lying fallow and both turnips and clover were fodder crops, which could be fed to animals to allow more of them to survive cold winters.

  • Used a method called marling, which mixed rich subsoil with a poorer sandy soil to produce better quality crops and increasingly more profit.

  • Gave his tenant farmers longer leases to encourage them to invest more money to experiment with new ideas and improving their land.

Norfolk crop rotations
Norfolk Crop Rotations keeping soil fertile.

  • This system meant that no land had to remain fallow. The system worked like this:

  • Each area of land would be split into four sections.

  • The crop that was grown on each field would be rotated so that different nutrients would be taken from the land.

  • In the first year turnips or another root crop would be grown;

  • In the second year barley was grown in the field (barley could be sold at a profit);

  • In the third year clover or a grass crop was grown and in the fourth year wheat was grown in the field (wheat could also be sold for a profit).

Tull and seed drill
Tull and Seed Drill keeping soil fertile.

  • Up until this period, farmers planted the seeds for cereal crops by carrying the seeds in a bag and walking up and down the field throwing or broadcasting the seed.

  • They broadcast the seed by hand on to the ploughed and harrowed ground.

  • The problem with this method was that it did not give a very even distribution.

  • It was not, therefore, an efficient use of the seed and much of it was wasted.

  • Jethro Tull invented a Seed Drill which could be pulled behind a horse.

  • It consisted of a wheeled vehicle containing a box filled with grain.

  • There was a wheel-driven ratchet that sprayed the seed out evenly as the Seed Drill was pulled across the field.

The first seed drill

1900s keeping soil fertile.

The First Seed Drill

Jethro tull
Jethro Tull keeping soil fertile.

  • He is important because he introduced ideas that others went on to develop.

  • In 1701, he invented a horse-powered seed drill that planted seeds at the same depth in straight lines.

  • This wasted less seeds and allowed farmers to manage their crops more easily.

  • In 1714, he invented a horse-drawn hoe that made it easier for farmers to weed between their seed rows.

  • In 1731, he wrote a book called "Horse Hoeing Husbandry", which promoted new farming ideas.

Tull s seed drill
Tull’s Seed Drill keeping soil fertile.

Jethro tull and the seed drill
Jethro Tull and the Seed Drill keeping soil fertile.

  • Since earliest times seeds had always been sown by hand

  • People who worked on the land would walk over the fields randomly scattering handfuls of grain

  • .Jethro Tull invented a machine which greatly helped to increase the harvest yield by planting seeds in straight lines.

  • Tull was far more interested in the farming methods employed on his land, which he called Prosperous Farm.

  • Tull travelled throughout Europe to study new farming techniques.

  • On his return to Prosperous Farm in 1701, he developed a horse-drawn mechanical Seed Drill.

  • The Seed Drill not only planted seeds at regular intervals but also planted them at the right depth and covered them with earth.

  • Because the seed drill planted seeds in straight lines, a mechanical horse-drawn hoe, which Tull also invented, could be used to remove weeds from between the lines of crop plants.

Tull s seed drill1
Tull’s Seed Drill keeping soil fertile.

Jethro tull1
Jethro Tull keeping soil fertile.

  • Tull advocated the importance of pulverising (crumbling) the soil so that air and moisture could reach the roots of the crop plants. His horse-drawn hoe was able to do this.

  • He also emphasised the importance of manure and of tilling the soil during the growing season.

  • At the time, Tull's ideas came under attack, mainly because they were new.

  • His Seed Drill was not immediately popular in England, although it was quickly adopted by the New England colonists across the Atlantic.

  • In 1731, Tull wrote a book called "Horse-houghing (hoeing) Husbandry" which he revised in 1733.

  • Although his Seed Drill was improved in 1782 by adding gears to the distribution mechanism, the rotary mechanism of the drill provided the foundation for all future sowing technology.

Seed drill
Seed Drill keeping soil fertile.

Feedstuffs keeping soil fertile.

  • Animal feedstuffs, made from linseed, rapeseed and cotton seed, were also being produced.

