Abnormal psychology
1 / 35

Abnormal Psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Abnormal Psychology. WEB. Anxiety as a Normal and an Abnormal Response. Some amount of anxiety is “normal” and is associated with optimal levels of functioning. Only when anxiety begins to interfere with social or occupational functioning is it considered “abnormal.”. The Bell Curve.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Abnormal Psychology' - Rita

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Anxiety as a normal and an abnormal response l.jpg
Anxiety as a Normal and an Abnormal Response

  • Some amount of anxiety is “normal” and is associated with optimal levels of functioning.

  • Only when anxiety begins to interfere with social or occupational functioning is it considered “abnormal.”

Phobic disorders l.jpg
Phobic Disorders

  • Phobias

  • Specific phobias

  • Social phobia

  • Agoraphobia

Social phobia l.jpg
Social Phobia

  • General characteristics

    Fear of being in social situations in which one will be embarrassed or humiliated

Panic disorder with and without agoraphobia l.jpg
Panic Disorder With and Without Agoraphobia

  • Panic disorder

  • Panic versus anxiety

  • Agoraphobia

  • Agoraphobia without panic

Treating anxiety disorders l.jpg
Treating Anxiety Disorders

  • Medications

  • Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments

Generalized anxiety disorder l.jpg
Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • General characteristics

  • Prevalence and age of onset

  • Comorbidity with other disorders

Generalized anxiety disorder biological causal factors l.jpg
Generalized Anxiety Disorder:Biological Causal Factors

  • Genetic factors

  • A functional deficiency of GABA

  • Neurobiological differences between anxiety and panic

Obsessive compulsive disorder l.jpg
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  • Obsessions- repetitive unwanted ideas that the person recognizes are irrational

  • Compulsions- repetitive, often ritualized behavior whose behavior serves to diminish anxiety caused by obsessions

Post traumatic stress disorder l.jpg
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

  • Critical Component

    • Symptoms occurs AFTER a traumatic stressor

Symptoms categories l.jpg
Symptoms Categories

  • Intrusive

    • distressing recollections

    • dreams

    • flashbacks

    • psychological trigger reactions

    • physiological trigger reactions

Symptoms categories16 l.jpg
Symptoms Categories

  • Avoidance

    • avoid thoughts, feelings or discussions

    • avoid activities, places

    • memory blocks

    • anhedonia (without pleasure)

    • numb

    • alexithymia (emotions unknown)

    • feeling of doom

Symptom categories l.jpg
Symptom Categories

  • Hyperarousal Symptoms

    • sleep disturbance

    • anger problems

    • concentration

    • startle response

    • “on guard” hypervigilence

Mood disorders l.jpg
Mood Disorders

  • Major Depressive Disorder

  • Bipolar I and Bipolar II

  • Cyclothymia

    • Hypomania

  • Dysthymia

  • Schizoaffective disorder

Categories of personality disorders l.jpg
Categories of Personality Disorders

  • Cluster A

    • Paranoid

    • Schizoid

    • Schizotypal

Personality disorders l.jpg
Personality Disorders

  • Paranoid personality disorder

  • Schizoid personality disorder

  • Schizotypal personality disorder

  • Histrionic personality disorder

Categories of personality disorders21 l.jpg
Categories of Personality Disorders

  • Cluster B

    • Histrionic

    • Narcissistic

    • Antisocial

    • Borderline

Categories of personality disorders22 l.jpg
Categories of Personality Disorders

  • Cluster C

    • Avoidant

    • Dependent

    • Obsessive-compulsive

The clinical picture in schizophrenia l.jpg
The Clinical Picture in Schizophrenia

  • Positive symptoms

    • Delusions: fixed firm beliefs with no basis in reality

      • Most common are grandiose, persecutory and referential

    • Hallucinations: disturbances in perception

      • Can occur in any of the five senses

        • Most common are auditory and visual

The clinical picture in schizophrenia24 l.jpg
The Clinical Picture in Schizophrenia

  • Formal Thought Disorder (a positive symptom)

    • Disturbances in speech that reflect underlying problems in cognition or thinking

      • Most common forms are tangentiality and circumstantiality

      • Less common are neologisms, word salad and clang associations

The clinical picture in schizophrenia25 l.jpg
The Clinical Picture in Schizophrenia

  • Negative symptoms (Nancy Andreasen)

    • Avolition

    • Anhedonia

    • Alogia

    • Flat Affect

    • Asociality

The classic subtypes of schizophrenia l.jpg
The Classic Subtypes of Schizophrenia

  • Undifferentiated type

  • Catatonic type

  • Disorganized type

  • Paranoid type

Substance related disorders methods of taking substances l.jpg
Substance-Related Disorders Methods of taking substances:

7 sec


20 sec


4 min





30 min


When is addiction addiction l.jpg
When is addiction addiction?

  • What is substance use?

  • What is substance abuse?

  • What is substance dependence?

    Where is the line???????

Dsm iv criteria l.jpg

Substance Abuse

leads to impairment or distress

one of these within 1 yr:

failure to full fill role obligations

physically hazardous

legal problems

persistent social problems

Substance Dependence

leads to impairment or distress

3 of the following:



delirium tremens (DTs)

take more than intended

persistent desire

fail to control use

lots of time spent obtaining, using, or recovering from

use in place of activities

continuing despite physical or psychological problems

DSM-IV Criteria

Solomon s opponent process theory of addiction l.jpg
Solomon’s Opponent Process Theory of Addiction

  • Basic Premise- People take, abuse and become dependent on drugs because of the effect of these drugs

  • The Clements Corollary- noone ever becomes addicted to thorazine

    • A State- the initial pleasant effect

    • B State-unpleasant effects occurring as a result of drug withdrawal

The clinical picture of alcohol abuse and dependence l.jpg
The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

  • Alcohol’s effects on the brain

  • Physical effects of chronic alcohol use

  • Psychosocial effects of abuse and dependence

Alcohol etoh l.jpg

Short-term effects:

absorbed from the stomach into the blood

metabolized by the liver (1 oz/hr)

it is a drug

acts within brain to:

stimulate GABA receptors

reduces tension

 dopamine/serotonin levels

pleasurable aspects of intoxication

inhibits glutamate receptors

diminishes cognitive abilities

Long-term effects:

reduced food intake

ETOH: no nutrient value

impairs food digestion

results in vitamin deficiency


can lead to brain damage/amnesia

kills brain cells

leads to loss of gray matter from the temporal lobes

Korsakoff’s Syndrome

suppresses the immune system

Alcohol (ETOH)

Alcohol etoh34 l.jpg
Alcohol (ETOH)

  • A “drink”:

    • 1 oz. Spirits = 1 glass wine = 1 beer

  • DWI (Driving while intoxicated)

    • takes approximately 2-4 drinks over one hour

    • lighter weight, empty stomach will require less

    • legal blood alcohol limit (.10%)

  • DUI (Driving under the influence)

  • The CAGE

Alcohol addiction treatment l.jpg
Alcohol Addiction: Treatment

  • Admitting the problem

    • a prerequisite for therapy (video clip)

  • Inpatient Hospital treatment

    • expensive & does not lead to better results

    • may be necessary for safe detoxification

  • Aversion therapy

    • Antabuse - drug that creates nausea

    • uses operant conditioning principles

  • Controlled drinking training

  • Self-Help groups

    • Alcoholics Anonymous