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Soviet Union and War Communism. The Bolsheviks had consolidated power . Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) organized the Red Army to suppress both internal and foreign opposition. White Russian opposition could not get properly organized. The nation was run by Lenin from the top, undemocratically.

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Soviet union and war communism
Soviet Union and War Communism

  • The Bolsheviks had consolidated power.

  • Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) organized the Red Army to suppress both internal and foreign opposition.

    • White Russian opposition could not get properly organized.

  • The nation was run by Lenin from the top, undemocratically.

    • The New Economic Plan nationalized the banks, the transport system and heavy industry run by the gov’t

    • All opposition was repressed.

    • Peasants were given ability to farm for profitstabilized countryside


The third international
The Third International

  • Also called the Comintern, the Third International of the European Socialist Movement was designed by Lenin to promote the Bolshevik style of Socialism in Europe.

    • 1920-21 conditions were imposed on any socialist party that wanted to join.


The stalin trotsky rivalry
The Stalin/Trotsky Rivalry

  • After Lenin’s stroke in 1922 and his subsequent death in 1924, a power vacuum was left.

  • Leon Trotsky was a Jew within an anti-Semitic society and considered more of an intellectual than leader

  • Stalin was the secretary of the Communist party and had much more loyalty due to making key appointments

  • 1927—Stalin won support of party; Trotsky flees


The soviet union under stalin
The Soviet Union Under Stalin

  • 1928—Five Year Plan implemented—centrally controlled plan for industrial expansion

  • Farm Collectivization consolidated small farms into Communes

    • Many peasants opposed, but 12 million were killed

  • 1933—second Five Year Plan created a boom in Soviet industry while the West was in the depression

  • 1930s10 million Russians arrested and sent gulags (Siberian labor camps) where eventually died

  • 1 million were executed as opposition to Stalin


Soviet suspicions and the search for security
Soviet Suspicions and the Search for Security

  • Since the time of Peter the Great, internal struggles had plagued Russia over her willingness to do what?

    • Westernize

  • Continual conflict between pro-Westerners and pro-Slavic roots

  • Most opposition to Westernization came from Russian fear of invasion from the West


Reasons for stalin s suspicion of the west
Reasons for Stalin’s Suspicion of the West

  • Versailles Conference—Russia was excluded and lost territory

  • Russian Civil War—the U.S. supported the White Russians against the Bolsheviks during the civil war. U.S. sent military support in hopes of toppling the communist regime

  • League of Nations—The Soviet Union was excluded from the League of Nations until 1933; Stalin viewed the West as unconcerned about the political importance of the SU in Europe


Reasons for stalin s suspicion of the west1
Reasons for Stalin’s Suspicion of the West

  • Locarno Agreement—France and Germany established permanent boundaries after WWI; Stalin saw this as an anti-Soviet bloc

  • Invasion of Manchuria—Japan invaded Manchuria; L of N did not respond; possible threat of invasion against SU

  • Spanish Civil War—Rise of fascism with little support from U.S. or Britain


  • Munich Conference—Britain and France conceded to Hitler parts of Eastern Europe; Stalin not invited; saw fascists as a threat

  • Nazi-Soviet Pact—Hitler and Stalin signed nonaggression pact. Stalin needed to buy time to prepare for war.


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