  • Firms such as Thornley’s of Hull and Paul’s of Ipswich specialised in this.

  • Over £5 million worth of artificial feed was being sold per year by the 1870s.

  • Up to the 1850s most farmers used mixed farming.

  • They needed animal dung as manure, and needed to grow grain to feed the animals.

  • With artificial fertilisers and feedstuffs farmers could now specialise in livestock or cereals.

  • They used their land in which ever way was best.

  • As a result, wheat yields rose from about 22 bushels per acre in the 1820s to about 35 bushels per acre in the 1850s.

Steam powered machines
Steam Powered Machines keeping soil fertile.

  • Steam power had brought such great changes to the other industries of Britain that it is not surprising it was also applied to agriculture. Some of the results were successful, such as the steam-powered threshing machine.

  • These were usually owned by contractors and hired by farmers on a daily basis.

  • A steam engine, called a traction engine, provided the power; unthreshed corn was fed in at the top of the threshing machine, grain poured into sacks at the back, and straw was stacked at the far left.

  • It is estimated that about two thirds of the corn harvest was threshed by machine by 1880.

  • Steam ploughing was more complicated. The traction engine stood at one side of the field and round a wheel on the other side.

  • A special balance plough was then hauled from side to side of the field.

Additional machines
Additional Machines keeping soil fertile.

  • Horse-drawn cultivator – Jethro Tull

  • Cast-iron plow (1797) – American Charles Newbold

  • Reaper – Englishman Joseph Boyce (1799) and American Cyrus McCormic (1834)

  • Self-cleaning steel plow – John Deere(1837)

  • Thresher – separated grain from stalk

  • Harvester – cut and bind grain

  • Combine - cut, thresh, and sack grain

  • Tractor – pulled equipment through the field

  • Corn planter

  • Potato digger

  • Electric milker

  • Cotton picker

A new agricultural revolution
A New Agricultural Revolution keeping soil fertile.

On your left side
On your Left Side: keeping soil fertile.

  • Which of the new inventions and techniques developed during the Agricultural Revolution do you think had the greatest impact?

  • Explain why.

Publicity to encourage the agricultural revolution
Publicity to Encourage the Agricultural Revolution?! keeping soil fertile.

  • Yeah, books were written on farming, there were model farms set up - George III set up one at Windsor.

  • The Board of Agriculture was set up and Arthur Young, the new secretary, went round the country recording the progress of the revolution and others could read his report to find out more.

  • Agricultural shows with competitions were held and people could exchange ideas and see the latest things.

The propagandists of the agricultural revolution
The Propagandists of the Agricultural Revolution keeping soil fertile.

  • Arthur Young

  • He was a propagandist for agricultural improvement who was convinced that Britain needed a strong agricultural community.

  • Young traveled around the country and some parts of Europe, writing articles about agricultural change and also edited an agricultural journal called "The Annals of Agriculture".

  • In 1793, he became secretary of the new Board of Agriculture and encouraged the spread of new agricultural techniques and ideas.

  • Thomas Coke

  • He was a Norfolk landowner who adopted and spread new agricultural methods on his farm in Norfolk.

  • He gave his tenant farmers leases of 20 to 40 years to encourage them to try out new methods.

  • He believed that if his tenant farmers felt they owned the land for a significant period of time, they would be more willing to invest in it.

  • Coke encouraged farmers to use the new techniques by organising annual events

  • on his estate that demonstrated the newest methods. One such event was called Coke's Clipping.

  • This was a competition to see how quickly a sheep could be sheared.

  • He was important for sharing and spreading new farming ideas.

Primary sources on agricultural revolution on introduction of potato
Primary Sources on Agricultural Revolution on Introduction of Potato

  • William Somerville, Fable of the Two Springs, 1725

  • “In the course of a very few years, the consumption of potatoes in this Kingdom will be almost as general and universal as that of wheat. “

  • David Henry, The Complete English Farmer, 1771

  • “Certainly, potatoes might be used instead of rye as a substitute for bread, and of this discovery the poor may avail themselves in time of dearth.”

