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Abnormal Psychology. WEB. Anxiety as a Normal and an Abnormal Response. Some amount of anxiety is “normal” and is associated with optimal levels of functioning. Only when anxiety begins to interfere with social or occupational functioning is it considered “abnormal.”. The Bell Curve.

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anxiety as a normal and an abnormal response
Anxiety as a Normal and an Abnormal Response
  • Some amount of anxiety is “normal” and is associated with optimal levels of functioning.
  • Only when anxiety begins to interfere with social or occupational functioning is it considered “abnormal.”
phobic disorders
Phobic Disorders
  • Phobias
  • Specific phobias
  • Social phobia
  • Agoraphobia
social phobia
Social Phobia
  • General characteristics

Fear of being in social situations in which one will be embarrassed or humiliated

panic disorder with and without agoraphobia
Panic Disorder With and Without Agoraphobia
  • Panic disorder
  • Panic versus anxiety
  • Agoraphobia
  • Agoraphobia without panic
treating anxiety disorders
Treating Anxiety Disorders
  • Medications
  • Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments
generalized anxiety disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • General characteristics
  • Prevalence and age of onset
  • Comorbidity with other disorders
generalized anxiety disorder biological causal factors
Generalized Anxiety Disorder:Biological Causal Factors
  • Genetic factors
  • A functional deficiency of GABA
  • Neurobiological differences between anxiety and panic
obsessive compulsive disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Obsessions- repetitive unwanted ideas that the person recognizes are irrational
  • Compulsions- repetitive, often ritualized behavior whose behavior serves to diminish anxiety caused by obsessions
post traumatic stress disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Critical Component
    • Symptoms occurs AFTER a traumatic stressor
symptoms categories
Symptoms Categories
  • Intrusive
    • distressing recollections
    • dreams
    • flashbacks
    • psychological trigger reactions
    • physiological trigger reactions
symptoms categories16
Symptoms Categories
  • Avoidance
    • avoid thoughts, feelings or discussions
    • avoid activities, places
    • memory blocks
    • anhedonia (without pleasure)
    • numb
    • alexithymia (emotions unknown)
    • feeling of doom
symptom categories
Symptom Categories
  • Hyperarousal Symptoms
    • sleep disturbance
    • anger problems
    • concentration
    • startle response
    • “on guard” hypervigilence
mood disorders
Mood Disorders
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • Bipolar I and Bipolar II
  • Cyclothymia
    • Hypomania
  • Dysthymia
  • Schizoaffective disorder
categories of personality disorders
Categories of Personality Disorders
  • Cluster A
    • Paranoid
    • Schizoid
    • Schizotypal
personality disorders
Personality Disorders
  • Paranoid personality disorder
  • Schizoid personality disorder
  • Schizotypal personality disorder
  • Histrionic personality disorder
categories of personality disorders21
Categories of Personality Disorders
  • Cluster B
    • Histrionic
    • Narcissistic
    • Antisocial
    • Borderline
categories of personality disorders22
Categories of Personality Disorders
  • Cluster C
    • Avoidant
    • Dependent
    • Obsessive-compulsive
the clinical picture in schizophrenia
The Clinical Picture in Schizophrenia
  • Positive symptoms
    • Delusions: fixed firm beliefs with no basis in reality
      • Most common are grandiose, persecutory and referential
    • Hallucinations: disturbances in perception
      • Can occur in any of the five senses
        • Most common are auditory and visual
the clinical picture in schizophrenia24
The Clinical Picture in Schizophrenia
  • Formal Thought Disorder (a positive symptom)
    • Disturbances in speech that reflect underlying problems in cognition or thinking
      • Most common forms are tangentiality and circumstantiality
      • Less common are neologisms, word salad and clang associations
the clinical picture in schizophrenia25
The Clinical Picture in Schizophrenia
  • Negative symptoms (Nancy Andreasen)
    • Avolition
    • Anhedonia
    • Alogia
    • Flat Affect
    • Asociality
the classic subtypes of schizophrenia
The Classic Subtypes of Schizophrenia
  • Undifferentiated type
  • Catatonic type
  • Disorganized type
  • Paranoid type
substance related disorders methods of taking substances
Substance-Related Disorders Methods of taking substances:

7 sec


20 sec


4 min





30 min


when is addiction addiction
When is addiction addiction?
  • What is substance use?
  • What is substance abuse?
  • What is substance dependence?

Where is the line???????

dsm iv criteria
Substance Abuse

leads to impairment or distress

one of these within 1 yr:

failure to full fill role obligations

physically hazardous

legal problems

persistent social problems

Substance Dependence

leads to impairment or distress

3 of the following:



delirium tremens (DTs)

take more than intended

persistent desire

fail to control use

lots of time spent obtaining, using, or recovering from

use in place of activities

continuing despite physical or psychological problems

DSM-IV Criteria
solomon s opponent process theory of addiction
Solomon’s Opponent Process Theory of Addiction
  • Basic Premise- People take, abuse and become dependent on drugs because of the effect of these drugs
  • The Clements Corollary- noone ever becomes addicted to thorazine
    • A State- the initial pleasant effect
    • B State-unpleasant effects occurring as a result of drug withdrawal
the clinical picture of alcohol abuse and dependence
The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
  • Alcohol’s effects on the brain
  • Physical effects of chronic alcohol use
  • Psychosocial effects of abuse and dependence
alcohol etoh
Short-term effects:

absorbed from the stomach into the blood

metabolized by the liver (1 oz/hr)

it is a drug

acts within brain to:

stimulate GABA receptors

reduces tension

 dopamine/serotonin levels

pleasurable aspects of intoxication

inhibits glutamate receptors

diminishes cognitive abilities

Long-term effects:

reduced food intake

ETOH: no nutrient value

impairs food digestion

results in vitamin deficiency


can lead to brain damage/amnesia

kills brain cells

leads to loss of gray matter from the temporal lobes

Korsakoff’s Syndrome

suppresses the immune system

Alcohol (ETOH)
alcohol etoh34
Alcohol (ETOH)
  • A “drink”:
    • 1 oz. Spirits = 1 glass wine = 1 beer
  • DWI (Driving while intoxicated)
    • takes approximately 2-4 drinks over one hour
    • lighter weight, empty stomach will require less
    • legal blood alcohol limit (.10%)
  • DUI (Driving under the influence)
  • The CAGE
alcohol addiction treatment
Alcohol Addiction: Treatment
  • Admitting the problem
    • a prerequisite for therapy (video clip)
  • Inpatient Hospital treatment
    • expensive & does not lead to better results
    • may be necessary for safe detoxification
  • Aversion therapy
    • Antabuse - drug that creates nausea
    • uses operant conditioning principles
  • Controlled drinking training
  • Self-Help groups
    • Alcoholics Anonymous