WHEAT Most widely used grain in breadmaking – only grain that contains GLUTEN – a protein which gives bread its structure Wheat is MILLED to produce flour and ENRICHED to replace lost vitamins and minerals Types of flour: 100% wholewheat (whole grain) WHITE FLOUR – made by sifting out the bran and germ (called EXTRACTION) Bread flour – high protein/gluten (hard wheat) All purpose flour Cake flour – low protein/protein (soft wheat) Self Raising flour – raising agent/salt added Flour can be BLEACHED or UNBLEACHED Other wheat products: COUSCOUS, BULGAR, CRACKED WHEAT, SEMOLINA, DURUM
BARLEY Low in fiber, makes it the most easily digested grains One of oldest cultivated grains, Has low gluten content making it bad choice for breadmaking but good for gluten intolerant diets Also sold as pearl barley, used in soups and stews Has tripled in production in last few years, added to many multigrain breads, cereals and energy bars Also used extensively in brewing industry
CORN Versatile crop used since Aztec/Inca and native american civilizations first cultivated it Used in many forms: sweetcorn, dried corn, hominy or grits (soaked in lye to soften husk), polenta, cornstarch, cornmeal,masa harina (tortillas) and breakfast cereals Processed to make HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP which is added as a cheap sweetener to many packaged/processed foods Also processed as one of U.S. largest cooking oil crop – corn oil Like most cereals can be “puffed” by high heat, creating POPCORN
BUCKWHEAT Grows in large quantities in Eastern Europe Used to make KASHA, a wholegrain breakfast cereal (often puffed) Also used to make pancakes (called BLINI)
OATS “Oat Rush” on the 1980’s changed the face of this grain once used as horse feed Oat production for food has tripled over last two decades Scientists discovered that it had ability to lower LDL and raise HDL, therefore improving cholesterol levels – since then the US has added oats to the diet in many forms – cereals, oatmeal, oatbran, granola bars, muesli, cookies and multigrain breads
RICE • Eaten by over a third of the world’s population as a staple food • Many types and varieties • Brown rice is any rice that has been hulled but not lost its bran • Polished rice has lost most of the nutrients but takes much less time to cook • Partially cooked then dried rice is popular because it saves time (Boil in Bag) • Comes in following forms: • Brown Rice • Enriched white rice – long grain • Short grain or arborio rice (risotto) • Fragrant rice – basmati, jasmine • Wild rice – actually a native grass • Ground rice • Rice flour
RYE Strong flavored, hardy grain grown in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia Used to make rye bread, pumpernickel, sour dough breads and crispbreads Tough kernel needs to be cracked, soaked and ground finely to be digestible Low gluten content of rye produces dense loaves, usually blended with wheat flour
Ancient Grains • Amaranth – sacred grain of Aztecs, complete protein (contains all 10 EAA’s) – introduced into Africa by Bob Rodale to help famine relief because of its ease of growing and nutrition • Quinoa – ancient grain of the Inca’s, also complete protein. Used in salads and multi grain bars and cereals – known as the SUPERGRAIN • Kamut – relative of wheat grown in Egypt in ancient times • Millet – cooked and eaten like rice, cultivated since 4000 BC • Spelt – Grown in Europe over 9000 years ago • Teff – Ancient grains of Greeks and Ethiopians – known as “lovegrass” thought to increase bravery and strength • Triticale – cross between wheat and rye, more nutritious than both – sweet, nutty taste, one of earliest known “hybrid” grains
Breads of the World • France – baguette, pain, croissant, brioche • Germany/Scandinavia – rye, pumpernickel, pretzels, crispbreads, flatbrod (soft flat bread for sandwiches) • Russia – blini, bagels, rye • England – muffins, crumpets, teabreads, granary breads • Middle East – pita breads (flatbread) • Italy – pizza, calzone, breadsticks (grissini) • South America/Mexico – tortilla, tostadas, enchiladas • India – chapati, poppadum, puri, nan, paratha • Israel – matza, bagels
Grains - Nutrition • Around two-thirds of the calories in grains come from complex carbohydrates. • Current dietary recommendations say that 60 to 65 percent of daily calories should come from carbohydrates. That’s about 6 one ounce servings for a 2000 calorie intake. • Grains are also a rich source of protein. Yet, the body can't live on grains alone. Most are not complete proteins, since they are missing one or more of the essential amino acids, usually lysine. • Mixing grains with dairy, legumes, or just about any other protein source completes the minimal amino acid deficiency of some grains. • Grains are great sources of: fiber, zinc, iron, folic acid, minerals, and B-vitamins. • Grains are naturally low in fat. • Eating whole or multigrain breads and cereals increases dietary fiber and has been associated with lowering “bad” LDL’s and raising “good” HDL levels which affect cholesterol levels in the blood. High cholesterol has been associated with coronary artery and other vascular diseases and stroke.
Bread Group Serving sizes • 1 slice bread • 1 oz ready to eat cereal • ½ English muffin or bagel • ½ cup cooked pasta, rice, grits or cooked cereal • 1 tortilla, roll or muffin How much do you consider a serving? How many servings in one double decker sandwich? How many servings in one whole bagel? If your daily calorie requirement determines the number of servings you can have, what must you do?