Adam smith the wealth of nations 1776
Adam Smith, of PotatoThe Wealth of Nations, 1776

  • “The food produced by a field of potatoes is not inferior in quantity to that produced by a field of rice, and much superior to what is produced by a field of wheat. Twelve thousand weight of potatoes from an acre of land is not a greater produce than two thousand weight of wheat. The food or solid nourishment, indeed, which can be drawn from each of those two plants, is not altogether in proportion to their weight, on account of the watery nature of potatoes. Allowing, however, half the weight of this root to go to water, a very large allowance, such an acre of potatoes will still produce six thousand weight of solid nourishment, three times the quantity produced by the acre of wheat. An acre of potatoes is cultivated with less expense than an acre of wheat; the fallow, which generally precedes the sowing of wheat, more than compensating the hoeing and other extraordinary culture which is always given to potatoes. Should this root ever become in any part of Europe, like rice in some rice countries, the common and favorite vegetable food of the people, so as to occupy the same proportion of the lands in tillage which wheat and other sorts of grain for human food do at present, the same quantity of cultivated land would maintain a much greater number of people, and the laborers being generally fed with potatoes, a greater surplus would remain after replacing all the stock and maintaining all the labor employed in cultivation. A greater share of this surplus, too, would belong to the landlord. Population would increase, and rents would rise much beyond what they are at present.”

On your left side1
On your Left Side: of Potato

  • How would you have brought publicity and support to the Agricultural Revolution?

  • Explain.

But it wasn t all good news
But it wasn’t all good news of Potato

New machines meant less people were needed to work the land - so there was unemployment, enclosure meant people lost land - this meant losing their homes as they had nowhere to grow food and there was little work- so they moved to towns.

In addition there were change in the

way the land looked from

open fields to a sort of patchwork quilt.

Changes in the shape of a village

as people could build on their own land

Effects in the countryside
Effects in the Countryside of Potato

  • The only successful farmers were those with large landholdings who could afford agricultural innovations.

  • Most peasants:

    • Didn’t have enough land to support themselves

    • Were devastated by poor harvests (e.g., the Irish Potato Famine of 1845-47)

    • Were forced to move to the cities to find work in the factories.

Agricultural production increased of Potato

Cost of foodstuffs dropped

Increased production of food resulted in part, in a rapid growth of population

Large farms, using machines and scientific methods, began to dominate agriculture

Number of small farms began to decline

The number of farmers, in proportion to total population, decreased sharply

Many farmers moved to the cities

The population of cities increased rapidly

Farmers found their work less difficult because machines performed the back breaking labor

Farming changed from a self-sufficient way of life to big business


Banking and capital
Banking and Capital of Potato

  • Aristocracy and middle class had grown wealthy from overseas trading and large-scale farming.

  • Now people had capital, or money, to invest in new industries.

  • Parliament encouraged investments in new businesses by passing laws to help growing businesses.

  • Had a strong banking system set up to make loans available

  • Made numerous loans at fair rates that encouraged new businesses and inventions

Banking and capital1
Banking and Capital of Potato

  • Britain had a ready supply of capital for investment

    • Britain excelled at banking

    • Had flexible credit facilities because they used paper money for transactions

Weak guilds and unions made illegal
Weak Guilds and Unions Made Illegal of Potato

"The weak position of the guilds in Britain in the eighteenth century can go some way in explaining the series of technological successes we usually refer to as the British Industrial Revolution and why it occurred in Britain rather than on the European continent, although clearly this was only one of many variables at work."

– Mokyr, Joel, The Gifts of Athena, Princeton University Press, 2002, p.260.

England s resources geography
England’s Resources: Geography of Potato

  • England is the political center of Great Britain, an island

  • Great Britain (as the entire island was called beginning in 1707) did not suffer fighting on its land during the wars of the 18th century

  • Island has excellent harbors and ports

  • Damp climate benefited the textile industry (thread did not dry out)

Natural resources geography
Natural Resources/Geography be harnessed.

