First Aid Chapter 14 Bites and Stings
Animal Bites 1 In every 2 Americans will be bitten at some point buy an animal. Dogs are responsible for about 80% of all animal bites
Rabies Virus found in warm blooded animals Spreads though saliva (biting or licking)
Rabies 96% of all rabies infected animals are:
Rabies: Indications Attacks unprovoked Acts strangely (was friendly, now aggressive, was wild, now acts docile) High risk species
Wisconsin Jeanna Giese: medical marvel . She survived rabies without a vaccination. She has recovered "remarkably well" and should continue to improve. The other five people known after symptoms appeared were vaccinated in advance or received vaccine soon afterward. All but one ended up with permanent movement difficulties. Giese was not hospitalized until a month after she was bitten by a bat she picked up in church.
Doctors intentionally put her in a coma and gave her antiviral drugs to prevent nerve cells death. She spent two months in ICU. PT helped her with speech problems, weakness in her hand and foot, and abnormal movements in her arms and hands. She can drive a car, scored above-average on a national college entrance exams. She still has slight difficulty enunciating words, awkwardness using her left hand and trouble lifting her left foot so that she looks a bit uncoordinated when she runs.
Animal Bites: What to Do Report animal bites to police or animal control officer Family pet: observe for 10 days
Animal Bites: What to Do Family pet: confine and observe for 10 days Stray dog or cat: will be killed and head submitted for testing Dead animal: entire body sent for testing
Animal Bites: What to Do High risk species bite: Start treatment for rabies immediately
Animal Bites: What to Do Clean wound with soap and water Rinse with water under pressure Control bleeding SMA
Human Bites Lots of bacteria in human mouth Chance of infection is great
Human Bites: What to Do Clean wound with soap & water Rinse with water under pressure for 5 –10 minutes Control bleeding Cover with dressing SMA
Snake Bites 4 snakes in US are venomous: Rattlesnake (65%) Copperhead Water Moccasin Coral Snake
Water Moccasin (Cotton Mouth) Pit Viper
Copper Head Pit Viper
Rattle Snake Pit Viper
Milk Snake Coral Snake
Red on Black, venom lack Red on Yellow, you’re a dead fellow
Snake Bites: Pit Vipers Severe burning pain at bite site 2 small puncture wounds Swelling (within 5 minutes) Discoloration and blood- filled blisters N/V, sweating, weakness
Snake Bites: Pit vipers Get away from snake! Keep victim quiet Avoid walking, moving if possible Gently wash with soap and water SMA immediately
Snake Bites: Pit Vipers Use constriction band to slow spread of venom.
Snake Bites: Pit Vipers Keep track of venom spread
Snake Bites: Pit Vipers DO NOT: Apply ice (frostbite) “Cut & Suck” (not effective)
Snake Bites: Coral Snake Most venomous snake in US Rarely bites Tends to bite and hang on
Snake Bites: Coral Snake Get away from snake! Keep victim quiet Avoid walking, moving if possible Gently wash with soap and water SMA immediately
Snake Bites: Coral Snake Apply mild pressure to bite area and entire extremity if possible using an elastic bandage
Snake Bites: Nonpoisonous Gently wash with soap and water Care for bite as you would a minor wound SM Advise
Insect Stings Anaphylactic shock: Severe life threatening allergic reaction
Insect Stings Bees leave their stinger behind. Remove by scraping with hard object such as credit card.
Insect Stings Wash sting with soap and water Apply ice pack A paste of baking soda and water can ease pain Analgesic for pain Observe for severe allergic reaction (30 minutes)
Spider Bites Most are venomous but have hard time biting humans. (short fangs, weak jaw)
Black Widow May not know bitten for 15 - 20 minutes. Dull numbing pain Small fang marks (2 tiny red dots)
Black Widow Muscle stiffness and cramps (depends on location of bite) HA, chills, fever, sweating, dizziness, vomiting
Brown Recluse Local reaction w/in 2-8 hours: Severe pain, redness, swelling, itching at bite site.
Brown Recluse Blister w/in 48-72 hours. Blister bursts, scab forms and falls off, leaving a small red crater. Repeats over and over.
Brown Recluse Fever, weakness, joint pain and rash, stomach cramps, N/V may occur
Tarantula Bites only if provoked. Can be mild to severe pain. Will also flick hair into victims skin causing itching and hives.
Tarantula Treat with cortisone cream and antihistamines
Spider Bites: What to Do If possible confirm identity of spider Clean bite with soap and water Ice pack Monitor ABCs SMA immediately Black Widow: Anti-venom (used only for under 6 over 60) Brown Recluse: No anti-venom
Scorpion Stings Southwestern US Arizona
Scorpion Stings:What to Look For Local, immediate pain and burning around sting site. Numbness or tingling develop
Scorpion Stings: What to Do Monitor ABCs Gently clean site with soap & water Ice pack SMA immediately Anti-venom available in Arizona
Mosquito Bites Carry many diseases: • Malaria • Yellow fever • Encephalitis
Mosquito Bites: What to Do Clean site with soap & water Ice pack Use Calamine lotion Antihistamine prn
Ticks Remove as soon as possible Use tweezers if possible, grasp as close to skin as you can Wash with soap & water Disinfect with rubbing alcohol
Ticks Ice pack Calamine lotion Watch bite site for one month. If rash appears: SMA
Ticks: DO NOT Use weird methods to remove (hot match, gasoline) Grasp tick at rear of body.
Learning Activities 14 Bites and Stings 1. Report animal bites to police or Animal Control Office. Yes