Gender Two Primary Issues The Cultural construction of Gender Gender Relations Sex Versus Gender Sex refers to biological differences,
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(what different cultures make of sex.)
Why is it important
How do we react when someone seems to have some traits of each category?
social intercourse requires that the interacting parties know to which gender category `the other' belongs
Felicita Vestvali1824 - 1880
New York opera star who specialized in singing contralto "trouser roles."
If the categories `man' and `woman' are culturally constructed then there can be no essential or universal meaning to the category woman or man. Only what it means to be a man or a woman in a particular society.
It also means that we do not have to be restricted to two genders
Hijras now earn their living as beggars, and prostitutes.and by dancing at carnivals, weddings and births.
The Hijras are both feared and pitied in Pakistan, feared for their supposed ability to place curses, pitied for being outcast children of Allah.
Perceived neither as men nor women but as a third gender,
All the day long,Whether rain or shine,She's a part of the assembly line.She's making history,Working for victory,Rosie the Riveter.Keeps a sharp lookout for sabatoge,Sitting up there on the fuselage.That little girl will do more than a male will do.Rosie's got a boyfriend, Charlie.Charlie, he's a Marine.Rosie is protecting Charlie,Working overtime on the riveting machine.When they gave her a production "E,"She was as proud as she could be.There's something true about,Red, white, and blue about,Rosie the Riveter.
Redd Evans and John Jacob Loeb,"Rosie the Riveter," (New York: Paramount Music Corp., 1942
In the 1940s, women were encouraged to help the war effort by getting a job outside the home. But it was family and country rather than money, status, or power that they were encouraged to toil for .
“For whether she rears a family or mans a rangefinder, a woman needs the physical support of a good foundation." and "Amongst other munitions of war, Berlei are still making foundations.".
1950s - mass consumption in high gear, TV ads idealized the woman as the wife and homemaker, and the man as the bread winner.
But also the sex kitten
1960s Educated women started exhibiting their discontent with the status quo. Armed with diplomas and new sophisticated birth control methods, they demanded for the right to have both career and family. The great social change in the sixties allowed a variety of depictions of women: sex kitten, nurturing mother and independent working girl.
1970s Issues like woman's lib, ethnic heritage, and critiques of capitalism. Women are shown as independent only when inexpensive items or simple decisions were involved Advertisers realized that not just white people were buying products. Ethnic people were placed in advertisements.
She is a "multifaceted success machine”.
She is a nurturer and a seducer.
She is the twenty-four hour a day woman, and she never sleeps.
Men are domesticated. Sex objects
Sullivan and O'Connor (1988)
Content analysis on the Portrayal of Sex Roles in Canadian Television Advertising, commissioned by the CRTC (1985)
Females are usually shown performing domestic tasks relating to the product.
From June 1999 issue of Glamour
Part of outstanding ad campaign that
accompanied the Women’s World Cup
“You pass on more to your children
and your grandchildren than your eye
color, . . . You provide the living
example that they can become more
than they ever thought they could.
Because you did.
Just do it.”
What is the thinnest book in the world?What men know about women!What do you call a man with an I.Q. of 50?Gifted!What is the difference between men and government bonds?Bonds mature!How many men does it take to change a roll of toilet paper?We don't know - it's never happened. What's the difference between a man and E.T.?E.T. phoned home!
How do men exercise at the beach?By sucking in their stomachs every time they see a bikini.What's the best way to force a man to do situps?Put the remote between his toes.
What does this statement mean? What comes to mind
self promotion & achievement
What does this phrase mean? What comes to mind?
focus on others, community
Victoria’s Secret, “Angels’ Collection”
Marian McKnight Manning, S.Carolina
Crutchfield; Catalog for car stereo equipment.
Sexism is the assertion that one sex is innately superior or inferior to the other
in many societies women are the real labourers
there must be some cultural or sociological regularities that must account for male dominance.
Which card is ranked higher?
all cultures make a distinction between human society and the natural world
Ortner suggests that
A Gimi dancer dressed as a huge flightless bird dramatizes the mysteries of the forests
The forest is seen as a male realm where the spirits of dead ancestors reside
A Gimi man watches birds of paradise in the forest
Clan elders garbed as spirits of the forest signal their arrival with the sounds of their bamboo flutes.
Male dancers in a prenuptial ceremony portray the sun and the moon. In the same manner that these bodies loom above them all, so do the Gimi men see themselves as dominating life in the Gimi villages
The women prepare for a performance by decorating themselves with clay. Their skits ridicule everyday life with the women particularly enjoying the theme of husband beating
Traditionally, men and women lived apart, but this changed after missionaries arrived and insisted on western ways. Once men and women began living together, houses were built in small clusters.
The nature/culture female/male model leaves no room for the possibility that
Since women are confined to the domestic context, their main sphere of activity becomes familial relations
In other words even though we can see the injustice of the system which polarize the sexes and demean women