  • Rich in natural resources

  • Large number of harbors and rivers that could be used year-round for shipping

  • Water also could be used as a power source

  • Huge supplies of iron and coal---raw materials for the building of machines and fueling the new machines

  • The damp climate was good for textile production, because it helped to keep the fibers in the material soft and easy to work with.

  • Separated from the continent, Britain was able to remain apart from the wars plaguing Europe during the 1600 and 1700s and thus conserve their resources.

Natural resources geography1
Natural Resources/Geography be harnessed.

  • England substituted coal for charcoal in the manufacturing of iron because by the 1700s, most of the forests were gone.

  • In 1708, the Darby family of Coalbrookdale started smelting iron using coke that was processed from coal. It made the highest quality of iron.

  • Since England had a large supply of coal, it was able to dominate the iron industry.

Early Canals be harnessed.

Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure

Mine & Forge [1840-1880] be harnessed.

  • More powerful than water is coal.

  • More powerful than wood is iron.

  • Innovations make steel feasible.

    • “Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.”

    • “Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel.

    • Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel.

Coal Mining in Britain: be harnessed.1800-1914

Output of Coal and Lignite - Selected Countries, Annual Averages

(in million metric tonnes)

Large labor supply of workers
Large Labor Supply of Workers Averages

  • Serfdom and guilds ended earlier in England than other countries

  • English people could freely travel from the countryside to the cities

  • Enclosure Acts – caused many small farmers to lose their lands, and these former farmers increased the labor supply

Large labor supply
Large Labor Supply Averages

  • Growing population of workers due to the improvements in farming---more food available leads to better diet and longer life expectancy

  • 1700---less than 7 million, 1800---11 million

  • Rapid population growth increased demand for goods

  • Displaced farmers due to the enclosure movement took over jobs in factories and mining

  • Birth rates rose in the 1700s, while death rates dropped.

  • In 1700 in London, there was a half-million more deaths than births.

  • By 1800 in London, the deaths only outnumbered births by 20,000.

Large labor supply1
Large Labor Supply Averages

  • The death rate dropped because more babies were surviving childbirth due to the better training of midwives and formation of maternity hospitals.

  • Both children and adults were dying less from disease.

  • The major health epidemics like the Bubonic Plague had vanished in Britain after 1660 and the Great Fire of London.

  • Other major diseases followed a similar pattern like Syphilis which stopped being an epidemic in the 1700s.

  • Inoculations started in 1760 with Jenner’s Smallpox vaccine.

  • Other reasons for the reduction of the epidemics are unknown.

How many people were there
How many people were there? Averages

How do historians know how many people lived in Britain in 1750?

Population Averages

(tentative estimates in millions - much of it guesswork)

Social factors
Social Factors Averages

  • British society was organized in a less rigid and hierarchical manner than France or Germany who held on to feudalism.

  • British society was fairly egalitarian.

  • The most significant social class in Britain was the middle class that was comprised of merchants and artisans. Where in Germany and France, it was the nobility.

Social factors1
Social Factors Averages

  • Most people moved to the cities instead of living in rural areas.

  • This was only seen in Britain and Germany.

  • By the mid 1800s, 70% to 80% of Britain’s population lived in urban areas.

Society During the Industrial Revolution Averages

Urbanization-The movement of people from the country to the city.

Social Classes during the Industrial Revolution

Upper class elite, 5%(owned most of the country’s wealth)

Middle classes, 15% (women worked at home raising kids)

Lower classes, 80% (lived mostly in tenement housing-tightly packed apartment like housing)

Openness to new ideas
Openness to New Ideas Averages

  • Ambitious upper and middle class people willing to invest in new inventions and industries---ENTREPRENEURS

  • British people were interested in science and technology due to the Scientific Revolution

  • Not afraid to take risks to make a profit

  • Most of the early inventors were British or Scottish

    a)John Kay---flying shuttle

    b)James Hargreaves---spinning jenny

    c)Richard Arkwright---waterframe

    d)Samuel Crompton---spinning mule

    e)Edmund Cartwright---power loom

    (all of these led to the development of textile factories)

    f)James Watt---steam engine

    g)Henry Bessemer---inexpensive way to make steel

    h)Thomas Telford & John McAdam---paving roads

    i)Richard Trevithick---steam locomotive

Openness to new ideas1
Openness to New Ideas Averages

  • Due to the increase in wealth and the middle class due to exploration and colonization of the New World, the middle class was willing to invest in the new industries.

