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Helping and Happiness

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  1. Helping and Happiness

  2. Altruism vs. Prosocial behavior • Why do people help? • http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/43880728/ns/world_news-europe/ • http://www.smh.com.au/world/it-was-too-dark-passersby

  3. Evolutionary approaches to prosocial behavior • Kin altruism • Direct reciprocity • Indirect reciprocity • Signaling theory • Group selection theory • Are these testable? • Are there other explanations for these findings? • How good is the support?

  4. Why else might we help? • Negative state relief model—Cialdini • Arousal: cost-reward model—Piliavin • Social learning • Modeling http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JfHB2cruJU • Norms: reciprocity, fairness

  5. Batson’s empathy-altruism hypothesis • When do we help according to this model? • Batson paradigm • Aversive-arousal reduction, empathy-specific punishments, empathy-specific rewards, empathic joy, negative state-relief, feelings of oneness (Cialdini) • Benefits? • Costs?

  6. Who is more likely to help? • PennerProsocial Personality Battery • Ascription of responsibility • Empathic concern • Perspective taking • Personal distress • Other-oriented reasoning • Mutual-concern reasoning • Helpfulness • Gender • Genetic basis

  7. Who gets help? • Women • Similar others • In group members • More attractive people

  8. Cultural differences in helping • See Table 2: http://www2.psych.ubc.ca/~ara/Manuscripts/Levine%20et%20al%20helping.pdf • Cultural differences in 3 situations • More per capita purchasing power, less helping • Hispanic countries tended to be higher • NO relationship to individualism/collectivism

  9. Situational effects • Population density • Why? • Time pressure (Samaritan study) • Bystander intervention • Notice • Interpret as emergency • Assume responsibility • Know how to act • Act

  10. Bystander processes • Latané & Rodin results • intervening % pairs intervening • Alone 70 91 • w/Confederate 7 14 • Two strangers 23 40 • Two friends 4570 • Social influence • Audience inhibition • Diffusion of responsibility • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vjP22DpYYh8&feature=plcp&context=C3476ef2UDOEgsToPDskISJjYGpPomMBNuGB34GTlt

  11. Electrocuted experimenter • Condition Process Help rate (In %) •  Alone None 95% • No contact DR 84% • Seen by other DR & AI 73% • See other person DR & SI 73% • See and be seen DR,AI,SI 50%

  12. Revised version for Dateline • Latané, Harton, Bourgeois, Rockloff, etc. Experimental conditions

  13. Results • Percentage helping

  14. Volunteerism • What leads people to volunteer? • Differences by country

  15. How can you increase prosocial behavior? • Don’t force it • Give kids a reason for behaviors • Say “you’re helpful” • Be a good parent/model positive behaviors • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JfHB2cruJU • Prosocialtv and video games • Educate about effects • Primes • Other ways?

  16. Video game effects • Playing prosocial video games (e.g., Lemmings) leads to more helping • Greitemeyer & Osswald, 2010

  17. Stigma article (Pryor et al.) • What is a stigma? • Three types? • Which comes first, stigma or perceptions of dangerousness? • Why do we have them? • Pathogen avoidance • Reciprocal altruism • Desire to be in group • Rozin contamination effects

  18. Stigma and helping • Weiner’s attribution theory (vs. JSM) • Pryor et al.’s dual process theory • Examples of both processes? How do they differ? • Mouse paradigm, cyberball • How can stigma be seen at different levels? • Self, individual, institutional • What does this approach suggest about how to reduce negative effects of stigma?

  19. Positive psychology • History • www.positivepsychology.org • What is it?

  20. Lyubomirsky et al. • Let’s all just be happy • Sources of pessimism: • Genetics • Personality (extraversion, neuroticism • Hedonic treadmill • Sources of optimism • Interventions for happiness • Motivational and attitudinal factors • Older people happier • Genes influence indirectly (though experiences/environments)

  21. What is happiness? Is that a good operational definition? • What is happiness made up of? • What things make us happy? • Why don’t other things we think would make us happy work? • How can you increase happiness? • Why don’t life circumstances matter more? • What is the purpose of happiness?

  22. Diener, 2012 • Cultural differences in SWB • Some things predict across globe • Fit with things valued by culture important • Some areas higher than others • WHY? • http://www.jdsurvey.net/jds/ShowMap.jsp?Idioma=I&MAPA=FCMap_WorldwithCountries&ID=1 • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/02/happiest-states-_n_3696160.html (based on tweets)

  23. What is the relationship between income and SWB? • When do we/do we not adapt? • Should we be really happy or just fairly happy? • Is happiness always a good thing? • What does knowing about national happiness do for us? • What is cause vs. effect? (does money cause happiness or happiness, money?)

  24. Helpful websites • http://themythsofhappiness.org/discover-happiness/ • http://www.positivepsychology.org