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First Aid. Original Power Point Created by Joel Wondra Modified by Mr. Pullom MCTC September 2006. Basic Life Support (BLS) ABCs - Airway, Breathing, Circulation. Steps to follow in BLS 1. Check the responsiveness of the victim 2. Call for Emergency medical health

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First aid

First Aid

Original Power Point Created by Joel Wondra

Modified by Mr. Pullom

MCTC September 2006


Basic life support bls abcs airway breathing circulation
Basic Life Support (BLS)ABCs - Airway, Breathing, Circulation

  • Steps to follow in BLS

    • 1. Check the responsiveness of the victim

    • 2. Call for Emergency medical health

    • 3. Position victim on his or her back

    • 4. Open the airway

    • 5. Assess breathing

    • 6. Assess circulation

    • 7. Stay with the victim until help arrives.


Breathing mouth to mouth ventilation children and adults
BreathingMouth-to-Mouth Ventilation Children and Adults

  • Steps to follow in Mouth-to-Mouth

    • 1. Place victim on their back

    • 2. Open the airway

    • 3. Check the victim’s breathing

    • 4. If no breathing, start artificial ventilation

    • 5. If chest doesn’t rise, airway may be blocked

    • 6. Take 5-10 seconds to check for a pulse

    • 7. If breathing is restored, remain in position


Choking
Choking

  • Steps to follow if consciousvictim is choking:

    • 1. Call for emergency help

    • 2. Open the airway, don’t give up

    • 3. Use the Heimlich Maneuver


Choking1
Choking

  • Steps to follow if unconscious victim is choking:

    • 1. Call for emergency help

    • 2. Open the airway, don’t give up

    • 3. Lay victim face up on a hard surface

    • 4. Assess responsiveness and breathing

    • 5. Perform Heimlich Manuever


Circulation cpr
Circulation (CPR)

  • CPR is combination of artificial ventilation and artificial circulation.

  • It should only be done by a qualified person

  • Periodic retraining is required


Allergic reactions
Allergic Reactions

  • Signs of allergic reactions include difficulty breathing (wheezing), swollen lips, tongue, and ears, hives, skin swelling and itching

  • Treatment

    • 1. Contact Medical Help

    • 2. Keep victim quiet in a comfortable position

    • 3. If victim stops breathing, give artificial ventilation.


Bites and stings general
Bites and Stings (General)

  • Treatment

    • 1. Lie victim down and immobilize limb

    • 2. Cold application on all bites except snakes

    • 3. Flush snakebite with water

    • 4. 2” wide cloth to provide a band near bite

    • 5. Band should not be too restricting

    • 6. Transport victim to hospital

    • 7. Provide non-alcoholic liquid to victim


Bites and stings bees
Bites and Stings (Bees)

  • Treatment

    • 1. Do not remove stinger with a tweezer

    • 2. Remove stinger with a flicking motion

    • 3. If victim shows signs, treat for allergic react.


Bites and stings animal
Bites and Stings (Animal)

  • Treatment

    • 1. Seek medical attention

    • 2. If skin is broken, wash with soap and water


Bleeding
Bleeding

  • Treatment

    • 1. Call for medical help

    • 2. Keep victim lying down

    • 3. Place pad directly over wound

    • 4. Apply direct pressure firmly with both hands

    • 5. Raise bleeding part higher than rest of body


Bleeding tourniquet
Bleeding (Tourniquet)

  • Use on arms or legs only

  • Is usually not necessary

  • Do not attempt to use unless you are specially trained.

  • Should be placed between injury and heart


Burns
Burns

  • Object is to prevent shock and contamination.

