05-First 2 years Biosocial Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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05-First 2 years Biosocial Development

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  1. 05-First 2 years Biosocial Development

  2. Biosocial Development • Body • Brain • Senses • Good health

  3. Body changes

  4. Size • 2X birth weight by 4 months • 3X birth weight by age 1 • 4X birth weight by age 2

  5. Head sparing • If starving, the body stops growing, but not the brain • The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition

  6. Sleep • Good sleep = good health • Newborns sleep 15 – 17 hours • REM sleep • Rapid eye movement • Flickering of closed eyes • Rapid brain waves • Dreaming • ½ of newborn sleep is REM sleep • Declines with age

  7. Brain development

  8. Neurons • Basic nerve cell in central nervous system • Axons • Dendrites • Synapses • Intersection on neurons (axons & dendrites) • Neurotransmitters • Chemical messengers • Carry information from one neuron to another • Transient Exuberance & Pruning • Transient Exuberance – Increases dendrites • Pruning – Misconnected dendrites atrophy and die

  9. Brain structure

  10. Brain stem • Automatic responses • Heartbeat • Breathing • Temperature

  11. Cortex • Outer layer of the brain • Activities • Thinking • Feeling • Sensing • Visual • Auditory • Sensory • Motor

  12. Prefrontal cortex • Last to develop • Assists with self-control of impulses • Reasoning • Analysis • Ethics

  13. Fusiform Face Area • Face perception • “Own race effect” • From experience

  14. Experience • Types of experiences • Experience-expectant • The brain expects and needs certain experiences to develop. • Based on experiences all infants have (e.g. being talked to) • E.g. Being talked to results in learning language • Experience-dependent • Culture based • E.g. Which language is learned

  15. Shaken baby syndrome • Life threatening • Blood vessels rupture in the brain • Neural connections beak • “Abusive Head Trauma”

  16. Sensory & Motor Skills

  17. Sensation-Perception-Cognition • Sensation • Detects stimulus • Perception • Processes the stimulus • Based on experience • Cognition (Thinking) • Gives meaning to the stimulus

  18. Motor skills • Gross motor skills • Large muscles • E.g. walking • Muscle strength • Brain maturation • (Motor cortex) • Practice • Fine motor skills • Small muscles • E.g writing

  19. Vision • Least developed at birth

  20. Good Health

  21. Immunization (Vaccinations) • Creates antibodies for specific contagious diseases by stimulating the immune system. • The flu • Chicken pox • Polio • Risk of disease is much greater than risk from immunization

  22. Breast feeding • Breast is best • Colostrum • High calorie fluid – first 3 days • Milk • Rich in iron & vitamins • Provides antibodies (if mother has antibodies) • Decreases risk of allergies, asthma, and stomach aches • Decreases risk of obesity and heart disease in adulthood (many other factors involved)