  • By the end of the 1700s, the investments earned them 50% returns.

The first inventions are in the textile industry. With the increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

Flying shuttle
Flying Shuttle increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

  • John Kay

  • 1733

  • Hand-operated machine which increased the speed of weaving

John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle” increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

Spinning jenny
Spinning Jenny increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

  • James Hargreaves---1765

  • Home-based machine that spun thread 8 times faster than when spun by hand

Water frame
Water Frame increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

  • Richard Arkwright

  • 1769

  • Water-powered spinning machine that was too large for use in a home – led to the creation of factories

Spinning mule
Spinning Mule increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

  • Samuel Crompton

  • 1779

  • Combined the spinning jenny and the water frame into a single device, increasing the production of fine thread

Edmund cartwright power loom
Edmund Cartwright---Power Loom increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

  • 1785

  • Water-powered device that automatically and quickly wove thread into cloth

The Power Loom increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

James Watt’s Steam Engine increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

James watt 1736 1819 and steam engine
James Watt (1736-1819) and Steam Engine increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

  • Improved Atmospheric Engine of Savery and Newcomen by adding separate condenser for steam.

  • Perfected flywheel

  • Made double reciprocating engine: steam drives piston in both directions

  • 1000 steam engines in England in 1800

Watt s steam engine
Watt’s Steam Engine increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

Openness to new ideas inventions
Openness to New Ideas: Inventions increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

  • Steam Engine-

    • Provided a new source of power in factories.

    • Eventually redesigned by James Watt

    • Led to all factories being run by steam and not water.

      • The location of factories was now unlimited

Openness to new ideas inventions1
Openness to New Ideas: Inventions increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

  • Steam Locomotive

    • Started in 1820’s to improve transportation

    • Led to a boom in railroads-which helped business and increased jobs

    • Eventually was a major cause for westward expansion in the United States

    • Why is the development of the Railroad so important to history?

First class and mail increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

Second class

Manchester-Liverpool Trains (1830)

Openness to new ideas inventions2
Openness to New Ideas: Inventions increased population, the demand for cloth was great.

  • Steamboat

    • Invented to improve transportation of people and goods

    • Some ships were also used as party ships up and down rivers in the 19th and early 20th centuries

Political stability government
Political Stability/Government constitutional monarchy

  • Britain fought many wars during the 1700s, but never on British soil.

  • So they never had to rebuild farms or towns due to war damages.

  • British citizens did not have to worry about the threat of war destroying their property and had more time to consider ways to improve the quality of their lives.

  • The British government favored economic growth by passing laws that encouraged investment in new inventions and industries.

  • There were no internal trade barriers within Britain unlike most European countries.

Political stability government1
Political Stability/Government constitutional monarchy

  • Britain had unified much earlier in terms of government and culture than Germany, Italy, France, and Spain.

  • This encouraged internal British trade and circulation of goods that helped strengthen the domestic economy.

  • Industrialization was also encouraged by the ability of the population to relocate relatively freely.

  • In most European countries, it was difficult for people to transfer citizenship from one town to another.

  • England allowed its population geographical mobility.

  • Travel and trade were also made easier by the early development of canals and rivers due to private and government investment.

