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Chapter 1. Effective and Ethical Communication at Work. Why You Need to Build Career Skills. Necessary for hiring A top skill set sought by employers Critical for promotion Essential for effective job performance More important now as a result of technology

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Effective and Ethical Communication at Work

Why you need to build career skills
Why You Need to Build Career Skills

Necessary for hiring

A top skill set sought by employers

Critical for promotion

Essential for effective job performance

More important now as a result of technology

Learned through instruction and practice

Trends affecting you in today s workplace
Trends Affecting You in Today’s Workplace

Heightened global competition

Flattened management hierarchies

Expanded team-based management

Innovative communication technology

New work environments

Increasingly diverse workforce

Renewed emphasis on ethics

Success in the workplace
Success in the Workplace

Success for you in the new global and diverse workplace requires excellent communication skills!

The communication process basic model



Feedback travels to sender





Sender encodes idea in message


additional feedback to receiver

Receiver decodes message

Message travels over channel

Sender has idea









The Communication Process – Basic Model

The communication process expanded model






Person A

Person B

The Communication Process – Expanded Model

Sending Channel




Feedback Channel

Factors that shape understanding
Factors That Shape Understanding

  • Communication climate

  • Context and setting

  • Background, experiences

  • Knowledge, mood

  • Values, beliefs, culture

Barriers that create misunderstandings
Barriers That Create Misunderstandings


Differing frames of reference

Lack of language skills

Poor listening skills

Emotional interference

Physical distractions

Overcoming barriers that cause misunderstandings
Overcoming Barriers ThatCause Misunderstandings

Realize that communication is imperfect.

Adapt the message to the receiver.

Improve your language and listening skills.

Question your preconceptions.

Encourage feedback.

Communication and formal channels
Communication and Formal Channels

  • Written channels

    • Memos, letters

    • Annual report

    • Company newsletter

    • Bulletin board postings

    • Orientation manual

Communication and formal channels1
Communication and Formal Channels

  • Oral channels

    • Telephone

    • Face-to-face conversation

    • Company meetings

    • Team meetings

Communication and formal channels2
Communication and Formal Channels

  • Electronic channels

    • E-mail

    • Instant messaging

    • Voicemail

    • Videoconferencing

    • Intranet

Formal channels of information flow



Upward flow




Downward flow


Formal Channels of Information Flow

Informal channels of information flow
Informal Channels of Information Flow

Carry unofficial messages

Flows haphazardly

Can be remarkably accurate

Is mostly disliked by management

Thrives where official information is limited

Obstacles to the flow of organizational information
Obstacles to the Flowof Organizational Information

Top-heavy organizational structure

Long lines of communication

Filtering, prejudice, ego involvement

Poor communication skills

Surmounting obstacles to effective communication
Surmounting Obstacles toEffective Communication

Encourage open, trusting environment for interaction and feedback.

Flatten the organizational structure.

Provide more information through formal channels.

Surmounting obstacles to effective communication1
Surmounting Obstacles toEffective Communication

Train managers and employees to improve communication skills.

Establish hotline and ombudsman programs.

Establish fair reward system for individual and team achievement.

Encourage full participation in teams.

Understanding ethical behavior on the job
Understanding Ethical Behavior on the Job

What is ethical behavior?

Doing the right thing given the circumstances

Common ethical traps to avoid on the job
Common Ethical Traps to Avoid on the Job

The false necessity trap - convincing yourself that no other choice exists

The doctrine of relative filth - comparing your unethical behavior with someone else’s even more unethical behavior

Common ethical traps to avoid on the job1
Common Ethical Traps to Avoid on the Job

The rationalization trap - justifying unethical actions with excuses

The self-deception trap - persuading yourself, for example, that a lie is not really a lie

The ends-justify-the-means trap - using unethical methods to accomplish a goal

Goals of ethical business communicators
Goals of Ethical Business Communicators

Abide by the law.

Tell the truth.

Label opinions.

Be objective.

Communicate clearly.

Use inclusive language.

Give credit.

Tools for doing the right thing
Tools for Doing the Right Thing

Is the action you are considering legal?

How would you see the problem if you were on the opposite side?

What are alternate solutions?

Can you discuss the problem with someone you trust?

How would you feel if people you care about learned of your action?