Adulthood: Biosocial Development Age 25 +
What is senescence? • Gradual physical decline related to aging
How does the brain change? • Neurons fire more slowly • Brain size decreases • Processing takes longer • Severe brain loss due to: • Drug use • Poor circulation • Viruses • Genes
How does physical appearance change? • Age 30-Skin becomes thinner & less flexible • Age 60 – All faces are wrinkled • Hair turns gray & thinner • “Middle-age spread” appears • Muscles weaken • Height decreases • Natural collapse of vertebrae in spine • Effects are less if you exercise
How does vision and hearing change? • Vision • Peripheral vision narrows • Color vision shifts (vivid to faded more quickly) • Farsightedness increases • Hearing • Loss not apparent until after 60
Do you remember? • How does the brain change? • How does your skin, hair, muscles, and height change? • How does your vision and hearing change?
How does the sexual-reproductive System change? • Sexual responsiveness • Arousal is slower • Orgasm takes longer • All ages enjoy sex • Men & women – most likely “extremely satisfied” with sex if in a committed, monogamous relationship
How does fertility change? • 15% of all couples are infertile • 40’s = half are infertile, half risk complications
What causes infertility? • Males • Responsible for 1/3 of infertility • Age, radiation, drugs, stress, drug abuse, alcoholism cigarette smoking • Reduces sperm number, shape, and motility • Females • Responsible for 1/3 of infertility • 1/3 of infertility is a mystery • Age, diseases, smoking, esteem dieting, obesity • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – Can block fallopian tubes
What are the treatments for infertility? • Assisted reproductive technology (ART) • Overcome low sperm count & blocked fallopian tubes • In Vitro fertilization (IVF) • Eggs (ova) removed and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory • After fertilized cells (Zygotes) have divided several times – inserted into the woman’s uterus
What are the effects of menopause? • Around age 50 – Menstrual periods cease • Ovulation stops • Estrogen, progesterone & testosterone drops • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) • Usually estrogen & progesterone • Minimizes menopausal symptoms • Reduces risk of osteoporosis • Involves health risks • Not recommended as much today
What is male menopause (Andropause)? • Drop in testosterone • Reduced sexual desire, erections, & muscle mass • Effectiveness of HRT is questionable
Do you remember? • How does your sexual response system change? • Men are responsible for how much of infertility? • What causes infertility in men and women? • What are some treatments for infertility? • What causes menopause? • What is andropause, and what causes it?
What is the effects of health habits and age? • Diseases and chronic conditions are strongly affected by lifestyle • Drug abuse • Abuse of illegal drugs decreases • Abuse of prescription drugs increases • Tobacco • Lung cancer = leading cause of cancer deaths (including women) in North America • Declined in U.S. • Rising in developing nations • Affected by social norms, laws, & advertising
Health habits & age (Cont.) • Drinking • In moderation • Reduces coronary heart disease and strokes • Increased “good” cholesterol (HDL) • Reduces “Bad” cholesterol (LDL) • Heavy drinking • Increases violent death • Implicated in 60 diseases • Drinking alcohol is not a health strategy • Overeating • Excess weight increases every chronic disease • E.g. diabetes
Health habits & age (Cont.) • U.S. = Highest rate of obesity and diabetes • Metabolism decreases by 1/3 • Genetics – Correlates with weight and diabetes • Cultural influences are more important • Inactivity – Correlates with almost every unhealthy condition
Do you remember? • What is the leading cause of cancer deaths (including women) in North America? • What is the bad cholesterol in a blood test? • What increases every chronic disease? • What is the effect of aging on metabolism?
How can you deal with stress? • Dealing with stress • Problem –focused coping • Solve the problem causing the stress • Used more by men • Emotion focused coping • Change your feelings about the situation causing the stress • Used more by women • High stress increases the risk of disease
How do we measure health? • Mortality = Death • Number of deaths each year per 1,000 people in a population • Morbidity = Disease • The rate of physical, emotional and fatal diseases in a population
How is income related to health? • Well-educated, financially secure adults (with high socioeconomic status – SES) live longer • Healthy habits • Better housing • Better medical care
Do you remember? • What are the two strategies for dealing with stress? • What is the difference between mortality and morbidity? • What is the relationship between income and health?