Government parliament
Government: Parliament constitutional monarchy

  • Parliament helped by providing a favorable business climate

    • Provided a stable government

    • Passed laws to protect private property

    • Very few restrictions on private enterprises

Government turnpikes canals
Government: Turnpikes & Canals constitutional monarchy

  • Turnpike trusts created new roads and networks of canals

    • Soon overtaken by railroads

  • Railroads were the most important single factor in promoting European economic progress

  • Railroad construction created jobs that many farm laborers and peasants filled

British government supporting the growth
British Government Supporting The Growth constitutional monarchy

  • From 1760 – 1774, Parliament passed over 500 laws related to building more and better roads

  • Between 1790 and 1794, the British Parliament passed 89 laws concerning the building of new canals.

  • The government pursued Laissez-Faire Capitalism and did not regulate working hours, pay, conditions, child labor, environmental issues, etc…that allowed for fast and cheap growth.

Importance of railroads
Importance of Railroads constitutional monarchy

  • Most important thing about railroads is that they provided a faster and cheaper means of transportation

  • Reduced the price of goods

    • Which increased sales

    • Which created more factories and machines

    • And the process started over again

Colonies and navy
Colonies and Navy constitutional monarchy

  • British took advantage of their access to international markets.

  • A British law requiring merchants to use British ships for foreign trade promoted the British fleet.

  • The heavy use of the British fleet for trade increased the volume of imports and exports.

  • This gave Britain more purchasing power and increased the importance of the British fleet.

  • It became a self-perpetuating cycle.

  • To preserve a monopoly on the industrial technology, the British government prohibited industrial workers, inventors, or anyone familiar with industrial technology to leave the country.

England s resources colonies and markets
England’s Resources: Colonies and Markets constitutional monarchy

  • Wealth from the Commercial Revolution spread beyond the merchant class

  • England had more colonies than any other nation

  • Its colonies gave England access to enormous markets and vast amounts of raw materials

  • Colonies had rich textile industries for centuries

    • Many of the natural cloths popular today, such as calico and gingham, were originally created in India

    • China had a silk industry

Colonial empire
Colonial Empire constitutional monarchy

  • Britain’s colonial empire encouraged industrialization.

  • Because Britain had a lot of control over its colonies, it created and enforced the economic system of Mercantilism.

  • Britain purchased and imported raw materials from her colonies.

  • From these raw materials, British companies produced manufactured goods which they sold back to the colonies and to Europe.

  • British controlled colonies provided a ready-made, steady market for British goods.

  • The war ravaged European continent also imported British goods which increased the demand on British industries and pushed the industries to produce more.

How great was britain
How ‘Great’ was Britain? constitutional monarchy

  • British empire growing – Canada, West Indies, Africa, India & America

  • Imported goods from plantations, e.g. cotton, tobacco & sugar

  • Exported – cloth, pottery, metal goods

Colonial markets
Colonial Markets constitutional monarchy

  • Had a large supply of markets for their manufactured goods

    • Included Europe, the Americas, Africa & the East

  • Efficient merchant marine system to transport goods anywhere in the world

Colonies and merchant marine
Colonies and Merchant Marine constitutional monarchy

  • World’s largest merchant fleet

  • Merchant marine built up from the Commercial Revolution

  • Vast numbers of ships could bring raw materials and finished goods to and from England’s colonies and possessions, as well as to and from other countries

On your left side with your partner1
On your Left Side with your partner: constitutional monarchy

  • Which of the factors for why the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain first do you think had the most impact?

  • Explain why.

  • Is there a country today who shares similarities with Industrial Revolution Great Britain?

  • Who and how?

The industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution constitutional monarchy

  • Benefits of Industrialization

    • Better clothes, better heat, better food

    • Increased goods

    • More jobs

    • More opportunities

Advantages of industrializing first
Advantages of Industrializing First constitutional monarchy

  • Growth of early British factories was impressive.

  • As early as 1820, only 30% of the British labor remained in agriculture, while 80 to 100% of the continental labor was still devoted to agriculture.

  • Britain was able to specialize in industry and import agricultural products from the continental Europe.

  • Due to the effects of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, the Industrial Revolution was delayed in continental Europe. It would not arrive until 1830.

