Middle Childhood: Biosocial Development How do elementary school children develop?
What is the healthiest period of life? • Ages 6 - 11 • Fatal diseases occur before age 6 or after age 11 • Slow steady growth • Stronger muscles • Childhood health habits (e.g. oral health and exercise) can reduce stroke or heart attack in adulthood • Main determinants of a healthy lifestyle is when parents, teachers, and peers have a healthy lifestyle
What are major health problems in childhood? • Obesity • Asthma
What is childhood obesity? • BMI = Body Mass Index • Weight to height • Weight (in Kilograms) divided by the square of height (in meters). • Overweight = BMI above 85th. Percentile • Obesity = BMI above 95th. Percentile • Increases asthma, high blood pressure, increased cholesterol (particularly LDL)
What factors affect obesity? • Heredity (Over 200 genes affect weight) • Parenting • Not breast fed • Family eating habits • T.V. - food commercials • Sodas • No exercise • Social influences • Friends • Snacks
Do you remember? • What is the healthiest period of life? • What are the main health problems for children ages 6 – 11? • What are the two main factors affecting obesity? • What parenting influences affect obesity?
What is asthma? • Inflammation of the airways • Wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing
What causes asthma? • Genes + environment • Air pollution, pet dander, cigarette smoke, dust mites, mold, etc.
How can you prevent asthma? • Primary = Changes in the entire society • Better ventilation, less pollution • Secondary = Preventing attacks among high-risk children • Exercise, less dust and smoke in the home • Tertiary = Reducing the effects of current asthma • Injections, inhalers, hypoallergenic materials (e.g. mattress covers), and filters (e.g. HEPA filters)
Do you remember? • What causes asthma? • What are examples of the primary, secondary, and tertiary methods of treating asthma?
Brain development • Reaction time • Faster reaction time from increased myelination • E.g. “Think fast” when being thrown a ball • Selective attention • Focus on important items & ignore others • E.g. Store P.A. system • Automatization • Easily performing routine actions without much conscious thought • E.g. Driving to school
How do we measure the mind? • Aptitude tests • Measures your potential for learning • SAT test • IQ Tests • Original measurement of IQ (Intelligence Quotient) = Mental age divided by chronological age) X 100 • Currently, test norms are used to determine the IQ • Achievement tests • Measures your knowledge (how much you have learned) • Math test
Are there multiple intelligences? • Robert Sternberg • Academic: IQ and achievement tests • Creative • Practical (street smarts – problem solving) Savant syndrome
Do you remember? • What is reaction time, selective attention, and automatization? • What is the difference between aptitude tests and achievement tests? • What are Sternberg’s three types of intelligences?
What special needs do children have? • ADHD = Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder • Inattentive, impulsive, difficulty concentrating • Stimulants (e.g. Amphetamines like Ritalin or Strattera) have a reverse (calming) effect • Bipolar disorder • Extreme mood swings • Learning disability • Delay in a particular area – e.g. reading • Not caused by mental retardation • No apparent physical disability
Children with special needs (Cont.) • Dyslexia • Difficulty with reading • One possible symptom - often reverses letters • E.g. Unite = untie • Thought to be result of speech & hearing difficulties
Children with special needs (Cont.) • Autism • Caused by genetic vulnerability & other factors • Inability to relate to other people (Poor social skills) • Extreme self-absorption • Impaired communication • Autistic spectrum disorder • Symptoms • Delayed language, Poor social response, unusual repetitive play • Asperger Syndrome • Extreme attention to details • May be very talented in one area – E.g. drawing or math
PL94-142: Education of All Handicapped Children Act, 1975 • Required an Individual Education Plan (IEP) for each child with special needs • Educational goals, plans for achieving them, & periodic assessment
PL 105-17: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 1990 • Emphasizes parents’ rights in placement and IEP • Special needs children must be placed in the least restrictive environment (LRE). • LRE = The most general education situation where they can be expected to learn
Do you remember? • What is ADHD? • What is the effect of stimulants on an ADHD child? • What are some symptoms of autism? • What are some symptoms of Asperger Syndrome? • What is an IEP for a special needs child?