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The Civil Rights Movement. There were two phases to the Civil Rights movement: one phase between 1945-1965 and the other after 1965. I. Why Did the Civil Rights Movement Take Off After 1945?. Black equality became a significant political issue for the Democratic Party

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the civil rights movement

The Civil Rights Movement

There were two phases to the Civil Rights movement: one phase between 1945-1965 and the other after 1965.

i why did the civil rights movement take off after 1945
I. Why Did the Civil Rights Movement Take Off After 1945?
  • Black equality became a significant political issue for the Democratic Party
  • WWII had been fought against racism abroad—hard to keep harboring it at home
  • Black veterans came home dedicated to change
  • Increasing number of White Americans condemned segregation
  • Discrimination in the United States hurt our propaganda battle against the Communists
ii the truman years
II. The Truman Years
  • Truman’s 1948 election year agenda
  • No significant Civil Rights congressional legislation
  • Truman moves on his own to do what he can for Civil Rights

--Desegregation of the military (1948)

  • Jackie Robinson’s breakthrough (1947)
ii the truman years cont
II. The Truman Years (cont.)
  • Split at the 1948 Democratic convention
  • Energized Truman hits the campaign trail hard
  • Republican Dewey runs a boring, conservative campaign
  • Truman’s stunning election
  • Truman’s “Fair Deal” (1949)
iii the battle in the courts
III. The Battle in the Courts
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

-- “separate but equal” facilities = legal

  • Smith v. Allwright (1944)
  • First attack = “separate is not equal”
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)

-- Chief Justice Earl Warren

iii battle in the courts cont
III. Battle in the Courts (cont.)
  • Eisenhower disapproves of Brown decision
  • Desegregation “with all deliberate speed”
  • Other Warren Court Civil Rights decisions
  • Popular opposition to the Brown decision
  • No real progress on desegregation at first
iv the eisenhower years
IV. The Eisenhower Years
  • Eisenhower’s philosophy related to Civil Rights laws
  • First Civil Rights Acts passed since the Civil War (1957 and 1960)
  • Opposition to the integration of Little Rock Central High School (1957)

--Governor Orville Faubus

v out of the schools and into the buses
V. Out of the Schools and Into the Buses
  • The arrest of Rosa Parks (December, 1955)
  • The Montgomery, Ala. Bus Boycott
  • The leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • The “Montgomery” model for Civil Rights activism: boycott, publicity, courts
  • SCLC formed (1957)
vi a mass movement takes shape
VI. A Mass Movement Takes Shape
  • Lunch counter “sit-ins” begin: Greensboro, NC (February, 1960)
  • SNCC created (April, 1960)
  • CORE “Freedom Ride” (May, 1961)
vi a mass movement takes shape cont
VI. A Mass Movement Takes Shape (cont.)
  • Demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama (April, 1963)

--Eugene “Bull” Connor

  • “Letter from Birmingham City Jail”
  • Governor George Wallace tries to block integration of the University of Alabama (Fall, 1963)
vi a mass movement takes shape cont11
VI. A Mass Movement Takes Shape (cont.)
  • JFK finally begins to campaign for Civil Rights legislation
  • Continued violence even in the face of some progress
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. and the March on Washington (August, 1963)

-- “I Have a Dream”

vi a mass movement takes shape cont12
VI. A Mass Movement Takes Shape (cont.)
  • Mississippi Freedom Summer Project (1964)
  • MFDP Protests at the 1964 Democratic convention
  • Voter registration in Selma, Alabama (1965)

--Sheriff Jim Clark

  • By the mid-1960’s, substantial success in the South had been achieved
vii the kennedy and johnson years
VII. The Kennedy and Johnson Years
  • JFK’s initial reluctance to push for Civil Rights laws
  • The integration of Ole’ Miss (1962)

--James Meredith

  • JFK finally decides to push past better enforcement to new congressional Civil Rights legislation
vii the johnson years cont
VII. The Johnson Years (cont.)
  • The role of Kennedy’s assassination in the Civil Rights movement
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Anti-poll tax Amendment (24th—1964)
  • Voting Rights Act (1965)
  • Impact of the Voting Rights Act
vii the johnson years cont15
VII. The Johnson Years (cont.)
  • The tone of public political discourse changed after 1965
  • Johnson appoints first Black cabinet secretary: Robert Weaver of HUD (1966)
  • Much more needed to be done for Civil Rights outside of the South, so 2nd phase began
viii the era of disillusionment 1965 on
VIII. The Era of Disillusionment: 1965 On
  • Early to mid-1960’s were a hopeful time for Civil Rights advocates
  • Goal of Assimilation
  • A “Spoiled Utopia” after 1965—things would not be that simple
a new problems
A. New Problems
  • Residential Discrimination

-- “Red Lining”

  • The Challenges of School integration in the North
  • The historical, traditional segregation of northern cities
  • The resurrection of the KKK once again
  • More effective White opponents in the North
b race riots
B. Race Riots
  • Watts Riots in Los Angeles (Summer, 1965)
  • Riots each summer from 1965-1969

--Chicago and Cleveland (1966)

--Newark and Detroit (1967)

--Washington, D.C. (1968)

b race riots cont
B. Race Riots (cont.)
  • Riots as an expression of grievance against the White American consumer society
  • Riots shocked the White American public
  • Frustration and self-destruction expressed in these riots
  • Unlike earlier race riots, these riots were not started by White mobs
c black power
C. “Black Power”
  • Growing tension between SNCC and Martin Luther King, Jr.

--Stokely Carmichael

  • “Black Power”
  • Carmichael succeeded by H. Rap Brown as head of SNCC (1967)
c black power cont
C. “Black Power” (cont.)
  • The formation of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, CA (1966)

--Huey Newton

--Eldridge Cleaver

  • Resurrection of the philosophy of Marcus Garvey
c black power cont22
C. “Black Power” (cont.)
  • The leadership of Malcolm X

--Black Muslims

--Assassinated in 1965

  • Cultural expressions of “Black Power”:

--Afro Hairstyles

--Black-studies programs

-- “Negro” no longer used

--1968 Olympics

d decline of the civil rights movement
D. Decline of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Economic contraction works against Civil Rights concessions
  • Northern phase not as successful
  • Resistance from White Unions
  • Vietnam replaces Civil Rights as the liberal crusade
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. loses influence with LBJ