The Soviet-Afghan War ( 1979-1989)
Grace Intro: The War How did it start: • The soviet attacks Afghanistan on December 27, 1979 after the death of afghan’s PM/minister of defense. Why did it start: • Before the war, afghan government had turned to the soviets in order to stabilize their economy. However, due to the soviet’s determination to spread communism. What was the issue: • A group called Guerrillas (mujahidin) a.k.a was formed in order to fight communism. They've received helps from USA, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan
Shalomi Synopsis of the Soviet- Afghan War The Soviet- Afghan war started because of the greediness of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was a Communist party and wanted to spread the dictatorship and communism all over the world. Therefore the Soviets invaded Afghanistan and tried to impose communism. The Afghans did not like communism so a rivalling group rose against the Soviet Union that group is called the Afghan guerrillas (mujahidin). (Which is known as the Taliban today.) The Afghan guerrillas were an anti communist group and they got help from USA, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. The war was a bloody and lasted nearly 10 years (1979- 1989). No one factor was the deciding factor in the war against the Soviets. The structure of Afghan society as a whole, with its mistrust of the Communist system, and its strong faith in Islam provided the Afghan mujahidin with the will to fight, and the proper morale when it was required. The Soviets lack of experience in the type of war that was being fought, and their inability to adapt also was a strike against them. The foreign aid provided by many countries gave the rebels both the equipment and the knowledge necessary to fight and win. All of these factors played a part in the Soviet’s loss in the war.
Proxy War The Soviet-Afghan war was a example of proxy war. The two great powers were the Soviet Union and the United States of America. The US played an indirect (third party) part of the war effort supporting the Afghan Mujahidin. By supplying them with artillery and other weapons of destructions. The US and the Soviet Union were two rivalling powers who believed into two different types of Power. Democracy Vs. Communism. Therefore the reason the US got involved in the war was to help Afghanistan fight and win the battle between the Soviet Union.
Jeff Formerpresident Jimmy Carterbelieved the Soviets were creating a huge threat to the peace achieved at the end of Second World War because it was the battle of gaining a lot of fossil fuel. Jimmy Carter also places an embargo (a ban) US on shipment of commodities, like grains and high technology to the Soviet Union. Also Jimmy Carter sees this as a threat to the Persian Gulf region of invasion. With other country giving financial help to General Zia, the Afghan ruler who took the financial aids to build their army well trained and well funded. When there was a President in power for the United State in 1981, Ronald Reagan give even more aids to the Afghan. As of this United States, Pakistan Iran, China, Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom created or forum as the Afghan Mujahideen.
The end result was accomplish because it had push the Soviet and stop their invasion and able to damage their economic resources, losing support of their country by their citizens and their death in the battle. While the Afghan Mujahideen was a group of country, who donate a lot of financial support from the six country and military training for mostly United State and Pakistan. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_war_in_Afghanistan#Pakistani_involvement_and_aid_to_the_Afghan_resistance
Mike • Storms = bad/negative instances that influences the problem The events leading to this foremost war were concerning to the Saur Revolution and Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. During the Saur revolution, Mohammad Zahir Shah succeeded to the throne and control from 1933 to 1973. His cousin, Mohammad Daoud Khan, served as Prime Minister (1853 to 1963). The Marxist PDPA(People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) party was credited for significant growth during these years. In 1967, the PDPA split into two rival faction groups, the khalq (Masses) faction headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin against the Parcham (Banner) faction led by Babrak Karmal. Through charges of corruption and poor economic conditions, the former Prime Minister Daoud took power in a practically violent-less military coup in 1973. Daoud ended the monarchy but wasn’t successful in the economic and social reforms to benefit the country. Daoud’s regime caused serious opposition from the factions because of the authoritarianism brought on them. The PDPA joined together again to end Daoud’s rule over them. In 1978, the PDPA overthrew and executed Daoud along with the members of his family. Nur Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the PDPA, became both the president of the Revolutionary Council and Prime Minister of the newly formed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. During the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan’s power, the government was practically divided along follower lines, with President Taraki and Deputy Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin of the Khalq faction against Parcham leaders such as Babrak Karmal and Mohammad Najibullah. Conflicts resulted in things like exiles, purges, and executions within the PDPA. Also, the PDPA applied a Marxist-style program of reforms. It settled forth changes in marriage customs and land reforms that weren’t supported by an exceedingly population believing in Islam. Mid 1978, a rebellion began in the Nuristan region of eastern Afghanistan and civil war spread throughout the country. In 1979, Deputy Prime Minister of Afghanistan Hafizullah Amin seized power after a palace shootout that ended in the death of President Taraki. Unsteadiness overwhelmed Amin’s regime as he moved against his opponents in the PDPA and the growing rebellion.