  • The French only began industrializing in the period 1830 – 1871, and only with a focus on luxury items and small-scale manufacturing.

  • German industrialization happened even later in the 1870s and 1880s after the German unification process.

Continental know how
Continental Know How constitutional monarchy

  • The continent lacked the technical knowledge of the British

    • They “borrowed” ideas

  • The British forbade artisans from leaving the country and prohibited the export of machinery

  • Didn’t work because of the black market

Continental skills
Continental Skills constitutional monarchy

  • Gradually they obtained the skills and machines they needed

  • Established technical schools to train engineers and mechanics

Thank napoleon
Thank Napoleon constitutional monarchy

  • One factor that kept the continent behind Great Britain was the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era

    • Wars caused destruction, disrupted trade, death, economic crisis and social & political instability

    • Napoleon only widened the gap between British and Europe

Advantages of industrializing first1
Advantages of Industrializing First constitutional monarchy

  • Belgium started in 1807.

  • Holland, northern Italy, and Switzerland would not industrialize until the start of the 20th century.

  • Spain and Portugal were largely removed from the industrialization process.

Continental industrial centers
Continental Industrial Centers constitutional monarchy

  • Belgium, France and the German states

  • The cotton industry was different on the continent in two ways

    • It was dispersed through many regions as opposed to being centered in a couple of cities like Lancashire and Glasgow

    • Industry was built on iron and coal as opposed to being built on the cotton industry

Continental governments
Continental Governments constitutional monarchy

  • Government played an important role in industrialization

    • Took on the cost of building canals, roads & railways

    • Created tariffs against British goods

    • Necessary because they were cheaper and it protected their industry as well

  • Continental investment banks used their saving as capital to develop industry

Continental governments and ir
Continental Governments and IR constitutional monarchy

  • Record is mixed.

  • Government often sided with owners—Pullman Strike in U. S. (1894).

  • Influenced by evolving liberalism (J. S. Mill), Government sought to create safety nets.

  • Bismarck’s Germany—accident, disability, and old age insurance.

England vs continental europe

Produced 20% of industrial goods constitutional monarchy

Gross national product rose 4x

Population increase

Inventors took inventions abroad

Belgium’s coal and iron resources

Germany iron and wool factories

France slow to industrialize

Mechanization came but late

England vs. Continental Europe

The industrial revolution1
The Industrial Revolution constitutional monarchy

Other Countries soon followed the example of Great Britain’s industrialization

  • 1. The United States- many natural resources and many workers good combination for industrialization

    • Industry started in the Northeast many people moved into factory towns

  • 2. Belgium, Germany, and France were also affected by the Industrial Revolution

Percentage Distribution of the World's Manufacturing Production,

1870 and 1913

(percentage of world total)

The Rate of Industrial Growth in Five Selected Countries Production,

Indices of Industrial Production

(Base Figures - 1905-13 = 100)

Industrialization By Production, 1850

Why Western Countries? Production,



  • Political liberty

  • Freedom to compete

  • Rewards reaped

  • Exploitation and improvements

  • British restrictions

  • Hamilton, 1791

  • Samuel Slater

    • Water frame

    • Slater’s Mill

  • Lowell’s Mill

  • Belgium, 1807

  • France, 1815

  • Germany, 1850

    • Railroads

    • Treaties

Industrialization Spreads

Industrialization soon spread to western Europe and the United States. Other regions did not industrialize in the 1800s. What was it about Western countries that encouraged them to embrace industry?