  • All burns should be attended to by a physician

  • Do not apply ointments, grease, or baking soda


Burns thermal
Burns (Thermal)

  • Treatment

    • 1. Cool quickly with water

    • 2. Place clean cloth over burned area

    • 3. Keep victim lying down

    • 4. Give no fluids

    • 5. Call for medical health

    • 6. Place head and chest lower than rest of body

    • 7. Raise legs if possible


Burns chemical
Burns (Chemical)

  • Treatment

    • 1. Flush with plenty of water for 5 minutes

    • 2. Remove clothes if needed

    • 3. Place clean material over burns

    • 4. Call for medical help

    • 5. Lie victim down, provide lots of liquids

    • 6. Place head and chest lower than rest of body

    • 7. Raise legs if possible


Cuts and abrasions
Cuts and Abrasions

  • It’s important to prevent infections

  • Never put your mouth over a wound

  • Don’t breath on a wound

  • Don’t touch with dirty fingers or cloths

  • Treatment

    • 1. Cleanse wound with soap and water

    • 2. Hold sterile pad firmly over wound

    • 3. Continue to cover wound if bleeding persists


Fractures
Fractures

  • First aid should do no more than prevent further injury

  • A fracture should be assumed if body part does not have normal look and function

  • Treatment

    • 1. Unless in danger, don’t move victim

    • 2. Leave the limb in the position you found it

    • 3. Apply a splint


Frostbite
Frostbite

  • Signs include skin that is pink just before frostbite and changes to whit or grayish-yellow as it develops, initial pain, numbness and cold.


Frostbite1
Frostbite

  • Treatment

    • Cover area with warm hand of woolen material

    • If hands, hold them in armpit

    • Bring victim inside

    • Place area in warm water (101-103 F)

    • Don’t use hot water, water bottle, or heat lamp

    • Don’t rub frostbitten area

    • Let circulation reestablish naturally, exercise

    • Give them something warm to drink

    • See a doctor


Heat exhaustion
Heat Exhaustion

  • Signs include pale and clammy skin, profuse perspiration, rapid pulse, weakness, headache, nausea, cramps in abdomen and limbs.

  • Treatment

    • Contact emergency medical help

    • Have victim lie down, elevate feet

    • Move victim to shade or cool place

    • Give victim diluted salt water


Heat stroke
Heat Stroke

  • Signs include flushed hot and dry skin, rapid, weak pulse, confusion and unconscious

  • Treatment

    • Get medical help, delays could be fatal

    • Cool body by spraying or sponging with cool water

    • Liquids, but no alcohol


Poison ivy oak and sumac
Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

  • Signs include itching, redness, or blisters

  • Treatment

    • Cut clothing from exposed area (use gloves)

    • Avoid contact with contaminated area

    • Wash exposed area with soap water (no soap)

    • Wash yourself after treating

    • Apply commercial products

    • If blisters develop, see doctor


Seizures and convulsions
Seizures and Convulsions

  • A seizure is not a medical emergency. It usually ends in a few minutes. If it lasts more than 15 minutes, get medical help.

  • Treatment

    • Remove objects that may injure a person

    • Do not restrain victim

    • Do not slap victim or douse with water

    • Do not place finger or hard objects in the mouth

    • When seizure ends, take victim to comfortable area and allow them to sleep if they wish


Shock
Shock

  • Signs include cold, clammy skin with beads of perspiration on forehead and palms, pale skin color, a cold feeling, shaking chills, nausea, vomiting, shallow, rapid breathing

  • Usually accompanies severe injury


Shock1
Shock

  • Treatment

    • Get medical help

    • Correct the cause of the shock

    • Keep victim’s airway open

    • If victim vomits, prevent choking

    • Elevate victims legs

    • Keep victim comfortable and warm

    • Give water to the victim (unless abdominal)

    • Reassure victim


Spine or neck injuries
Spine or Neck Injuries

  • Do not move victim unless needed

  • Get medical help

  • Do not move head except to keep airway open

  • If victim vomits, roll to their side. Don’t turn head

  • Monitor breathing


Sprains or strains
Sprains or Strains

  • Treat as though it were a fracture

  • Place injured part at rest

  • Elevate injured part if possible

  • Apply cold compress or ice to prevent swelling

  • Contact a doctor

  • Don’t apply heat for at least 24 hours


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