Over the next couple days, we are going to address some common needs in writing. You will be expected to implement these changes in your essay due on Wed. • Thesis statements • Paragraph structure • Audience
Thesis Statements • Must directly answer the prompt • Must express an argument (an agreed upon fact is not a thesis statement) • Must provide a roadmap to the to the rest of the essay
Argument • Definition: a reason or set of reasons given with the aim of persuading others that an idea is right or wrong. • Simple Definition: Expressing an opinion or point of view with logical reasoning • NOT a commonly held fact… must be debatable • Which of the following is an argument? • During WWII, Adolph Hitler ruled Germany and controlled the Nazi Party. • The leaders of Germany and the Soviet Union used propaganda and other methods in order to maintain total control over the societies they ruled.
Road Map • Besides just stating an argument, the thesis also lets the reader know what specific points the essay will discuss. • Thesis with a road map: • Germany and the Soviet Union had a number of similarities and differences. Both countries were led by totalitarian regimes that used propaganda in an attempt to achieve total control over society.Common characteristics among both countries included the suppression of dissent and absence of individual rights as well as the creation of a cult of personality behind each leader. One key difference was that Germany had a fascist system of government, whereas the Soviet Union had a communist system of government. • As a reader, I know the author will discuss the following points: suppression of dissent and the absence of individual rights, creation of a cult of personality, and the difference between communism and fascism.
Essay Question due WED • In 1946, both the United States and the Soviet Union were convinced that the opposition was set upon world domination. Evaluate these two perspectives using evidence we’ve discussed from the book and in the class PowerPoints. Which interpretation do you find more convincing, if either? Why? Be sure to discuss important policies and events from each country during this time period. • Typed preferred, 450-550 words.
The thesis statement for your essay is due tomorrow. It must contain and specific argument as well as a road map.
Soviet Foreign Policy • Stalin was determined to control a buffer zone between Russia and the west. He was paranoid that the Soviets would be invaded by the west. • Thus he tried to preserve Soviet influence throughout the Eastern bloc and in Germany
Soviet Foreign Intervention during Cold War (up to 1970) • 1946 Stalin reneges on promise to allow free elections in Poland • 1948 Berlin Blockade • 1953 Crushing of East German uprising • 1956 Crushing of Hungarian uprising • 1961 Berlin Wall • 1968 – Crushing of “Prague Spring” in Czechoslovakia and declaration of Brezhnev doctrine
Berlin Blockade • Origins • Berlin was divided as a result of Yalta agreement between Soviet zone and the British/American zone. • British/American zone relied on food imports via railway through the Soviet Zone.
Berlin Blockade • As Cold War tensions became more intense, the Soviets blockaded these routes to put pressure on the British & Americans to withdraw so they could take full control of Berlin. • However, instead of withdrawing or attacking the Soviets, the Americans and British decided to airlift food and supplies into West Germany through unarmed aircraft.
Soviet Leaders until 1970 • Vladimir Lenin (1917 - 1922) • Joseph Stalin (1922 -1953) • Nikita Khrushchev (1953 – 1964) • Leonid Brezhnev (1964 – 1982)
Crushing of East German Uprising • Hopeful after Stalin’s death, uprising began with a workers strike in Berlin and crowds soon reached up to 25k people • Radio free Europe reported on strikes and over 1 million people across entirety of East Germany participated in the uprising • Crowds began chants such as “death to communism” • Soviets sent in troops and crushed the uprising, resulting in over 5000 arrests and 503 deaths (including later deaths from military execution)
Crushing of Hungarian Revolution http://www.tubechop.com/watch/2385792 Soviets crush uprising in Hungary
The Berlin Wall • Context • Throughout the 1950s, millions of East Germans were emigrating to West Germany. • West Germany had a higher standard of living, a better economy, free elections and other individual freedoms, whereas Eastern Germany was ruled under a Soviet puppet regime. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szjFKADu69U
Berlin Wall • The “Brain Drain” • A great many of the most skilled workers (Doctors, Lawyers, Scientists, Teachers, Engineers) had been fleeing to West Germany, which inflicted a heavy cost on the East German economy. • As a result, the Soviets built a wall between the two zones so that East Germans could not emigrate from East Berlin • Wall became a symbol of Soviet repression.
Prague Spring & Czech uprising • Refers to period of liberalization • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVIp5lUJhCs • Led to declaration of Brezhnev Doctrine • Soviet forces would intervene if any country within the eastern bloc moved away from communism and towards capitalism
Other Key Concepts/Events • Nuclear Arms Race • Launch of Sputnik & the space race • U2 Spy plane incident • The Bay of Pigs • The Cuban Missile Crisis