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First Aid Course Patricia ruotsalainen First Aid Instructor 2011. First Aid Course 2006 Siw Sandell First Aid Instructor. Introduction Test your First Aid knowledge and skills Principals of First Aid Basic Human Anatomy (Bonus) Assess the situation Call for help. Unconscious victim

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first aid course 2006 siw sandell first aid instructor

First Aid Course

Patricia ruotsalainen

First Aid Instructor


First Aid Course


Siw Sandell

First Aid Instructor

course outline

Test your First Aid knowledge and skills

Principals of First Aid

Basic Human Anatomy (Bonus)

Assess the situation

Call for help

Unconscious victim

Airway obstruction



Bleeding & infections

Fractures & soft tissue injuries

Medical emergencies

Course Outline
course outline 2
Course Outline (2)
  • Assess and observe
  • Initial observation of the whole scene
  • Stay calm

Learning outcome:

  • Demonstrate
  • knowledge of the
  • principals of first aid
  • knowledge of basic
  • human anatomy
  • ability in the examination
  • of a victim
  • competence in the
  • provision of CPR
  • knowledge of identifying a
  • range of common
  • illnesses and injuries
  • First aid management for
  • a range of common
  • illnesses and injuries


To provide you with basic skills and knowledge in order to recognize andprovide First Aid for circulatory and respiratory emergencies(CPR) and to recognize a range of common illnesses and injuries.

principals and priorities of first aid
To preserve life



To prevent the injury or condition worsening ______________________________________________


To promote recovery



Stay calm

Assess the situation

Safety of First Aider

Safety of other people

Safety of victim

Airway – Breathing


Use of bystanders to maintain Safety

Do No Harm

Principals and priorities of First Aid
the vital link
The Vital Link

Early accessEarly Defibrillation

Early CPREarly ACLS

calling for help 112
Calling for help! 112
  • What has happened?
  • Where?
  • How Many?
  • Answer questions.
  • Do not hang up! Wait for the operator to tell you when to hang up.
  • Guide the helpers to the right place.
check the victim for response
Check the victim for response

Not responding – Call 112


Open Airway

check for normal breathing
Check for normal breathing
  • Look for chest movement.
  • Listen to the victim‘s
  • mouth for breath sounds.
  • Feel for air on your cheek.
obstructed airway
Obstructed Airway

Unconscious victim

drug or alcohol abuse

Foreign object

 like food, ice, toys, dentures, broken teeth, vomits…

Tissue damage

 accident related, poisons, fights…

obstructed airway continues
Obstructed airway continues…


 Respiratory infections, allergic reaction

Paralyzed airway

 brain damage, damage to spinal cord,


Heart diseases

 may collect liquid in the lungs

obstructed airway17
Obstructed Airway

Tell the victim

to cough

Deliver 5 back slapsx 2 between the shoulder blades

heimlich maneuver
Heimlich maneuver

If still not breathing – give abdominal thrusts 5- 6 times

first aid for choking
First Aid for choking
  • Tell the victim to cough!
  • Deliver 5 back slaps
  • If not breathing  5 back slaps
  • If not breathing  Heimlich maneuver

(abdominal thrusts) 5 – 6 times

5. Finger sweep and check breathing

6. If not breathing repeat abdominal thrusts

  • If unconscious  call for help  repeat

steps 1 to 6 x 3  No  CPR

disorders of the heart
Disorders of the Heart

Angina Pectoris

Narrowed coronary arteries

Heart Attack

Obstructed (clot) coronary arteries

Cardiac Arrest

Sudden stoppage of the heart (blood loss, suffocation, electric shock, anaphylactic shock, drug overdose, hypothermia…)

Ventricular fibrillation ( VF )

Heart fibrillates – no regular beat

angina pectoris
Angina pectoris

Reduced blood supply to the

heart during

times of stress.

Produces pain

in the chest

similar to that

of heart attack

adult life support
Adult Life Support



child life support
Child Life Support


under 8 years old

Start with 5 breaths and then continue with

30 chest compressions : 2 breaths

every minute counts
”Every minute counts”

Clinical death: Heart stops

Biological death:

Brain death

chances of recovery
Chances of recovery
  • CPR must be commmenced


  • The time from stoppage of the heart to

permanent death of brain tissue is aprox.

4 minutes.

  • The avarage response time by an ambulance is

7 - 8 minutes (whole country 15-20 minutes).

  • Someone is needed to sustain life

until the ambulance arrives!

first aid for bleeding
First Aid for bleeding
  • Elevate above heart level

 Blood flow subsides

2. Lie down the victim

  • Prevents shock

3. Calm down

  • Less oxygen

4. Apply pressure dressing

5. Apply indirect pressure

 Not more than 10 minutes

shock happens when
Shock happens when…

There is a problem with your:

Pump: You need to have a functioning heart to pump blood around

Pipes: You need functioning vessels to carry the blood.

Plasma: You need adequate blood in the system. If there is a loss, there will not be adequate volume circulating.

treatment of shock
Treatment of shock
  • Treat any cause of shock you identify.
  • Stay calm and reassure the victim
  • Lay down the victim and slightly elevate his legs.
  • Maintain normal body temperature
  • Give nothing to drink

6. Check and record breathing, pulse and level of response.

shock continues
Shock continues…

Anaphylactic shock

Is a massive allergic reaction by the body’s

immune system.


Is a self-correcting form of shock resulting from temporary lack of blood flow to the brain.

musculoskeletal injuries
Musculoskeletal injuries


  • any break in a bone


  • when one end of a bone making up a joint is pulled or pushed out of place


  • when a ligament is torn (ankle, knee, finger…)


 stretching of a muscle or tendon or mild tearing of muscle (neck, lower back…)

r i c e
R  I  C  E

R Rest the injured part

I  Apply Ice

C Compress the injury

EElevate the injured part

medical emergencies
Medical emergencies

Do you know First Aid for

Asthma ?

Diabetes ?

Seizures ?

priorities of emergency care
Priorities of Emergency Care

Highest priority for Injuries:

  • Airway obstruction
  • Severe breathing difficulty
  • Burns involving the respiratory tract
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Severe bleeding
  • Shock
  • Spinal Injury
  • Severe head injury
  • Open chest injuries
  • Open abdominal wounds
priorities for emergency care
Priorities for Emergency Care

Highest priority for Medical Problems:

  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Heat stroke
  • Poisoning
  • Childbirth
  • Diabetic emergencies
bonus points
Bonus points

Read through the “Human anatomy handout and answer study questions.

You have until next week Monday to come to my office and show me your answers.