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Malaria. Jonathan Kidd Jennifer Koehl Heather Louch Edwin Wong Penelope Worthington. Name means “bad air”- A life-threatening parasitic disease 40% of the world’s population is at risk 90% of the deaths due to Malaria occur in Sub-Sahara Africa, mostly among young children.

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malaria

Malaria

Jonathan Kidd

Jennifer Koehl

Heather Louch

Edwin Wong

Penelope Worthington

slide2
Name means “bad air”-
  • A life-threatening parasitic disease
  • 40% of the world’s population is at risk
  • 90% of the deaths due to Malaria occur in Sub-Sahara Africa, mostly among young children.
  • Around 400-900 million people are affected
  • At least 2.7 million deaths annually.
  • It is one of the major public health concerns
organism
Organism
  • Malaria is caused by species of Plasmodium.
  • The genus Plasmodium contains 172 species
    • only four species are known to infect humans.
      • Plasmodium falciparum
      • Plasmodium malariae
      • Plasmodium ovale
      • Plasmodium vivax
  • Plasmodium parasites are highly specific with female Anopheles mosquitoes
investigating the plasmodium organism through
Investigating the Plasmodium organism through…
  • comparison of mitochondrial sequences of Plasmodium spp.
    • to each other
    • to bacteria
    • to Phylum Apicomplexa
      • Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA)
      • BLASTx
  • comparison of life cycles of Eimeria vs. Plasmodium spp.
  • comparison of pathogenic vs. non-pathogenic species using bioinformatics
investigating the plasmodium organism through5
Investigating the Plasmodium organism through…
  • a look at clinical malaria (symptoms of P. falciparum vs. other spp.)
  • a look at geographic distribution of Plasmodium spp.
  • bioinformatics of genome projects
    • 1 complete (P. falciparum)
    • 2 draft (P. yoelii, P. chabaudi)
    • 5 in progress (P. vivax, P. knowlesi, P. berghei, P. gallinaceum, P. reichenowi)
  • a look at chromosomes to determine synteny
investigating rodent hosts through
Investigating Rodent hosts through. . .
  • comparison of Plasmodium spp. that infect rodents to each other
  • comparison of rodent geographic distribution to Plasmodium infection
  • comparison of parasite isoenzymes
    • PDB structures of parasite isoenzymes
    • wet lab: biochemical analysis of isoenzymes
  • use of rodents as model organisms for vaccine development
anopheles mosquitoes as vectors
Anopheles mosquitoes as vectors
  • what use is the vector genome sequence?
  • what is the ecology of Anopheles?
  • investigate the specificity of the vector as related to individual Plasmodium spp. using sequence data
  • what is the vector geographic distribution with regards to Plasmodium infection?
  • what are eradication strategies, and implications on Plasmodium genome evolution?
development of malaria vaccines
Development of Malaria vaccines
  • why are they so difficult to develop?
  • what is relationship to Plasmodium lifecycle?
  • what epitopes do the vaccines target & why?
  • what are the model organisms for vaccine development, and why?
  • most new vaccines are recombinant. Why?
  • can human vaccines work in other hosts? How does this relate to the vaccine targets?
malaria as a global problem ethics
Malaria as a global problem (ethics)
  • how does economic and cultural development impact the incidence and/or severity of malaria?
  • who pays for malaria?
    • money
    • time
    • effort
  • why should we be concerned if it's not in the U.S.?
    • vaccination programs
    • New Chemotherapy
  • what are difficulties in implementing vaccination programs?
  • who determines who gets vaccinated?
  • who gets vaccinated?
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Malaria is a global problem that lends itself to a multilayered investigation with bioinformatics as a major component.
  • The wealth of materials and the ongoing sequencing process make it possible to continually expand the investigation to encompass increasingly sophisticated students.