The Industrial Revolution Production,

Economic Effects

Social Effects

  • New inventions and development of factories

  • Rapidly growing industry in the 1800s

  • Increased production and higher demand for raw materials

  • Growth of worldwide trade

  • Population explosion and a large labor force

  • Exploitation of mineral resources

  • Highly developed banking and investment system

  • Advances in transportation, agriculture, and communication

  • Long hours worked by children in factories

  • Increase in population of cities

  • Poor city planning

  • Loss of family stability

  • Expansion of middle class

  • Harsh conditions for laborers

  • Workers’ progress vs. laissez-faire economic attitudes

  • Improved standard of living

  • Creation of new jobs

  • Encouragement of technological progress

Political Effects

  • Child labor laws to end abuses

  • Reformers urging equal distribution of wealth (i.e. Karl Marx)

  • Trade unions

  • Social reform movements, such as utilitarianism, utopianism, socialism, and Marxism

  • Reform bills in Parliament

Industrial revolution s impact
Industrial Revolution’s Impact Production,

  • Growth of large factory towns like Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool

  • Division of Labor, both according to task and increasingly of gender

  • Efficiency—F. W. Taylor

  • Material quality of life increased among workers as did alienation

The industrial revolution2
The Industrial Revolution Production,

  • Effects--- Working Conditions

    • Men, women, and children worked 12-16 hours a day

    • Working conditions were very dangerous & made little money

Social implications
Social Implications Production,

  • Urbanization

  • New demands on city services

  • Separation of work from home—home becomes a place to produce children, not goods.

  • Clock/calendar regimented life styles

  • Child labor

The industrial revolution3
The Industrial Revolution Production,

  • Changes as a result of the Industrial Revolution

    • 1. More people moved to the enlarged cities

    • 2. New cities- poor housing, few schools, and little police protection

    • Newcastle in England became a large steel producer

The industrial revolution4
The Industrial Revolution Production,

  • Cities became filled with garbage and highly polluted

    • Average lifespan in the city was 17 while in the countryside it was 38 (over double)

The Industrial Revolution Production,

Huge cities like Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool grew rapidly out of obscure village, and Lancashire, London, Clyde, and the black country” engulfed old rural beauty. Village life crumbled, and the population massively migrated to new centres of manufacture.

With the progress of medicine, the population increased and more people needed to be fed. Fields were fertilised and closed with thick stone walls to be easier to cultivate.

Canals were opened all over Britain, the first one in 1757. They enabled the transportation of industrial goods at a low cost.

The use of machines meant that workers had to be gathered in one single place, the factory. Many people left their villages in the hope of finding work in the cities. In big industrial cities, houses were built very fast to house the numerous workers arriving from the country. These districts were invaded by disease and revolt.

Railways developed : in 1825 a line opened between Stockton and Darlington and another one was inaugurated in 1830 between Liverpool and Manchester.

Population 1750 1815 1850

United Kingdom 7,4 billions 15 billions 23 billions

England/Wales 10 billions 18 billions

Urbanisation rate (UK) 19 % 37%


Child Labour Production,

A Day in the life of a Yorkshire girl

This testimony was gathered by Lord Ashley when he conducted an investigation into the conditions of labour in mines. His report led to the mines Act of 1842 that prohibited the employment in the mines of children under thirteen.

Patiente Kershaw, 17-May 15, 1842

“My father has been dead about a year ; my mother is living and has ten children, five lads and five lasses ; the oldest is about thirty, the youngest is four ; three lasses go to mill ; all the lads work at the pit ; mother does nothing but look after home.

I never went to day-school ; I go to Sunday-school but I cannot read or write ; I go to pit at five o’clock in the morning and come out at five in the evening ; I get my breakfast of porridge and milk first ; I take my dinner with me, a cake, and eat it as I go ; I do not stop or rest any time ;I get nothing else until I get home, and then I have potatoes and meat - not meat every day.

At the pit, I hurry the corves about a mile under ground and back ; I wear a belt and chain to get the corves out ; the getters that I work for are naked except their caps ; they pull off all their clothes ; sometimes they beat me, if I am not quick enough ; the boys take liberties with me sometimes they pull me about ; I am the only girl. I would rather work in mill than in coal-pit.”

The girl is an ignorant, fithy, deplorable-looking object, one that the uncivilized natives of the prairies would be shocked to look upon.

Parliamentary Papers, 1842.

The brickyards of England - Children carrying clay

Young girl pulling a corve