Energy = possible solutions • to help solve the problem • The Soviet-Afghan Friendship treaty: in 1978, Moscow and Kabul signed a mutual treaty of friendship and cooperation that allowed Soviet deployment in case of an Afghan calls for the need of it. The Soviet military assistance increased and the PDPA regime became more dependent on Soviet military equipment and advisers. The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan became more dependants on the Soviet Union because of the worsening rebellion.
Fruit = consequences • of the problem • Since the PDPA applied a Marxist-style program of reforms it caused the population really immersed in the strong tradition and Islam to start the civil was that spread through the whole country. This negative effect on the Country caused the death of President Taraki, and required the Soviet deployment to aid PDPA contain the situation. It caused the Country to split into 2 main opposing groups in a civil war.
Pests = things stopping • possible solutions to • the problem • Following the Soviet deployment of military, the Soviet troops were unsuccessful of establishing authority outside Kabul. As much as 80% of the countryside still escaped effective government control. The initial mission, to guard cities and installations, was expanded to combat the anti-communist Mujahideen forces, primarily using Soviet reservists.
Roots: how the problem grew/manifested • The war involved casualties of innocent civilians due to the rebel attacks between the Soviets, and becoming more complex for the Soviet Union in the fighting areas such as in mountainous terrain. They were repeated many of the American Vietnam mistakes, winning almost all of the conventional battles, but failing to control the countryside. Heavy artillery was extensively used when fighting the rebel forces and cost the Soviet Union a lot. All the interventions had a play in the problem becoming hectic.
Beliefs = how the problem escalated • The Afghanistan government didn’t seem to be prepared for doing what was necessary for the benefit of the country; instead the Soviets invaded and took control of the situation after getting rid of Amin. • The Afghan resistance movement during the mid 1980s was assisted by the U.S., U.K., China, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others, that contributed to the Moscow’s high military costs and stressed international relations. In result, Afghan guerrillas were armed, funded, and trained mostly by the U.S. and Pakistan. Plus, the donation of American-created FIM-92 Stinger anti-aircraft missile systems increased the losses of the Soviet Air Force.
Other trees = other things influencing the problem • Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Special Service Group (SSG) were actively involved in the conflict, and in cooperation with the CIA and the U.S. Army Special Forces all supported the armed rebellion against the Soviet threats. • After the Soviet invasion, Pakistan’s military ruler General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq accepted financial aid from the Western powers to help the Muhajideen rebellion. The United States, the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia became major financial contributors to General Zia who was the ruler of a neighbour country and helped by ensuring the Afghan resistance was well-trained and well-funded. • In the 19780s, Pakistan received aid from the U.S. and took in millions of Afghan (mostly Pashtun) refugees fleeing the Soviet occupation.
Cactus = an indirect cause of the problem but a correlation could be drawn • The Soviet Union withdraws from Afghanistan. This is because of the toll in casualties, economic resources, and loss of support at home increasingly felt in the Soviet Union was causing criticism of the occupation policy. Leonid Brezhnev died in 1982. Mikhail Gorbachev took leadership in March 1985 and opened up the country’s system, it became clearer that the U.S.S.R. wanted to find a face-saving way to withdraw from Afghan. • Informal negotiations for a Soviet withdrawal from Afghan had been in progress since 1982. In 1988, the governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan, with the U.S. and S.U. serving as guarantors, signed and agreement settling the major differences between them known as the Geneva accords. The United Nations settled up a special Mission to supervise the process. In this way, Najibullah and Moscow headed toward withdrawal. On July 20 1987, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country was finally announced. Their exit didn’t bring lasting peace or resettlement due in part to U.S. and Pakistan’s violations of Geneva accords.
1. 1979: The Beginning of The War • Soviet forces gradually began to land in Kabul, Afghanistan. December 25, 1979 • On December 27, after crossing the border, the soviet army overthrows the afghan government and kills the presidentHafizullah Amin, and the PM/Minister of defense Hafizullah Main • As part of Truman doctrine, President Carter Approves military Aid to Anti-Soviet Forces in Afghanistan
2. • On February of 1980, many afghans had protested against the soviet’s occupation in Kabul. However, hundreds have ended up being killed or arrested. The anti-soviet riot in Shindadnd was turned down due to the soviet forces • Osama bin Ladenbegan to provide financial, organizational, and engineering aid for the mujahedeen in Afghanistan
3. 1985: rebel organizations formed • Seven party mujahideen alliance is formed in order to fight aginst the soviet
4. 1988: Yhe birth of al-Qaeda • August 11, 1988, bin laden stated in his meeting that the purpose of the meeting was to, “the establishment of a new military group,”
5. The end • On February 15, 1989 the soviet’s withdrew its army after 115,000 Soviet soldiers begin to move out after losing an estimated 15,000 troops in ten years as the result of their fight with the anti-communist group. mujahideen alliance
Grace The end: The War What was the end result of the war?:to be explained What did it accomplish what did it fail to accomplish?: to be explained