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Adulthood: Biosocial Development. Age 25 +. What is senescence?. Gradual physical decline related to aging. How does the brain change?. Neurons fire more slowly Brain size decreases Processing takes longer Severe brain loss due to: Drug use Poor circulation

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what is senescence
What is senescence?
  • Gradual physical decline related to aging
how does the brain change
How does the brain change?
  • Neurons fire more slowly
  • Brain size decreases
  • Processing takes longer
  • Severe brain loss due to:
    • Drug use
    • Poor circulation
    • Viruses
    • Genes
how does physical appearance change
How does physical appearance change?
  • Age 30-Skin becomes thinner & less flexible
  • Age 60 – All faces are wrinkled
  • Hair turns gray & thinner
  • “Middle-age spread” appears
  • Muscles weaken
  • Height decreases
    • Natural collapse of vertebrae in spine
  • Effects are less if you exercise
how does vision and hearing change
How does vision and hearing change?
  • Vision
    • Peripheral vision narrows
    • Color vision shifts (vivid to faded more quickly)
    • Farsightedness increases
  • Hearing
    • Loss not apparent until after 60
do you remember
Do you remember?
  • How does the brain change?
  • How does your skin, hair, muscles, and height change?
  • How does your vision and hearing change?
how does the sexual reproductive system change
How does the sexual-reproductive System change?
  • Sexual responsiveness
    • Arousal is slower
    • Orgasm takes longer
  • All ages enjoy sex
  • Men & women – most likely “extremely satisfied” with sex if in a committed, monogamous relationship
how does fertility change
How does fertility change?
  • 15% of all couples are infertile
  • 40’s = half are infertile, half risk complications
what causes infertility
What causes infertility?
  • Males
    • Responsible for 1/3 of infertility
    • Age, radiation, drugs, stress, drug abuse, alcoholism cigarette smoking
      • Reduces sperm number, shape, and motility
  • Females
    • Responsible for 1/3 of infertility
    • 1/3 of infertility is a mystery
    • Age, diseases, smoking, esteem dieting, obesity
    • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – Can block fallopian tubes
what are the treatments for infertility
What are the treatments for infertility?
  • Assisted reproductive technology (ART)
    • Overcome low sperm count & blocked fallopian tubes
  • In Vitro fertilization (IVF)
    • Eggs (ova) removed and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory
    • After fertilized cells (Zygotes) have divided several times – inserted into the woman’s uterus
what are the ef f ects of menopause
What are the effects of menopause?
  • Around age 50 – Menstrual periods cease
  • Ovulation stops
  • Estrogen, progesterone & testosterone drops
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
    • Usually estrogen & progesterone
    • Minimizes menopausal symptoms
    • Reduces risk of osteoporosis
    • Involves health risks
      • Not recommended as much today
what is male menopause andropause
What is male menopause (Andropause)?
  • Drop in testosterone
    • Reduced sexual desire, erections, & muscle mass
    • Effectiveness of HRT is questionable
do you remember1
Do you remember?
  • How does your sexual response system change?
  • Men are responsible for how much of infertility?
  • What causes infertility in men and women?
  • What are some treatments for infertility?
  • What causes menopause?
  • What is andropause, and what causes it?
what is the effects of health habits and age
What is the effects of health habits and age?
  • Diseases and chronic conditions are strongly affected by lifestyle
    • Drug abuse
      • Abuse of illegal drugs decreases
      • Abuse of prescription drugs increases
    • Tobacco
      • Lung cancer = leading cause of cancer deaths (including women) in North America
      • Declined in U.S.
      • Rising in developing nations
      • Affected by social norms, laws, & advertising
health habits age cont
Health habits & age (Cont.)
  • Drinking
    • In moderation
      • Reduces coronary heart disease and strokes
      • Increased “good” cholesterol (HDL)
      • Reduces “Bad” cholesterol (LDL)
    • Heavy drinking
      • Increases violent death
      • Implicated in 60 diseases
    • Drinking alcohol is not a health strategy
  • Overeating
    • Excess weight increases every chronic disease
    • E.g. diabetes
health habits age cont1
Health habits & age (Cont.)
  • U.S. = Highest rate of obesity and diabetes
  • Metabolism decreases by 1/3
  • Genetics – Correlates with weight and diabetes
    • Cultural influences are more important
  • Inactivity – Correlates with almost every unhealthy condition
do you remember2
Do you remember?
  • What is the leading cause of cancer deaths (including women) in North America?
  • What is the bad cholesterol in a blood test?
  • What increases every chronic disease?
  • What is the effect of aging on metabolism?
how can you deal with stress
How can you deal with stress?
  • Dealing with stress
    • Problem –focused coping
      • Solve the problem causing the stress
      • Used more by men
    • Emotion focused coping
      • Change your feelings about the situation causing the stress
      • Used more by women
  • High stress increases the risk of disease
how do we measure health
How do we measure health?
  • Mortality = Death
    • Number of deaths each year per 1,000 people in a population
  • Morbidity = Disease
    • The rate of physical, emotional and fatal diseases in a population
how is income related to health
How is income related to health?
  • Well-educated, financially secure adults (with high socioeconomic status – SES) live longer
    • Healthy habits
    • Better housing
    • Better medical care
do you remember3
Do you remember?
  • What are the two strategies for dealing with stress?
  • What is the difference between mortality and morbidity?
  • What is the relationship between income and health?