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Biosocial Approach Gender Development. Learning Objectives. Describe and evaluate the biosocial theory of gender development Describe and evaluate the social role theory of gender development. Division of labour. Why are men seen as the “breadwinners” or hunter gatherers?
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Learning Objectives • Describe and evaluate the biosocial theory of gender development • Describe and evaluate the social role theory of gender development
Division of labour Why are men seen as the “breadwinners” or hunter gatherers? Why are women often given the role of homemaker and child minder? Does our society today still benefit from gender roles or is it becoming moresimilar?
Exceptions Agta Tribe (Philippines) Aka Tribe (Africa) Diana Hunting Goddess
Mechanics Engineers Tank drivers Building ships Working in factories - making bombs and aircraft parts Air raid wardens Driving fire engines Plumbers Ambulance drivers WRVS volunteers Nurses Women during the Wars
Biosocial Theory Parental expectations Money and Ehrhardt (1972)
Social Role Theory Eagly and Wood (1999)
What about sex differences in mate choice? • Resources • Domestic • Compliment each other
Hormonal differences Are these differences a cause or an outcome? Eagly and Wood (2002) – hormonal differences may be an outcome of social roles e.g. testosterone as a result of engaging in more active and competitive activities
Eagly and Wood Human behaviour is mainly an invention or outcome of a particular society or culture Behaviours are best explained in the context in which they occur Luxen (2007) High ethical appeal if sex roles are perceived as more flexible Social Constructionist Approach
Buss (1989) 37 cultures examined 10,000 people Women desire mates with good financial prospects Men placed more evidence on physical attractiveness and youth- fertility and obedience Both look for intelligence, kindness and loyal/dependable (supports evolutionary) Eagly & Wood (1999) Used Gender Empowerment Measure When women had higher status (more equal) – mating preferences become less pronounced Therefore social roles are driving force in psychological sex differences However, Gangestad et al (2006) Re-examined same data Gender equality not related to sex differences. Therefore evolutionary theory better explanation
Biosocial Lack of evidence Money’s study on David Reimer Sample bias as Money’s evidence cases all abnormal not looking at normal gender development Social Role Luxen (2007) argues that selective pressure on men and women would create psychological and physical sex differences Animals and human children’s toy preferences show biological causes of sex roles Evaluation
Debate! Social Role Theory V Evolutionary Perspective! Begin Preparation for this in class today